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From November 1838 to June 1848. 







Arnott, G. a. Walker, LL.D,, F.L.S., Regius Professor of Botany 
in the Universitj- of Glasgow. 
Note on Samara Iceta, L 326 

Babington, Charles Cardale, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. &c. 

On Cuscuta epilinum and halopTiyta 44 

A Description of a nere genus of LinecB 90 

On Spiranthes gemmipara 1 89 

Babington, Churchill, Esq. 

Remarks on British Lichens and Fungi, principally on Species 
or Varieties new to our Flora 32 

Bauer, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. & L.S. 

Observations on the Ergot 52 

Bentham, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

On the Heliamphora nutans, a new Pitcher Plant from British 

Guiana 53 

Account of two new genera of Plants, aUied to Olacinece 85 

Berkeley, Rev. M. J., M.A., F.L.S. 

On a Gall gathered in Cuba, by W. S. MacLeay, Esq., on the 

leaf of a plant belonging to the order Ochnacece 33 

On an edible Fungus from Tierra del Fuego, and an allied Chi- 

Uan species 97 

On Agaricus crinitus, L., and some alhed species 230 

Bird, Golding, A.M., M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

On the Sihceous Armoiu of Equisetum hyemale, L., with an ac- 
count of its hitherto undescribed Stomatic Apparatus 290 

Blackwall, John, Esq., F.L.S. 

Descriptions of newly-discovered Spiders 41 

The Difference in the Number of Eyes with which Spiders are 
provided, proposed as the Basis of their distribution into Tribes ; 
with the characters of a new Family and three new Genera 

of Spiders ^^ 

A Catalogue of Spiders, either not previously recorded or little 
known as indigenous to Great Britain, with remai-ks on then- 
Habits and Economy 130, 131 

BooTT, Francis, M.D., F.L.S. &c. 

On Carex saxatUis, L., and an allied Species 180 

Caricis species novae vel minus cognitae 254, 258, 284 

Brown, Robert, Esq., D.C.L., V.P.L.S. &c. 

Some Account of an undescribed Fossil Fruit 344 

BuNBURY, Charles James Fox, Esq., F.L.S. 

Remarks on certain Plants of Brazil, with descriptions of some 
which appear to be new 101, 108 



Cantor, Theodore, M.D., Civil Surgeon, Prince of Wales's Island. 

Observations on two Malayan species of SemwojjifAecMS 235 

Description of the Wild Dog of the Malayan Peninsula 236 

Clark, — , Esq. 

On the Sea Cocoa-nut of the Seychelles, Lodoicea Seychellarum, 
Comm. and Labill 152, 163 

Clark, Bracy, Esq., F.L.S., Con-esp. Memb. of the French Instit. 
An Appendix or Supplement to a Treatise on the (Estri and Cu- 
terebrce of various Animals 99, 100 

Clarke, Hyde, Esq., F.L.S. 

Note on the Preservation of Specimens of Natural Histoiy 96 

Clarke, Robert, Esq., Senior Assistant Sui-geon to the Colony of 
Sierra Leone. 
A Notice of the African Grain called Fundi or Fundungi 155 

Cooper, Daniel, Esq., A.L.S. 

On the Structure of the Nut known as Vegetable Ivory 120 

Couch, Jonathan, Esq., F.L.S. 

A Letter on the occurrence of Wilson's Petrel {Procellaria Wil- 

soiii) on the British coast 2 

An Account of a Fish, nearly aUied to the genus Hemiramphus, 

taken in Cornwall 151 

Coxe, John Redman, M.D., Professor of Materia Medica in the 
University of Pennsylvania. 
Observations on some Fungi or Agarici, which by deliquescence 
form an inky fluid, drying into a bister-coloured mass, capable 
of being used as a water-colour for drawings, and of a very 
indestructible nature by means of common agencies 19 

Curtis, John, Esq., F.L.S. 

Descriptions of the Nests of two Hymenopterous Insects inhabit- 
ing Brazil, and of the species by which they were constructed 186 

Descriptions of the Insects collected by Capt. P. P. King, R.N., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. &c., in the Survey of the Straits of Magellan.. 196 

On the Economy of the Order iS^repsip^era 212 

Don, David, Esq., Libr. L.S., Professor of Botany in King's Col- 
lege, London. 
Description of a new genus of Plants belonging to the Natm'al 

Family BignoniacecB 3 

Descriptions of the Indian species of Iris 8 

An Accotmt of the Indian Species of Juncus and Luzula 9 

A Monograph of the genus Disporum 44 

A Monograph of Streptopus, with the description of a new 

genus now first separated from it 47 

On the Structure of the Tissues of Cycadece 53 

On a peculiar kind of Organs existing in the Pitcher of Nepen- 
thes distillatoria 91 

Doubleday, Edward, Esq., F.T^.S. &c. 

Remarks on the genus Argynnis of the ' Encyclopedic Metho- 
dique,' especially in regard to its subdivision by means of cha- 
racters drawn from the nemation of the wings 229, 233 

On the Pterology of the Diurnal Lepidoptera, especially upon 
that of some Genera of the Heliconidce 348 

Edgeworth, M. Pakexham, Esq., F.L.S., Bengal Cml Service. 
Descriptions of some unpublished species of Plants from North- 

Westem India 252 

Description of a new genus of LentibularicB, with remarks on 
some Indian species of Utricularia 351 

Falconer, Hugh, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c.. Superintendent of the 

Hon. E.I.C.'s Botanic Garden at Calcutta. 
Extracts from Letters addressed to Dr. Royle, F.R.S., F.L.S. &c., 

Prof. Mat. Med., King's College .". 13 

Description of Auclclandia, a new genus of Compositte, supposed 

to be the Costus of Dioscorides 80 

On a reformed character of the genus Cryptolepis of Brown ... 114 
On Edgeworthia, a new genus of Plants of the Order MyrsinecB 129 

Description of the Asafcetida plant of Central Asia 308 

Accoimt of Gamoplexis, an undescribed genus of Orchideous 

Plants 320 

Description of Athalamia, a new genus of Marchantiece 343 

Forbes, Edward, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c.. Professor of Botany in 
King's College, London. 
On Pectinura, a new genus of OphiuridcB, and on the species 

of Ophiura inhabiting the Eastern Mediterranean 167, 174 

On the Radiata of the Eastern Mediterranean 184 

On the Medusa proboscidalis of Forskahl 222 

Notice of some Peloria varieties of Viola canina, L 382 

Forrest, Thomas. 

A notice of the Encephalartos horridus, which flowered at Kin- 
mel Park 9 

Forster, Thomas, M.B., F.L.S. &c. 

On the permanent varieties of Papaver orientale, L 158 

On the Migration of the Swallows 296 

Fox, George Townshend, Esq., F.L.S. 

A notice of the Birds of Iceland, accompanied by specimens 21 

Gardner, D. P., M.D., of Hampden Sidney College, Virginia. 

On the Influence of the Dew-Point on the Temperature of 
Plants 119, 120 

Gardner, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Description of PeltophyUum, a new genus of Plants aUied to 
Triuris of Miers, with remarks on their Affinities 176 

GiRAUD, Herbert, M.D. 

Contributions to Vegetable Embrj-ologj^, fi-om Observations on 
the Origin and Development of the Embryo in Tropeeolum majus 124 

Griffith, William, Esq., F.L.S. 

On the Ovulum of Santalum, Loranthus, Viscum, &c. 162, 166, 168 
On the Root Parasites referred bv authors to Tthizanthece and 

their Alhes .' 179, 180, 189, 190,209,216 

On the Development of the OviUum in Avicennia 223 

On the Ovulum of Santalum, Osyris, Loranthus, and Viscum... 223 

On the Ambrosinia ciliata of Roxbm'gh 263 

On the Anatomy oi EriocaulonecB 271 

On the Sti*uctm-e of the Ascidia and Stomata of Dischidia Raffle- 

siana. Wall 279 

On the Seeds of Careya, Roxb 280 


Papers on various subjects, bearing date in 1834 and 1835 281 

On the Impregnation of Dischidia 324 

Hamilton, Francis Buchanan, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Commentary on the Eighth Book of the Hortus Malabaricus of 
Van Rheede 134, 293, 310, 343, 355 

Commentary on the Ninth Book of Van Rheede's Hortus Mala- 
baricus ' 361 

Hard, A., M.D., of Mentz. 

On Secale cornutum, the Ergot of Rye, and on a species of 
Asplenium, related to A. Trichomanes, L 159 

Harris, Major W. C. 

Account of the Trees producing Myrrh and Frankincense, as 
found in those parts of the coast of, the Red Sea and Indian 
Ocean whence those Gums were obtained in the first dawn of 

Commerce 181 

Hassall, Arthur Hill, Esq., F.L.S. 

Observations on the Growth and Reproduction of Enteromorpha 
intestinalis 152 

An Essay on the Distribution, Vitality, Structure, Modes of 
Growth and Reproduction, and Uses of the Freshwater Con- 
ferva 160, 163 

Heming, G. C, M.D., F.L.S. &c. 

On the Muscles which move the Tail and Tail-coverts of the 
Peacock 212 

Henderson, Mr. Joseph. 

On the reproductive Organs of Equisetum 74 

Henfrey, Arthur, Esq., F.L.S. 

Observations on the immediate causes of the Ascent of the Sap 
in Spring 229 

HiNCKS, Rev. W., F.L.S., F.R.S.E. &c. 

Descriptions of three Vegetable Monstrosities lately found at 

York ••; 46 

Descriptions of some Vegetable Monstrosities 118 

On the causes of disjunctions of Vegetable Substance, especially 

those which are horizontal 273 

Hogg, John, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Additional observations on the Spongilla fluviatilis 8 

Further Observations on the Spongilla fluviatilis, with some re- 
marks on the natm-e of the Spongice Marines 36, 225 

Additional remai'ks on the Spongilla fluviatilis 226 

D'Hombres Firmas, Baron. 

Notes on the Seals of Linnaeus 323 

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

An Enumeration of the Plants of the Galapagos Islands ... 231, 238, 

263, 276 
On the Vegetation of the Galapagos Archipelago, as compared 
with that of some other Tropical Islands and of the Continent 
of America 312, 313 

Hope, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. & L.S. 

Descriptions of some new Insects collected in Assam, by William 
Griffith, Esq., Assistant Surgeon in the Madras Medical Ser- 
vice 42 


Descriptions of some new Insects collected in Assam, by William 
Griffith, Esq., Assistant Surgeon in the Madras Medical Esta- 
blishment 'J^ 

On some rare and beautiful Coleopterous Insects from Silhet, 
the major part belonging to the collection of Frederic Parry, 
Esq. of Cheltenham 127, 157 

KiPPiST, Richard, Esq., Libr. L.S. 

On the existence of Spiral Cells in the Seeds of Acanthacece 63 

On Jansonia, a new genus of Leguminosce, from Western Au- 
stralia 330 

KoLLiKER, Albert, Professor of Physiolog}' and Comparative Ana- 
tomy in the University of Zm-ich. 
Some Observations upon the Structure of two new species of Hec- 
tocotyle parasitic upon Tremoctopus violaceus, Delle Chiaje, and 
Argonauta Argo, L., mth an exposition of the hj'pothesis that 
these HectocotylcB are the males of the Cephalopoda upon 
which they are found 236, 237 

Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

On a White Incrustation on Stones, from the bed of the river 

Annan 81 

Lhotsky, Dr. John. 

An Account of a species of Lepidosperma, from Tasman's Penin- 
sula, Van Diemen's Land 4 

Some Data towards a Botanical Geography of New Holland ... 11 
A Biographical Sketch of Ferdinand Bauer, Natural History 
Painter to the Expedition under Capt. Flinders 39 

LiNDLEY, John, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c.. Professor of Botany 
in University College, London. 
A Note upon the Anatomy of the Roots of Ophrydece 10 

Maconochie, Capt. Alexander, R.N., late Lieutenant-Governor 
of Norfolk Island. 
Some Notes on the Natural Histoiy of Norfolk Island 228 

Main, James, A. L.S. 

Remarks on Vegetable Physiology 225 

Michelotti, Signor Giovanni. 

Observations on some new or little-known species of Polyparia, 
found in the supercretaceous strata of Italy 95 

Miers, John, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

On some new BraziUan Plants allied to the Natural Order Bur- 

manniacecE 60 

Additional Observations on some Plants allied to the Natural 

Order Burmanniacece 66 

Description of a new genus of Plants from Brazil 96 

On a new genus of Plants from Chili 122 

On a new genus of Plants of the family Burmanniacece 328 

On the genus Atamisquea 355 

Nees von Esenbeck, C. G., F.M.L.S., President of the Imperial 
Leopoldino-Caroline Academy Naturae Curiosorum. 
A Descriptive Catalogue of the Crraminete and Cyperacece con- 
tained in the Indian Herbarium of Dr. Royle 92 

Newport, George, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Monograph on the Class Myriapoda, Order Chilopoda, with ob- 
servations on the general arrangement of the Articulata 190, 191 


Additions and Corrections to his Monograph of the Myriapoda 

Chilopoda 231 

On the Natural History, Development, and Anatomy of the Oil 

Beetle, Meloe, more especially Meloe cicatricosus. Leach 268 

On the Aqueous Vapour, and on the dark colour of the Wax, in 

Bee-hives 288 

Note on the Generation of Aphides , 292 

On the Natural History, Anatomy and Development of Meloe 

(Second Memoir) .« 317 

Note on Cryptophagus cellaris, Payk 327 

On the Natural History, Anatomy and Development of Meloe 

(Third Memoir, the Anatomy) 346, 368 

On the Formation and Use of the Air-Sacs and Dilated Tracheae 

in Insects 353 

On the Anatomy and afl&nities oi Pteronarcys regalis, Newm. 370,387 

Ord, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notes on the Habits of the Box-Tortoise of the United States of 
America, the Cistuda Carolina o{ Gray 116 

Owen, Richard, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

On a new Species of the genus Lepidosiren of Fitzinger and 
Natterer 27 

Planchon, J. E., Docteur-es-Sciences. 

On Melianthece, a new natural order of Plants 361 

QuEKETT, Edwin John, Esq., F.L.S. 

Observations on the Anatomical and Physiological Nature of 
Ergot in certain Grasses 4 

Obsei-vations on a certain Crystalline Matter found on the re- 
cently cut sm-faces of the Wood of the Red Cedar 58 

Some fiu-ther Observations on the Nature of the Ergot of Grasses 160 

Remarks on the Examination of some Fossil Woods which tend 
to elucidate the sti'uctui'e of certain tissues in the recent Plant 232 

On the Development of Starch and ChlorophyUe 293 

Ralph, Thomas Shearman, Esq., A.L.S. &c. 

On the Axial and Ab-axial arrangement of Carpels 284 

On the Structure of Viola, in connection with its Impregnation 297 

Reeve, Lovell, Esq., A.L.S. &c. 

On the calcifying functions of the Cowry and the Olive, two ge- 
nera of Pectinibranchiate Mollusks 307 

On the Structure and Comparative Physiology of Chiton and 
Chitonellus 322 

RuDGE, Edward, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

A notice of Cereus tetragonus 7 

Schomburgk, Sir Robert H. 

Description of the Curata, a plant of the tribe of Bambusece, of 
the culm of which the Indians of Guiana prepare their Sai-ba- 
cans or Blowpipes 49 

Smith, Mr. John, A.L.S. of the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew. 

Observations on the cause of Ergot.... 1 

A Notice of a Plant which produces perfect Seeds without any 

apparent action of Pollen on the Stigma 41 

A Note on the Fern known as Aspidium Baromez 58 

Arrangement and Definition of the Genera of Ferns, founded 


upon their venation, with examples of the species, and obser- 
vations on the affinities of each genus 75 

Solly, Edwakd, Esq., jun., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

On the Solid Vegetable Oils 214 

SowERBY, G. B., Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Description of a new species of Cowry 314 

SuTTOR, George, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Notes on the Forest-trees of Australia 177 

Taylor, William, Esq., F.L.S. 

A Note on the Bokhara Clover 77 

Thwaites, G. H. K., Esq. 

On the Structure and Movements oi Bacillaria paradoxa, Gmel. 310 
On the early stages of the Development of Lemanea Jluviatilis, 
Agardh 360 

Valentine, William, Esq., F.L.S. 

On the Structure and Development of the Reproductive organs 

o{ Pilularia globulifera 20 

Supplementary ObseiTations on the Development of the Theca, 

and on the Sexes of Mosses 33 

Walker, Francis, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Notes on the Variations of Structure in the British species of 

EurytomidcB 233 

Characters of imdescribed species of British Chalcidites 261 

Westwood, John Obadiah, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Descriptions of some new species of the Coleopterous genus 

Cerapterus 75 

Observations on the genus Derbe of Fabricius 82 

A Synopsis of the Coleopterous family Paussidce, with descrip- 
tions of a new Genus and some new Species 110 

A Description of an additional species of Paussus 115 

Description of a new Indian species oi Paussus 133 

On the occurrence of the Potatoe Disease, independent of the 

Attacks of Insects 345 

Descriptions of some new species of Athyreus, MacL., a genus 

of Lamelhcorn Beetles 358 

On the Austrahan species of the Coleopterous genus Bolboce- 

ras, Kirby 365 

Descriptions of some new or imperfectly known Species of jBoZ- 
boceras 384 

White, Adam, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Notes towards a Statistical Account of the Fauna of New Zea- 
land and the Auckland Islands, so far as regards Annulose 
Animals 306 

Woods, Joseph, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Attempt to arrange the Carices of Middle Europe 209 


Ansell, John, Esq. 

Notice of Juncus diffusus, Hoppe, gathered near Hoddesdon, 
Herts 313 

Babington, Charles Cardale, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Notice of some Fii--cones taken from beneath about 10 feet of 
sohd peat at Burrishoole, near New'port, co. Mayo 89 

Backhouse, James, Jun., Esq. 

Notice of specimens of Spergula striata, Swartz., and of Equise- 
tum Drummondii, Hook., both collected in Teesdale, Yorkshire 222 

Bennett, John Joseph, Esq., F.R.S., Sec.L.S. &c. 

Note on a new species of the genus Arundinaria of Michaux ... 61 

BiDWELL, J. C, Esq. 

Notice of a new species of Araucaria from the neighbourhood 
of Moreton Bay, and of the germination of Nuytsia Jloribunda 123 

BoRRER, William, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Notice of Leersia oryzoides, Swartz, gathered in Henfield Level, 
Sussex 222 

BosTOCK, John Ashton, Esq. 

Extract of a Letter to J. Bostock, Esq., M.D., F.L.S., on an 
extraordinaiy Flight of Locusts observed between Cawnpore 
and Agra 1 83 

Bromfield, William Arnold, M.D., F.L.S. 

Notice of a species of Calamintha from the Isle of Wight 179 

Burnham, J., Esq. 

Extract of a Letter to H. Clarke, Esq., F.L.S 99 

Cameron, Mr. Richard, A.L.S. 

Notice of a Fern, cultivated in the garden of the Birmingham 
Horticultural Society as the Agnus Scythicus, or Vegetable Lamb 57 

Clarke, Joshua, Esq. 

Notice of specimens of Galium Vaillantii, Dec, gathered near 

Saffron Walden 222 

Notice of Barkhausia setosa, Dec, found near Saffron Walden... 179 

Cooper, Daniel, Esq., A.L.S. 

Notice of specimens of Lastrea rigida collected at Settle 52 

CuMMiNG, Mr. William. 

Notice of specimens of Lagurus ovatus collected near Safiron 

Walden 49 

Notice of specimens of Lagurus ovatus, Briza maxima, and 
Mentha crispa, gathered near Saffron Walden 81 


Farre, Frederick, M.D., F.L.S. &c. 

Notice of a singular gall on the leaves of a species of Oak from 
Mexico 65 

Felkin, William, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of some specimens of Sea-Island Cotton grown in a 

cotton-mill in the centre of Manchester 99 

Fox, George Townshend, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of a specimen of PAryraosoma corwM^MTre from Texas 57 

Francis, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of Lepurandra saccidora, Graham 73 

Gardner, George, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Extract of a Letter to J. Miers, Esq., F.L.S 99 

Gould, John, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Notice of a nondescript Lizard from New Holland 81 

Griffith, William, Esq., F.L.S. 

Extracts of Letters to R. H. Solly, Esq., F.L.S., on the Ovula 
of Ephedra and Callipeltis ; and on the parasitism of Cuscuta 
and Orobanche 90 

Extract of a Letter to R. H. Solly, Esq., F.L.S., on the Ovulum 
of Osyris 113 

Extract of a Letter to R. H. Solly, Esq., F.L.S., on the Ovula of 
Santalum and Osyris ; and on the SponUes of Isoetes, Azolla, 
and Anthoceros 121 

Hankey, John Alexander, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of specimens of Fritillaria JHeleagris gathered at Finch- 
ley, Middlesex 134 

Hassall, Arthur Hill, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of an Apple in which decay had been induced by inocula- 
tion of decayed matter 1 60 

HiNCKs, Rev. William, F.L.S. 

Notice of a specimen believed to belong to Neottia gemmipara. 
Smith, from the collection of Dr. Wood of Cork 162 

Home, Sir Everard, Bart., Capt. R.N. 

Extract of a Letter to R. Bromi, Esq., V.P.L.S., giving an Ac- 
count of the Measurement of some of the largest of the New 
Zealand and Norfolk Island Pines 321 

Hope, Rev. Frederic William, F.L.S. 

Notice of an extensive Collection of Engraved Portraits of Linnaeus 1 Q& 

HoRE, Rev. William Strong, F.L.S. 

Notice of a remarkable variety of Duck 46 

Iliff, William Tiffin, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of some larvae beheved to belong to Musca canicularis, 
contained in the Urate of Ammonia voided by a Boa Con- 
strictor 52 

Janson, Joseph, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of specimens of Neottia cestivalis collected near Lynd- 

hurst 80 

Notice of some hving flowering plants of the "hungry rice" of 

Sierra Leone, Paspalum exile, Kipp 167 

KippiST, Richard, Esq., Libr. L.S. &c. 

Note on Crepis biennis and Barkhausia taraxacifolia 98 


Description of the Fundi or Fundungi, a new species of granife- 

rous Paspalum from the colony of Sierra Leone 156 

Note on the characters and distribution of Barkhausia setosa, 

Dec 1/9 

Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Notice of an Agaric in which gills were abundantly developed on 

a portion of the sui-face of the pileus du'ectly over the stipes... 226 
Notice of a Fucus sold in London under the name of " Austrahan 

Moss," believed to agere with Fucus spinosus, L 267 

Lay, John Tkadescant, Esq. 

Notice of some specimens of the Keih-seen-me, a species of Alga 
related to Nostoc, and eaten as a delicacy among the Chinese 180 

Mann, Thomas White, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of an instance of extraordinary vitality in a specimen of 
Sedum Telephium 89 

Newman, Edward, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of a species of Trichomanes lately found in the co. Kerry, 
and supposed to be distinct from Tr. speciosum 179 

Newport, George, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Notice of Pteronarcys regalis, Newm., a Neuropterous insect 
furnished with external branchiae in its perfect state 180 

Northumberland, His Grace The Duke of. 

Notice of the Fruit of Chrysophyllum monopyrenum, Sw., grown 

at Sion House 99 

Notice of the Fruit of Diospyros edulis, grown at Sion House ... 134 

Ogilby, William, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of a new species of Clover (alhed to Trifolium resupina- 
tum) recently introduced from Cabul 80 

Ralph, Thomas Shearman, Esq., A.L.S. 

Notice of a Collection of Indian Fruits and Seeds presented by... 158 

Rauch, Francis, Esq. 

Notice of a Fruit of Salisburia adiantifolia, grown in the Impe- 
rial Garden at Vienna 73 

Read, W. H. Rudston, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of a shell of Spondylus varius, Brod., beneath the enamel 
of which a quantity of water had been retained for several 
months 134 

Reeve, Lovell, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of a specimen in spii-its of the Animal of Panopcea Al- 
drovandi 160 

Solly, Richard Horsman, Esq., F.R.S,, F.L.S. 

Notice of a male plant of Encephalartos pungens, which had 

flowered in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew 52 

Notice of some effects produced on specimens of Fossil Wood 
preserved in a Cedar-wood Cabinet 128 

Stocks, J. Ellerton, Esq., M.D., F.L.S. 

Notes on the Vegetation of Scinde 367 

Taylor, William, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of the Oil of Madia sativa, grown near Ipswich 77 

Notice of the seeds, oil and oil-cake of Camelina sativa, Crantz. 162 


Ward, Nathaniel Bagshaw, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of a specimen of tbe Agnus Scythicus, or Vegetable Lamb 58 

Notice of a Plant of Musa Cavendishii brougbt from the Navi- 
gators' Island in one of Mr. Ward's cases 15/ 

Notice of specimens exhibiting the extreme states of Chondrus 
crispus, Lj-ngbje, gathered at Linmouth, N. Devon 283 

Notice of specimens of Uncaria procumbens, Bmxh. ; and of a 
portion of the stipes of a Fern, probably Pteris esculenta, Sol. 293 

Notice of Italian Specimens of Adiantum Capillus Veneris, L., 
and Asplenium Trichomanes, L., one of the latter bearing on 
several of its pinnae sori, taking their origin from the upper 
as well as from the lower surface of the frond ; also of a branch 
of a Scotch Fir hollowed by hornets 317 

Notice of several Ferns collected in Ireland •. . . . 326 

Watson, Hewett Cottrell, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of specimens of Carum Bulbocastanum gathered near 
Cherry Hinton, and of Seseli Libanotis gathered near Seaford 51 

Westcott, iVIr. Frederick. 

Description of a Fern cultivated in the Garden of the Birming- 
ham Horticvdtm-al Society as tbe Agnus Scythicus, or Vegeta- 
ble Lamb 58 

Westwood, John Obadiah, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of various Insects from the Collection of Lieut.-Col. J. B. 

Hearsey 131 

Notice of the Aerial processes of the roots of Sonneratia acida, 

L., sent by ]\Ii-. Templeton from Ceylon 166 

Notice of some CEstrideous Insects received from Professors Zet- 

terstedt and Dahlbom 179 

Notice of several instances of Insect Monstrosities 346 

Notice of the Silk spun by tbe Caterpillars of the new Indian 

Silk Moth Bombyx Huttoni, Westw 357 

Wood, Rev. William, B.D., F.L.S. 

Notice of a remarkable variety of Typha angustifnlia 42 

Woods, Joseph, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

On Crepis biennis and Barkhausia taraxacifolia 98 

Wright, Hon. H. 

Notice of specimens of the inner bark of tbe Cinnamon-tree, 
peeled of extraordinary length 151 

Yarrell, William, Esq., F.L.S. 

Notice of an interwoven mass of filaments of Conferva fiuviatilis, 
of extraordinary size 65 



Abraham, James Hussey ... 298 

AUen, WilUam 202 

Anderson, William 331 

Ansley, John 135 

Baily, Francis 238 

Bartlet, John &7 

Bauer, Francis 101 

Beatty, Sir Wm., Knt., M.D. . 135 

Bedford, John, Duke of 67 

Beetham, William 67 

BeU, Sir Charles, K.H 135 

Bell, Rev. Isaac 135 

Bevan, Thomas, M.D 332 

Biggs, Arthur 371 

Blumenbach, John Fred., M.D. 72 

Bostock, John, M.D 333 

Bowman, John Eddowes 1 35 

Bree, Rev. Robert Francis 145 

Bridgman, WiUiam 334 

Brookes, Samuel 34 

Butt, Rev. Thomas 137 

Carhsle, Sir Anthony, Knt. ... 104 
Chichester, The Bishop of ... 105 

Chinnock, Henry Singer 298 

Christy, William, Jun 67 

Chiu-chill, Lord Chas. Spencer 67 
Churchill, Lord Henry John 

Spencer 105 

Clarke, Edmund John, M.D. . 137 

Coles, George 137 

Cooper, Daniel 173 

Cordeaux, Charles, M.D 239 

Cotton, Richard 67 

Cunningham, Allan 67 

Cuvier, Frederic 35 

Dalton, Rev. James 172 

Davy, Rev. Martin, D.D 34 

DeCandoUe, Augustin Pyramus 142 
Delessert, Baron Benjamin ... 339 

Dietrichsen, Lionel 334 

Don, David 145 

Dreyer, Rev. Richard, LL.B. . 34 

Dunston, John 372 

Dutrochet, Henri, M.D 341 

Ellis, John 372 

Farnham, John Lord 34 


Field, Barron 298 

Finch, WiUiam, M.D 372 

Forester, Forester Rich., M.D. 203 

Fox, George Townshend 372 

Gilbert, Davies 68 

Gimbernat, Charles de 35 

Gisborne, Rev. Thomas 299 

Goodall, Rev. Joseph, D.D. ... 70 
Goodenough, The Very Rev. 

Edmund, D.D 239 

Goolden, Richard 137 

Graham, Robert, M.D ,.. 300 

Grey, Sir Thomas, Kt., M.D. 334 

Griffith, William 239 

Guillemard, John Lewds 244 

Hailstone, Rev. John, M.A. ... 372 

Harlan, Richard, M.D 246 

Harrison, William 137 

Hatchett, Charles 334 

Hills, Robert 244 

Holford, Charles 34 

HoUinshed, Lawrence Brock ... 34 

Holme, Edward, M.D 3/3 

Hope, Thomas Charles, M.D. 250 

Homemann, Jens Wilken 145 

Hoy, James Barlow 204 

Hull, John, M.D 34 

Hunneman, John 36 

Hurlock, Joseph 244 

Jacquin, Baron Joseph Francis 73 

Jamison, Sir John, M.D 244 

Janson, Joseph 301 

Johnson, James Rawhns, M.D. 137 

Keith, Rev. Patrick 70 

Kendrick, James, M.D 376 

Kent, Wilham 71 

Knapp, John Leonard 244 

Knight, Henry Gaily, M.P. ... 301 

Knowlton, Thomas 302 

Lagasca, Don Mariano 71 

Lambert, Aylmer Bourke 137 

Lane, Charles 139 

Latham, John, M.D 172 

Latham, Richard 302 

Leigh, Richard 139 

Locke, William Oliver, M.D. 376 



Loddiges, George 334 

Loudon, John Claudius 204 

Lubbock, Sir John Wm., Bart. 105 

Lush, Charles, M.D 302 

Lynn, James, M.D 1/2 

Macartney, James, M.D 206 

Main, James 303 

Marlborough, George, Duke of 67 

Martin, Matthew 35 

Matthews, Alexander 1/3 

Maycock, James Dottin, M.D. 72 

Menzies, Archibald 139 

Mills, WiUiam 72 

Milne, George 35 

Morgan, John 376 

Mountnorris, the Earl of 245 

Newman, Rev. Thos., M. A, ... 172 
Newton, Rev. Thos., M. A. ... 172 

Nixon, Rev. Robert, B.D 35 

Northumberland, Hugh Percy, 

Duke of 335 

Nouaille, Peter 303 

Onley, Charles SavUle 207 

Parkinson, John 336 

Pavon, Don Jose 208 

PeetcWilHam 377 

Pennant, David 141 

Penn)', George 36 

Quekett, Edwin John 378 

Rackett, Rev. Thomas, M. A. . , , 105 

Roddam, George, M.D 379 

Rokewode, John Gage 172 

Rudge, Edward 337 

St. AubjTi, Sir John, Bart. ... 72 


St. Hilaire, Etienne Geoffi-oy . 247 

Samouelle, George 304 

Saye and Sele, Lord 338 

Shai-pe, James 72 

Sheppard, Rev. J.Revett, M.A. 106 

Simmons, Richard, M.D 338 

Shgo, the Marquis of 245 

Smirnove, John 245 

Solly, Samuel 339 

Sowerby, Charles Edward 149 

Stephenson, Simon 207 

Sternberg, Gaspard Count ... 35 

Stuart, Daniel 339 

Sutton, Charles, D.D 341 

Taylor, Thomas, M.D 379 

Trinius, Karl Bernhard von . . . 249 

Valentia, Lord Viscount 106 

Vigors, Nicholas Aylward, 

D.C.L 106 

Viney, Major-General 107 

Walsingham, Lord, Rev. Thos. 72 

Wedgewood, John 245 

Weekes, Richard 380 

Wheeler, Thomas 380 

Wickham, William Nicholas... 339 

Wilmot, Sir John Eardlev,Bart. 381 

Wilmot, R. Montague, M.B.... 107 

Wood, George WiUiam 207 

Wood, Rev. William, B.D. ..,107 

Woods, Henry 107 

Wright, Francis Boucher 107 

Young, Wilham Weston 36 

Younge, Wilham, M.D 35 



November 6, 1838. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Society assembled this evening for the Session. 

The Vice President stated that the late Nathaniel John Winch, 
Esq., A.L.S., of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, had bequeathed to the So- 
ciety his entire herbarium, consisting of upwards of 12,000 species 
of plants, and his library of Natural History. 

Read, " Observations on the cause of Ergot." By Mr. John 
Smith, A.L.S., of the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew. 

Mr. Smith, like many others, had supposed that the ergot of rye 
was an organized fungus, growing in the florets of the rye and other 
grasses, but in the early part of October his attention was particu- 
larly directed to the subject by observing several large drops of a 
brown- coloured fluid suspended from a spike of a species of Elymus, 
in which were several full-grown ergots, and others in a younger state. 
The fluid was viscid and had a saccharine flavour. On subjecting 
a portion of it to the microscope, it was found to be full of innume- 
rable minute, oblong, transparent bodies, varying from the 3000th 
to the 7000th of an inch, and resembling the sporules of fungi, and 
slightly bent, having a somewhat indistinct spot at each end. On 
applying a drop of water to a full-grown ergot, multitudes of these 
bodies became disengaged from its surface, and issued from the 
cracks or longitudinal fissures which generally characterize the fully 
developed ergot. These bodies imparted to the water a milky ap- 
pearance. He observed the same bodies on ergots of all ages and 
sizes, and on opening the unexpanded flowers of ergot-bearing spikes, 
they were met with in abundance on the diff"erent organs, especially 
on the anthers ; for on cutting an anther and applying water, they 

No. I. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

were seen to float out along with the pollen. They were also ob- 
served on the ovarium, and in little clusters on the hairs and feathery 
stigmata. These bodies are found to accompany the ergot through 
all its stages, and are present even before the fecundation of the ova- 
rium, at least before the discharge of the pollen, and consequently 
before there is any appearance of an ergot ; they therefore cannot be 
the sporules, but must be the cellules of the minute fungus itself. 
On examining an ergot, the surface before being moistened presents 
under the microscope the appearance of a thin whitish pruinose 
crust, which, on the application of moisture, speedily separates into 
myriads of the minute transparent cellules before mentioned. On 
viewing the ergot in the dry state under the microscope, the pruinose 
appearance of the crust will be found to arise from these bodies being 
united together longitudinally, forming slightly elevated spiculse, but 
crowded underneath and forming a kind of crust. These cellules so 
united present the appearance of slender-jointed filaments, either 
simple or branched, in which state they occur likewise on the an- 
thers. Mr. Smith regards these cellules as the articulations of a 
minute filamentous fungus which is developed in the early stage of 
the flower, and propagating itself by the separation of the joints and 
impregnating the soil or the perfect seeds of the grass, which on 
germination and subsequent development carry up some of the re- 
productive matter of the fungus, which again developes itself in the 
flower, in the manner that Mr. Francis Bauer has shown to take 
place in the propagation of the smut and grain-worms in wheat. 

Read, "A Letter on the occurrence of Wilson's Fetrel (Procellaria 
Wilsoni) on the British coast." By Jonathan Couch, Esq., F.L.S. 

A single specimen of the bird was found in a field near Polperro 
in Cornwall, about the middle of August last, when the stormy pe- 
trel (P. pelagicd) abounded on the coast. Mr. C. instituted a com- 
parison between them, and the result was as follows : 

Weight of the stormy petrel 4 drams, 35 grains ; of Wilson's petrel 5 
drams, 2 scruples. 

Length 6 inches 7 inches. 

Spread of wings 11^ — 16^ — 

Wings extended beyond the tail ... ^ — 1-^ — 

With the leo's extended, the toes 1 , ,. -n i i ^ -i ■ r, ^^ 

extend short of the tail | ^ '"'"• ^'^>'"»^ ^^'^ ^^'^ * '"• ^ l'"- 

The stormy petrel is feathered just to the basal joint ; but in 
Wilson's petrel the feathers only approach within 4 lines of it. In 
the former the tarsus is in length 1 line short of an inch, in the 
latter 1 inch 4 lines, and equally slender with the former ; and the 

hinder toe is so minute that it might escape any but attentive exa- 
mination. In the bill the markings are more strongly defined, with 
the terminal hook longer and sharper. The prominence of the fore- 
head is less than in the more common species. Colour of the head 
black with a hoary tint, lighter on the throat. The back, belly, wings, 
and tail are ferruginous, lighter on the wing coverts ; the rump white, 
and a little of the same at the vent. Tarsi and feet black, with a 
longitudinal stripe of sulphur-yellow, more of a golden at the bor- 
ders or the web between each toe. 

The stouter configuration of this species enabling it better to 
escape the violence of a storm may be ascribed perhaps as a reason 
why it is not more often found on our coasts. 

On examining the stomach of a stormy petrel Mr. Couch found 
about half an inch of a common tallow candle, of a size so dispro- 
tionate to the bill and gullet of the bird, that it seems wonderful 
how it could have been able to swallow it. 

November 20. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read, " Description of a new Genus of Plants belonging to the 
Natural Family Bignoniacea." By D. Don, Esq., Libr. L.S., Prof. 
Bot. King's College. 

The subject of this paper was collected by Capt. Sir James Ed- 
ward Alexander, during a journey through the interior of Southern 
Africa to the western coast. The plant was discovered by that en- 
terprising traveller in the open desert, called the Kei Kaap, in Great 
Namaqua Land, in 25° S. latitude and 17° E. longitude. It is a 
thorny bush, about six feet high, with small simple, hoary, wrinkled, 
serrated leaves and large white flowers. There can be no doubt that 
the plant belongs to the Bignoniacece, although in habit it bears a 
stronger resemblance to Verbenacece, especially to Dwrflw^a and Gmelina. 
In its spathaceous calyx and regular funnel-shaped corolla the genus 
comes near to Spathodea, but is abundantly distinguished from it by 
the cells of the anthers being parallel and connate from the middle 
upwards. Its regular funnel-shaped corolla, spathaceous calyx, 
equal stamina, and serrated leaves essentially distinguish it from 
Burchell's curious genus Rhigozum, with which it agrees in habit. 
On the specimen were two expanded flowers and a bud. The calyx 
in all three had six teeth, and both the expanded flowers and the 
bud had a six-cleft limb ; one of these had seven stamens, and the 

other, as well as the bud, six, so that this last may be regarded as 
the normal number. 

The following are the name and characters of this new genus. 
Catophractes. Calyx spathaceus, hinc fissus, inde 6-dentatus. Corolla 

infundibuliformis : limbo 6-lobo, patenti, aequali. Stamina 6, raro 7. 

subasqualia, exserta. Anther arum loculi paralleli, e medio sursum con- 

nati. Ovarium abbreviatum, conicum, biloculare 2 
Frutex (namaquensis) erectus, spinosus. Folia fasciculata, simplicia, 

serrata. Flores laterales, suhsessiles, speciosi, albi. 
Sp. 1 . C. Alexandri. 

Read, " An Account of a species of Lepidosperma, from Tasman's 
Peninsula, Van Diemen's Land." By Dr. Lhotsky. Communicated 
by Prof. Don, Libr. L.S. 

This species is nearly allied to the Lepidosperma elatior of Labil- 
lardiere, and is remarkable for the great length of its leaves, varying 
from 10 to 15 and even 20 feet. A specimen exhibited to the meet- 
ing had the leaf upwards of 13 feet long. It was discovered by 
Dr. Lhotsky in Tasman's Peninsula, Van Diemen's Land, growing 
in a dense jungle, through which its long slender leaves contrive to 
penetrate. It is termed " Cutting Grass," and like the other spe- 
cies of this Cyperaceous genus is characterized by the sharp edges 
of its leaves, whicli inflict wounds on the unwary traveller who 
happens to pass the plant hastily. 

December 4. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

G. E. Dennes, Esq., Vine Street, Golden Square ; R. G. Holland, 
Esq., Surgeon, Sheffield; and Henry Laxton, Esq., Parliament 
Street, were elected Fellows of the Society. 

Read, " Observations on the Anatomical and Physiological Na- 
ture of Ergot in certain Grasses." By E. J. Queckett, Esq., F.L.S. 

Having had the opportunity of examining the formation of the 
ergot in several grasses, the author has endeavoured to trace the 
cause and origin of this singular formation on them, and particularly 
on Elymus sabulosus. 

It was found, that when a grain of the grass was to be replaced by 
an ergot, it presented before the period of expansion of the flower a 
singular mildewed appearance. This, when examined microsco- 
pically, was seen to consist of filaments, at whose base were myriads 

of particles of exceedingly diminutive size, forming a complete 
coating to the young grain, so that no part of its body was visible 
through it. 

From this state the increase of the young ergot, but not of the 
filaments and particles, was very rapid ; for in a short time after, when 
the ergot began to appear between the paleae of the flower, its violet 
black colour was then visible, on account of the mildewed appear- 
ance not keeping pace in development with the ergot*. 

After the ergot begins to appear beyond the palese, it in a short 
time attains its full size, and loses almost entirely its mildewed 
covering, presenting now its perfect violet black surface, and mea- 
sures in different specimens from half an inch to one inch and half. 

If the ergot be examined carefully at this period, in such speci- 
mens as have not been subjected to injury or displacement on the 
plant, it will be found that at its base are the two scales which are 
observable in the same place in the healthy grain, and that it is ar- 
ticulated to the receptacle, and separates from it as readily as the 
grain when ripe does from the same spot, and at the apex of it is a 
small body, frequently hairy, on which can be observed the remains 
of the stigmas. 

From the relations of the ergot to these parts, and compared with 
those of the healthy grain, it is found that it is placed between and 
upon the same organs as the grain, and there cannot be a doubt but 
that this singular body is not an independent fungus, but a grain 
diseased from causes presently to be mentioned. 

When the particles before mentioned, which occur on the surfacfr 
of the ergot, and which are also found in a viscid fluid that hangs 
about the paleae of the infected grass, are examined by the micro- 
scope, their size is found to be 4-dVd- part of an inch in length, and 
Wo-o- part of an inch in diameter in the generality of instances, and 
their number is countless, probably 20 millions on each ergot. 
When magnified from 500 to 800 times, it then can be observed that 
their interior contains several well-defined green dots or granules, 
two or three being the most common numbers. 

If these particles, which are no doubt the cause of the ergot, as 
they are found on every ergotized grass and are the sporidia of a cer- 
tain fungus, be kept moistened on any convenient surface, as between 
a plate of glass and talc, they soon commence germinating (if recent) 

• The growth of the ergot is very rapid when compared with that of the 
grain. Philippar, in his ' Traite Organographique et Physiologico-agricole 
sur I'Ergot, &c., dans les Cereales', observed some particular plants of rye, 
whilst passing by a certain corn-field, which had no appearance of ergot, but 
ten or twelve days after these same plants had full-sized ergots upon them. 

in various ways ; sometimes by emitting a tube or tubes containing 
green granules, similar to those in the interior of the sporidia, and 
which probably separate finally into as many perfect reproductive 
atoms ; in other instances one sporidium gives off a minute process 
from its side, which goes on increasing and ultimately becomes like 
its parent, and then separates from it. Often several sporidia so ge- 
nerated, remain united to each other for a short time, forming a mo- 
niliform filament, composed frequently of seven or eight joints. 

The next and last method is the most perfect when it is found 
that the sporidia have their cavity divided by a septum, which is 
formed by a green granule of the interior extending itself laterally ; 
each half of each sporidium being again subdivided, and by endless 
repetitions of this process a radiated plant is produced, which, when 
arrived at a certain size and age, bears upon its branchlets sporidia 
similar to that one from which it was first produced. 

From these observations, it is proved that the sporidia, found on the 
surface of the diseased grain, can germinate and ultimately develope 
the means of their reproduction, without forming any body analo- 
gous in shape or structure to an ergot, which fact is conclusive that 
the filaments and sporidia are no part of that body, because they are 
found to flourish unconnected with it, and even grow on many parts 
of the same grass, as seen in the anthers by Mr. Smith, of Kew Gar- 
dens, and observed by Mr. Queckett on the paleae, glumes and ra- 
chis ; therefore the ergot, Mr. Queckett conceives, originates by the 
grain of the respective grass becoming diseased, from the presence of 
a parasite, which occasions such alteration in its developement as to 
cause it to assume the well-known form, and to possess also the sin- 
gular properties manifested in that of rye. 

If the ergot be sliced into thin transverse sections, and these ex- 
amifl.ed with a very high magnifying power, it will be seen that nu- 
merous particles escape from them when they are placed in water. 
These have been taken by Philippar for sporidia, from which cir- 
cumstance he considered the ergot as the reproductive apparatus 
of a fungus ; but such particles are only those of a fatty oil, which 
escape from the divided cells, and collect on the surface of the water, 
in which the sections are immersed, and differ from the sporidia of 
the exterior by floating on the surface, whilst the latter always sub- 
side to the bottom of the vessel containing the water. The appli- 
cation of heat to these supposed sporidia fuses them into irregular 
masses of different sizes ; and ether or turpentine, if allowed to eva- 
porate after being added to them, leaves similar appearances. 

The internal structure of the ergot looks extremely irregular, there 

being no equally formed cells, but a confused jumble, out ot which 
can scarcely be traced the true cells, on account of iheir boundaries 
being exceedingly sinuous, which structure is very like the centre 
of the fungus produced during the germination of the sporidia, an-l 
appears to be occasioned by fungoid matter having grown in the in- 
terior of the grain. 

From these observations, which have been followed up in many 
ergotized grasses, Mr. Queckett is inclined to believe that the ergot 
is a grain diseased by a particular parasitic fungus developing in or 
about it, whose sporidia find the young state of the grain a matrix 
suitable for their growth, and quickly run their race, not entirely 
depriving it of its natality, but communicating to it such impressions, 
which pervert its regular growth, and likewise the healthy formation 
of its constituents, being at last composed of its diseased mate- 
rials, which are mixed up with fungic matter, which has developed 
within it. 

The fungus caused to germinate in the way described is quite in- 
visible to the naked eye, seldom measuring beyond the one or two 
hundredth part of an inch ; and from comparisons with British and 
foreign genera of Fungacese, it has not been found that it belongs 
satisfactorily to any as at present constituted ; the author therefore 
proposes a new genus, with the title Ergoteetea, to represent this 
minute fungus, which wUl belong to the sub-order Coniomycetes 
of Fries, and to its division Mucedines, very near to the genus Sepe- 

After repeated experiments with the sporidia of the ergot of rye, 
of Elymus, and other grasses, the author has always succeeded in 
making them germinate, and has not discovered such differences as 
would lead him to consider that the parasite in each case was not 
the same, therefore he has applied the term abortans, as the specific 
name of Ergotatea, to the plant found on the ergot of rye, and be- 
lieves the parasites, on the other grasses which have been examined, 
to be of the same species. 

December 18. 
Edward Forster, Esq.. V. P., in the Chair. 

Read, " A notice of Cereus tetragonus," by Edward Rudge, Esq., 
F.R. & L.S. 

This plant has blossomed during the three past years in Mr. 
Rudge's collection at Abbey Manor House near Evesham. The 

flowers expand in the evening like those of C. grandiflorus, which 
they resemble, but are not above half the size. The number of the 
angles of the stem is variable. The species is an old inhabitant of 
our stoves, but has rarely flowered. 

Read, " Descriptions of the Indian species of Iris," by D. Don, 
Esq., Libr. L.S., Prof. Bot. King's College. 

The number of species of this beautiful genus belonging to the 
Indian Flora is five, three of which have not been previously de- 
scribed : one of the species is from Cashmere, another from Ludak, 
a country situated beyond the Himalaya, and the remaining three 
are natives of Nepal and Kamaon, and of the country to the west- 

The following are the characters of the undescribed species : 

1. /. kamaonensis (Wall. Cat. n. 5052.), barbata; scapo brevissimo uni- 
floro, tubo perianthii longissimo subfiliformi, sepalis interioribus bilo- 
bis longe uiiguiculatis, ovario turbinate 3-gono. 

2. /. longifolia (Royle 111. t. 91. f. 2.), imberbis ; fobis margine scabris, 
scapo brevissimo unifloro, sepalis sublanceolatis integerrimis, tubo pe- 
rianthii vix ullo, ovario elongate triquetro scapum adsequante, stigma- 
tis lobis integerrimis. 

3. /. Moorcroftiana {Vfa\\. Cat. n. 5051.), imberbis; scapo bifloro pedun- 
culis breviore, spathis glumaceis tubum perianthii superantibus, sepalis 
lanceolatis acutiusculis, ovario 6-sulcato. 

Read, " Additional observations on the Spongilla fluviatilis " By 
John Hogg, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

The author's views of the vegetable nature of the river sponge 
were given in a paper read before the Society on the 5th of June, 
1838, a report of Avhich was inserted in the August number of the 
' Annals of Natural History.' 

The present paper contains additional observations in confirmation 
of those views, derived from a more accurate examination of the 
seed-like bodies, which are found adhering in abundance to the walls 
of the cells or cavities of the sponge, and are also frequently free 
and endowed with the faculty of locomotion ; and which have been 
regarded by some authors as the ova of the Spongilla, and by others 
as those of the Plumatella. Mr. Hogg has determined the identity 
of these bodies, having succeeded in raising young Spongilla from 
both kinds ; and he has also ascertained that they are destitute of 
cilia, being merely studded with minute granular papiUae. The mo- 
tions of the unattached bodies resemble those observed by Unger in 
the sporules of Ectospora clavata, and Mr. Hogg considers the cur- 
rents to be due to the same causes, which affect the circulation of 
the fluids in the cells of vegetables. 

Jan. 15, 1839.] Linnean Society. 9 

January 15, 1839. 

Edward Forster, Esq., V. P., in the Chair. 

Major Thomas Best Jervis, E. I. C. Engineer Sendee ; Thomas 
Bruges Flower, Esq., Bath ; J. C. Hall, Esq., Kensington ; R. M. 
Lingwood, Esq., B.A., Uckfield, Sussex ; and F. J. White, M.D., 
Wcirminster, were elected Fellows of the Society. 

Read, " A notice of the Encephalartos horridus, which flowered at 
Kinmel Park." By Mr. Thomas Forrest. Communicated by the 

This brief notice was accompanied by the male spadix, which had 
flowered at Kinmel Park, the seat of Lord Dinorben, and was sent 
for exhibition to the meeting by command of His Royal Highness the 
Duke of Sussex. The plant had been sent to Lord Dinorben from 
the Cape of Good Hope about six years ago by Lord John Spencer 
Churchill, Capt. R.N. The spadix was of unusual size, and bore a 
strong resemblance to a gigantic pine cone. The most remarkable 
peculiarity observable was, that several scales, less developed than 
the others, bore only a single unilateral mass of anthers, whilst in 
others the two masses were scarcely confluent. 

Read, " An account of the Indian Species of Juncus and Luzula." 
ByD. Don, Esq., Libr.L.S., Prof. Bot. King's College. 

The species described in this paper are all from Northern India, 
and were mostly collected by Dr. Royle in the range of the Hima- 
laya, included between the Ganges and Sutlej. Of the eight spe- 
cies described, seven belong to Juncus, and only one to Luzula. 
Three of the former genus are entirely new, two had been previously 
gathered by Dr. Wallich's collectors in Nepal, and of the two others, 
one (/. bufonius) is common throughout the northern hemisphere, 
and the other (/. glaucus) is abundant in northern and central 
Europe. The Luzula is spicata, which occurs on the mountains of 
the north of England, Scotland, and throughout Europe, reaching 
as high as 71" north latitude, and which is likewise found on the 
Caucasus and Altai mountains in northern 'Asia. The present va-r 
riety is from Lippa in Kunawur, a country situated beyond the 
Himalaya, in about 31° 33' north latitude, being about 11° more to 
the south than any station previously recorded for Luzula spicata. 
The variety differs in its broader sepals, blunt capsule, with obovate 
valves, and in the seeds not being above half the size. 

No. II. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society^ 

10 Linnean Society. [Feb. 5, 

We subjoin the characters of the new species. 

1. /. leucanthus (Royle), culmo bifolio tereti, foliis margine involutis 
filiformibus culmum subsequantibus, capitulo terminali solitario 6 — 10- 
floro, involucro 5-phyllo glumaceo floribus longiore, sepalis acutius- 
culis, antheris acutis filamentis duplo longioribus, ovario incluso, stig- 
matibus stylo ter brevioribus. 

This species is nearly allied to /. triglumis. 

2. J. leucomelas (Royle), culmo enodi filiformi aphyllo, foliis subulatis 
canaliculatis, capitulo terminali 3 — 5-floro involucro 3-phyllo acuto 
breviore, sepalis obtusis, antheris filamentorum fere longitudine, capsula 
acuminata perianthio longiore, 

3. /. memhranaceus (Royle), culmo tereti subdiphyllo, foliis subfiliformi- 
bus obtusis, capitulo terminali solitario 4 — 8-floro bractea communi 
membranacea breviore, sepalis obtusis capsula acuta longioribus, stami- 
nibus inclusis, antheris filamentis dilatatis ter brevioribus. 

4. J. concinnus (Don. Prodr. Fl. Nepal, p. 44), culmo tereti subdiphyllo, 
foliis planiusculis obtusis, capitulis 3 — 6-floris corymbosis, bractea 
communi elongata foliacea, sepalis acutis capsula acuta longioribus, 
staminibus longe exsertis, antheris filamentis simplicibus 6-pl6 brevi- 

5. /. indicus, triandrus ; capitulis multifloris squarrosis trichotome cy- 
mosis, sepalis lineari-lanceolatis apice mucronatis recurvis capsulse mu- 
ticae longitudine, stigmatibus sessilibus. 

February 5. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V. P., in the Chair. 

J. J. Adams Esq., Surgeon, Finsbury Square, was elected a Fel- 
low of the Society. 

Read, a paper entitled " A Note upon the Anatomy of the Roots 
of OphrydecB." By John Lindley, Ph. D., F.R. and L.S., Prof. Bot. 
University College. 

The object of the author in this paper was to show that salep, the 
prepared roots of certain Ophrydece, is not a substance consisting 
principally of starch, as is the common opinion among writers of the 
present day, but is composed of a bassorine-like matter, organized 
in a peculiar manner. 

After stating the opinions of recent authorities, the author gives 
the results of his own microscopical examination of the tissue of re- 
cent and prepared roots, by which it appears that the tubercles of 
Ophryde<E universally contain large cartilaginous nodules of a muci- 

1839.] Linnean Societij. 11 

laginous substance, not coloured by iodine, and a small quantity of 
the grains of starch, lying in the usual manner in the parenchyma 
which surround the nodules, and readily susceptible to the usual ac- 
tion of iodine. The tubercles of many South-African Ophrydec^ pre- 
sent when dried the appearance of bags filled with small pebbles, as 
if the epidermis had contracted over hard bodies in the inside. If a 
fresh root of Satyrium pallidum be divided transversely the cause of 
this appearance is explained, for with its soft parenchyma are mixed 
tough nodules, clear as water, and often twenty times as large as the 
cells which surround them. These nodules are easily separable, are 
tough like horn, and on being sliced appear to be perfectly homo- 
geneous. They are scarcely soluble in cold water; when boiled they 
become tumid and partially dissolve into a transparent jelly. If ex- 
posed to the air they rapidly dry and become brown. The aqueous 
solution of iodine has no sensible effect upon them in their natural 

On charring shces of some salep procured at Covent Garden, a 
coarse preparation of wild Ophrydeee, the author found that the no- 
dules apparently homogeneous were composed of extremely minute 
transparent cells, filled, as he supposed, with a secretion of the same 
refractive power as themselves, and adhering naturally to each other 
firmly ; the double walls of the cells and intercelliilar spaces being 
only made apparent by the charring process. The author explains 
the error of those who have considered salep to consist chiefly of 
starch, by allusion to the mode of its preparation. The tubercles 
are first parboiled and then dried, the effect of which is to dissolve 
what starch exists in the cells surrounding the nodules. The dis- 
solved starch flows over the surface of the nodules, from which when 
dried it is undistinguishable, and consequently when iodine is ap- 
plied to salep the mass appears to become iodide of starch. If the 
nodules, however, after this action of iodine, be removed, they are 
seen to retain their original vitreous lustre. 

The author remarks that these nodules of Ophrydece are, as far as 
his observations extend, absent in the tubercles of the other tribes 
of Orchidacece. 

Read, a paper entitled " Some Data towards a Botanical Geogra- 
phy of New Holland." By Dr. John Lhotsky, late of the Civil Ser- 
vice, Van Diemen's Land. Communicated by Prof. Don, Libr. L.S.. 

The author commences his paper with the observation, that it was 
the lot of Mr. Brown to become connected in an almost exclusive 
way with the Flora of New Holland, he having been the first to illus- 

12 Linnean Society. [Feb. 5, 

trate its vegetable riches in an extensive and philosophic manner. 
Notvs^ithstanding the important discoveries since made, his re- 
marks, and especially those upon the botanical geography of that 
country, (published nearly twenty years ago,) have been confirmed 
by subsequent observations. The great approximation tovi^ards the 
European Flora, in that part of the country first explored by the 
author, agrees perfectly with the following observation of Mr. Brown : 
" It appears that a much greater proportion of the peculiarities of the 
Australian Flora exist in this, which I have therefore called the prin- 
cipalparaUel (between 33° and 35° S. latitude), and that many of 
them are nearly confined to it.*" The author proposes the follow- 
ing geographical division of the Flora of the south-eastern part of 
New Holland. 

1st. The coast vegetation. — This class of vegetation clothes the 
almost moveable sand of the coast, and the rocks of sandstone of the 
coal formation, or skirts the ponds of salt or brackish water. Epa- 
cris, Boronia, Lambertia, Astroloma, Xanthorrhaa, Hakea, Banksia, 
&c. are the most characteristic genera, forming usually a dense 
shrubbery of stiff and harsh plants. Of trees, scarcely any but 
species of Eucalyptus are to be met with. 

2nd. Vegetation of the rocky gullies near the sea coast. — Such lo- 
calities are generally characterized by small creeks or springs of fresh- 
water, of which the localities of the former class are mostly devoid. 
Two palms, Corypha australis and Seaforthia elegans, and the won- 
der of Australian forests, Doryanthes excelsa, adorn these localities. 

3rd. The Argyle vegetation characterizes those park-like spots, with 
their stately Eucalyptus trees growing at some distance from each 
other, with very little underwood, which have attracted the notice of 
travellers, from Tasman down to those of our times. The geological 
features of this region consist of various rocks, the sandstone of the 
coal formation excepted, which last never yields a good soil. The 
genera of this class of vegetation are various grasses, Thlaspi, Cera- 
stium, Thymus, Scandix, Hydrocotyle, Dianella, Exarrhena, Silene, 
Hypericum, &c., many of them European forms, and soft juicy 
l)lants. Where this vegetation occurs are to be found some of the 
most advantageous parts of the colony for the purposes of grazing. 

4th. The Menero vegetation comprehends the Flora of those exten- 
sive downs which extend on the east side of the Alps to the extent 
of more than a hundred miles, and which are capable of maintaining 
vast numbers of sheep and other cattle. These downs joresent a dif- 

* General remarks, geographical and systematical, on the Botany of 
Terra Australis, p. 586. 

1839.] Linnean Society. 13 

ferent aspect in different seasons, being in some covered with the 
most luxuriant herbage, which at other times is parched and dried 
up. Many genera of the preceding class occur in these localities, 
besides Lythrum, Epilobium, Potentilla, Leuzea, Rumex, and other 
European genera. The author regrets that the season was too far 
advanced to examine the Graminece and Cyperacece, which abound 
in this region. 

5th. Alpine vegetation. — This was traced by the author to the 
summit of Mount WilUam the Fourth.* These mountains being verj?- 
extensive, will yield a great harvest to future travellers. The few 
plants collected by the author in this first investigation were two 
species of Gentiana, Mniarum, Sphagnum, Di-acophyllum, Azeroe, Co- 
prosma, Podolepis, some of the latter genus being three feet high. 

February 19. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. George Dickie, of Aberdeen, was elected an Associate of the 

Read, " Extracts from Letters addressed to Dr. Royle, V.P.R. & 
F.L.S., Prof. Mat. Med., King's College." By Dr. Falconer, Super- 
intendent of the Hon. E. L C.'s Garden, Saharunpore. 

Under date of January 24, 1837, from Saharunpore, Dr. Falconer 
gives a general report of the state of the garden. 

" The Bixa Orellana," he remarks, " now flowers and fruits freely. 
The umbelliferous flowered Panax, near the cinnamon tree, is now 
a large and lofty tree, and there are numbers of it all over the gar- 
den. The Bombay Mangoes and Leechees are abundant with us. 
The medicinal garden still gives the annual supply of Hyoscyamus, 
and the Canal nursery turns out about 2000 teaks. The Otaheite 
sugar cane, brought up by Colvin, is likely soon to spread all over 
the district ; it has succeeded famously here, and I have now in pre- 
paration about a couple of beegahs of ground outside the garden for 
it. I am also preparing for sowing about twenty beegahs with up- 
land Georgia cotton seed, which will undoubtedly be most success- 

* According to a recent calculation, made from the degree of temperatm-e 
at which water boiled on the top of this mountain (viz. 196°), it possesses an 
absohite height of SOOO feet, being by far the highest point reached hitherto 
by any traveller in Australia. 

14 Linnean Society. [Feb. 19, 

ful ; it ripens before the Bourbon cotton comes into flower. This 
last season 1 got a few pods of Egyptian cotton, of the garden 
growth ; the seed only reached me on the 15 th of July, six weeks at 
the least too late, and it did not all ripen before the frosts, but what 
did ripen was long, fine, and strong in the staple, and the pods 
large. I expect to have a better account of it at the end of this 
season. I have also some Peruvian seed to experiment on. 

"The herbarium has been largely added to. The family of all others 
that has yielded most additions perhaps is the Orchidece. There 
are upwards of thirty epiphytous species growing on the trees in the 
garden, and many more in the herbarium ; some of them are most 
interesting additions : one of them is a triandrous Dendrobium, 
D. normale, Fal. The three anthers are not the only singularity 
about it. The flower is perfectly regular ; the three sepals being 
exactly equal, as are also the three petals, which, although of the 
same length, are twice as broad as the sepals. The column is also 
symmetrical, and as there is no labellum, it is difiicult when the 
flower is removed from the axis to find out which of the petals re- 
presents the lip. Further, and what is most interesting of all, it 
clearly shows what is the normal position of the supplementary an- 
thers in the family. Lindley makes them alternate with the lateral 
petals ; while Brown, from the structure of Apostasia and Cypripe- 
diutn, states that they alternate with the lateral sepals, and belong 
to a diff'erent whorl from the fertile anther. In my plant it is most 
distinctly evident, both by a decurrent ridge on each filament 
and by transverse sections of the column at all heights down to 
its base, that the supplementary anthers have the same relative 
position as the usual fertile one, and in harmony with Lindley's for- 
mula. Further, 1 have another variety of the species, in which the 
column is sliced off^ in front as is usual in the genus, and then the 
labellar petal is invariably developed into a spurred lip, so that it 
would appear that in the family the irregularity of the lip is a state 
of anamorphosis consequent on the imperfect development of the 
column, or vice versd ; in fact, that the deficiency of the one is abs- 
tracted to make up the excess of the other. Next I discovered an- 
other genus of the tribe Gastrodia, with a monophyllous perianth, the 
segments, sepals and petals being united for two-thirds of their length 
into a tube. I found it on Dhunoultee, and have called it Gamo- 
plexis ; it has the habit and look of an Orohanche. I have found 
also a magnificent Malaxideous genus, standing, when in flower, 9 
feet. You never saw a more superb aff"air, with rich yellow flowers 
like the Cyrtopera. I have called it Thysanochilus. The seed-vessel 

1839.] Linnean Society. 15 

has no ribs, and in one flower of it I found a plurality of stamens. 
I have several other new genera, which it would tire you to de- 
scribe. Talking of Dhunoultee, I found Wallich's Fraxinus flori- 
hunda growing on the ridge half-way between it and Landour, close 
to the road. You remember the description you give of the irregu- 
larity of the Paris polyphylla in Wallich's Plantse Asiaticse, — I found 
the Podophyllum Emodi growing intermixed with it, and strange to 
say, as if bewitched with the same turn for vagaries, with every 
number of stamens from 6 to 10, and in almost every flower one 
filament bearing two anthers, and that filament invariably the one 
opposite the petiole of the flower-bearing leaf. In one flower I found 
the following irregularities : 6 petals, 10 anthers, 7 filaments, or 
stamens if you Hke ; on one filament 3 anthers, on another 2, and the 
remaining 5 regular. Singular that it and the Paris should grow 
together and both so irregular." 

Under date of January 26, 1838, from Cashmere, whither he had 
proceeded on a Botanic mission in connexion with Sir Alex. Barnes's 
Expedition, Dr. F. says, " I am now wintering in Cashmere, with the 
prospect before me of pushing across through Little Thibet towards the 
Kuenlun Mountains when the snow clears. I started from Loodiana, 
where, by the by, I got the Butomus umbellatus in flower and fruit, 
new, I believe, to the plains of India ; and after a few days at Lahore, 
I marched on through the Punjab to Attock in the month of July ; no 
rains and fearful heat in the sandy plains I went along. From the want 
of rain and my route being through an open plain I did not glean much 
in my march. The Flora is exactly that of the neighbourhood of Delhi; 
Peganum Harniala everywhere, with Capparidece, Crotolaria Bushia, 
Calotropis Hamiltonii, Alhagi Maurorum, Ta^narix, Acacia modesta, 
&c. &c. Near Lahore I got what I believe to be anew Asclepiadeous 
genus exactly intermediate between Calotropis and Paratropis, with 
the angular and saccate sinued corolla, membrane lipped anthers and 
corona of the former, but the coronal leaflets cleft and the pollen 
masses oval and ventricose as in the latter, with other peculiar cha- 
racters besides. It is a low, twining, small, fleshy, lance-leaved under- 
shrub . I have called it provisionally Eutropis. It is in great abundance 
in the Punjab. I met with the Dhak (Buteafrondosa) as far as the west- 
ern bank of the Jhelum. The Flora begins to change atRawulPindee, 
which is elevated and continuous so on to the plain of Chuch, along 
the banks of the Attock. Here I first came on the famous Zuetoon, 

the wild olive, Olea ? and further on, at Hussan Abdal, I found 

Himalayan Rubi and a Cashmeer Dianthus, white flowered and new 

16 Linnean Society. . [Feb. 19, 

to you. Near Attock I joined the party, having marched hitherto 
alone. We halted at Attock, the dry arid hills of which have a pecu- 
liar vegetation. "We crossed the noble Indus at Attock ; a fearful 
ferry, in the rains the river running eight knots an hour. The 
low^er part of the plain of Peshawur, vt^here we now were, is sandy, 
and has exactly the Flora of the arid tracts of the Punjab ; Salsolas, 
ChenopodecE, Alhagi, Calolropis, Peganum, Tamarix, &c. But when 
we got to Peshawur, so much do the seasons differ that peaches 
were coming into fruit the loth of August, and the Kurreel {Cap- 
paris aphylla) out of flower only lately. From Peshawur I made an 
excursion to Cohaut, and from thence to the Salt Hills and the 
valley of Rungush. In the Salt Hills I got a Stapeliaceous Asclepiad, 
unfortunately neither in flower nor fruit, very probably one of Wight's 
Carallumas or Boucerosias. Also the Cassia obovata, the Egyptian 
senna in flower. I had previously got the same plant from near Delhi, 
no doubt about the species ; certainly not the obtusa of Roxb. ; the 
legumes always crested over the bulge of the seeds. I got numerous 
other plants. From Peshawur Bumes started for Cabul, and Mackeson 
and I for Cashmeer. From Attock, Mackeson went by the straight 
military road, as he was on a military survey, while I made an 
attempt to run up the Indus into the hills. I got on three marches 
and was forcibly stopped at Durbund (look at Burnes's map) and 
threatened with rather rough usage. I then turned across the hills 
and rejoined my companion in the noble valley of Huzara. The vege- 
tation along the banks of the Indus from Attock to Durbund surprised 
me much. It is quite that of the characteristic forms of the Deyra 
Dhoon, and taking difference of latitude and altitude into account, 
wdth the great distance westward, this might not have been looked for: 
Grislea tomentosa, Rottlera tinctoria, Hastingia coccinea. Acacia Ca- 
techu, Holostemma, &c. On the banks of the Indus, in the valley lead- 
ing up to Cashmeer from Huzara, I found the Dodonoea Burmanniana. 
You remark in your notice of the Sapindacece its absence from the 
Bengal and Hindoostan region. Its occurrence with a leap further 
north is remarkable. From Huzara we marched on by the Paklee 
road to Mosufferabad. Near Drumbur I came on the Hovenia dulcis. 
At Mosufferabad I got on a high ridge, and followed it on to Cash- 
meer, where we arrived early in October. It was now too late in 
the season to exhaust the Flora of the valley and neighbourhood, so 
I made up my mind to winter here and make a fresh start in spring. 
It would take pages to contain what I have observed about the Flora 
here, late as I came. It has several anomalies ; few if any oaks de- 
scend on the northern side of the Peerpunjal into the valley. I have 

1839.] Linnean Society. 17 

not seen one yet. I have selected oaks as a very characteristic type. 
The same holds with respect to the plants that are associated with 
the oaks, &c. about Mussourie. In the lake you see Nelumb'mm 
a.nd Euryale/erox, growing along with. Menyanthes trifoliata; and 
cotton, a poor sort, growing on the banks, while the sides of the 
bounding hills are skirted with pines. 1 got Staphylca Emodi grow- 
ing along with Ribes Grossularia (your Himalense }), while it grows 
as you know at Mussourie on low slopes near Budraj. The Prangos 
pahularia grows in the valley. I found it most abundant on Ahatoong, 
a low trap hill on the valley, but it is not so vigorous a plant as in 
its Thibetian habitat. I expect in the summer to get as far north 
as lat. 36° at the least on the Kuenlun or Kara Korun range, a 
most desirable tract to explore, as it will be clear beyond Hima- 
layan vegetation, partly characteristic of that of central Asia. I have 
already seen enough to convince me from a trip to the Thibet 
frontier to near Durass, that the Flora ahead will bear a close re- 
semblance in many general relations to that of the Altai Mountains 
shown by Ledebour and yourself." 

" Deosir, Cashmeer, June 20, 1838. 

" I have written to you twice from Cashmeer. I have been going 
leisurely all round the valley, and into all the subordinate valleys 
which radiate on all sides from the great one. I have made many 
acquisitions. Among Ranunculacece I have got species of Hepatica, 
Ceratocephalus, and Callianthemum, all of which I believe to be new, 
and making up the very blanks you notice in your ' Illustrations.' 
Of Callianthemum, I have no knowledge, besides your quotation, but 
ray plant has leaves with umbelliferous habit, 8 white strap-shaped 
clawed petals, with the nectariferous pore high up on the claw, and 
n pendulous ovulum. It cannot therefore be a Ranunculus, nor your 
R. pimpinelloides. Further, I have got a new Ranunculaceous genus, 
new unless Jacquemont has got it, having the habit of Trollius in its 
leaves and mode of inflorescence, 8 herbaceous sepals, 24 strap- 
shaped petals, plane with no fovea at the claw, and solitary trans- 
versely attached ovula, being neither pendulous nor erect. It forms 
a transition from Adonis to the Ranunculem. This is another 
blank filled up in the desiderata so pointedly mentioned by you. I 
have called the genus Chrysocyathus. It grows intermixed vvith 
Trollius, ' inter nives deliquescentes,' and till I examined it I took it 
for a Trollius. I have got a new species oi Adoxa, forming I believe 
the second of the genus, A. inodora (mihi), a larger plant than 
the A. Moschatellina, and with the lateral flower 12-androus, and 

No. III. — Proceedings of the Lixnean Society. 

18 Linuean Society. [Feb. 19, 

6 segments in the flowers. I have also a new Epimedium, a large 
handsome leaved herb, E. hydaspidis (mihi), and two species of Al- 
chemilla. Fritillaria imper/a/zs, the Crown Imperial of English gardens, 
grows wild in the lofty shady forests of Cashmeer. The Cashmerees 
regard it to be unlucky, and grow it only near musjids and over graves. 
Fothergilla involucrata (mihi), belonging to the Hamamelidece, exists 
in vast abundance in Cashmeer, forming whole tracts of low jungle ; 
— strange that it should not have been brought before either to you 
or to me. It occupies the place that the hazel {Cory his Avelland) 
does in England, and at a little distance does not look unlike it. 
Thus, Hamamelidea are found at opposite ends of the Himalaya 
range, Bucklandia and Sedgwickia in Assam, and Fothergilla in Cash- 
meer, but none of the family have yet been met with in the interme- 
diate tracts. Prurigos pabulnria I have found in vast abundance in 
several directions, but the Cashmerees do not know it for any useful 
purpose, except as a plant highly prized by Europeans. They some- 
times use the roots to destroy worms, by steeping them in Dhaun 
fields as Calamus {butch) is used in Hindoostan. The Umbelliferas 
have not come into fruit yet, so I do not know much of my new ac- 
quisitions, but I have got among others a species of Turgenia, a genus 
"which I believe is new to the Himalayas. My brother wrote me 
that you were inquiring about Koot and Amomum. Koot is ex- 
ported from Cashmeer : it is a plant of the natural family of Compo- 
site, which has not yet come into flower, but I shall let you know 
about it hereafter. Amomum, Humama, or Amamoon, is not known 
in Cashmeer nor to be had at the Piensarees. I have got a magni- 
ficent species of Ornithogallum ?, with a scape 7 feet high : the Cash- 
merees call it Prustereen, and prize it highly as a culinary vegetable. 
I have had Dodonaa brought to me from above Juramos in the heart 
of the hills, growing along the banks of the Chenab. I mentioned 
to you in a former letter some of the anomalies I had met with in 
the absence of forms common elsewhere ; not an oak, nor Andromeda, 
Rhododendron arboreum, Mahonia nepalensis, &c., have I yet found, 
though so common in the hills elsewhere. I have got Sparganium 
{car inatum, mihi), Butomus and Villarsia Nymphoides from the ]h\h. 
A species of Sagittaria is used here as a Cashmeree Salep, the natives 
collecting the roots as in China. The Coniferce are, as to the east- 
ward, 3 pines, 2 or 3 firs and Deodar, but I have not seen the Cu- 
pressus torulosa, the lofty cypress of the Mussourie hills." 

1839.] Llanean Sorlefy. 19 

March 5 . 

Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read, " Observations on some Fungi or Agarici, which by de- 
liquescence form an inky fluid, drying into a bister-coloured mass, 
capable of being used as a water-colour for drawings, and of a very 
indestructible nature by means of common agencies." By John 
Redman Coxe, M.D., formerly Professor of Materia Medica in the 
University of Pennsylvania. Communicated by the Secretary. 

Dr. Coxe ha\-ing gathered a Fungus and placed it on a sheet of 
white paper, lea\-ing it until the next day, found several drops of an 
inky fluid, slowly trickling from the inner surface, which had as- 
sumed a black appearance ; by placing the Fungus in a glass, the 
whole except the outer skin liquefied. The colour of the fluid was 
rather a deep bister than black, and being left in the glass, in a few 
hours it separated into a solid sediment, with a lighter coloured fluid 
swimming above. Having afterwards collected a considerable quan- 
tity of fluid from the same species, he obtained by drying an extract 
of a pretty deep black colour of both parts conjoined, which would 
otherwise have sepaiated. This on trial formed an admirable bister- 
like water-colour, well adapted for drawing when mixed with a little 

Dr. Coxe used the " fresh inky fluid as ink, and from such fresh 
fluid the accompanying drawings were made ;" but it was soon found 
that its change was too rapid to think of depending on it for such a 
purpose, he therefore was led to dry it as quickly as possible by 
spontaneous evaporation, and then to use it diluted with water. 
Having exposed various portions of writing thus made to the direct 
rays of the sun for several months ^\'ith little change, he tried the 
effects of chlorine and euchlorine gas, muriatic acid, and ammoniacal 
gases : from these but a trifling change ensued, except from the mu- 
riatic acid gas, which destroyed very considerably the dark tint of 
the writings. He also placed some small and recent specimens of the 
Fungus in a solution of corrosive sublimate, which preserved them 
and prevented any deliquescence : the same effect was produced bv 

The ink is fully formed and escapes in about three or four days. 
When received into a phial, in a short time the hea\aer and blacker 
matter was found to settle as a sediment ; the lighter brownish amber- 
coloured fluid surmounts it, and may be poured off from it to dry them 

20 Linnean Society, [March 5> 

separately. From a good sized specimen nearly half an ounce of 
fluid has been obtained. 

The following chemical experiments among others were made : — 

1. Two drachms of the fluid added to ^ 1 of hydrate gave a clear 
brown transparent solution, to which in separate glasses was added 

2. Nitrate of Silver : no effect at first, but in a few minutes dark, 
brown flocculi subsided, leaving a transparent fluid above. 

3. Muriate of Barytes : no effect at first, finally a subsidence of 
dark brown flocculi. 

4. Acetate of Lead. Immediate dark brown flocculi, leaving a 
clear liquid above. 

5. Carbonate of Potash. Transparency destroyed j a trifling brown 
deposit in a few hours. 

6. Alcohol. No apparent change from it. 

7. Solution of Corrosive Sublimate. An apparent diffusion of brown- 
ish hue, gradually subsiding in dirty brown flocculi. 

8. Dilute Muriatic Acid. The same, but much smaller in amount. 

10. Lime Water. Light brown flocculi in a few hours. 

11. Liquor Ammonia. No effect. 

12. Succinate of Ammonia. Deep brown deposit in a few hours. 

13. Prussiate of Potash. No effect. 

14. Oxalate of Ammonia. Clouds form and settle in a dirty brown 

From these experiments Dr. Coxe is disposed to think that an ex- 
cellent India Ink might be prepared for drawing ; perhaps its dried 
deposit mixed with oil might answer for engravings; and as an ink, 
indestructible from any common agents, it might be well to try it m 
the filling up of bank notes and other papers of consequence, as he 
believes it cannot be extracted by any means without destroying the 
paper itself. 

The Fungus described, and on which the above experiments were 
tried, is referred with some hesitation to Agaricus ovatus, Schseffer, 
' Icones Fungorum,' fig. 7. A. cylindricus, fig. 8. A. porcellaneus, 
fig.46. and 47. The drawings are named Agaricus ovatus*. 

* The drawings evidently represent Agaricus fimetarius, Linn, and Curtis ; 
A. comatus, Mull, and Berkeley ; A. cylindricus, Sowerby ; to which A. cy- 
lindricus, SchsefF. f. 8. and A. porcellaneus, figs. 46 & 47. belong; it is not 
so clear that A. ovatus, fig. 7. (the name adopted by Dr. Coxe) does. In the 
subgenus named by Berkeley Coprinus every species is deliquescent. Curtis 
observes, under his A. ovatus, which is A. atramentariits. Bull, and Berk., 
that the seeds may be seen in the black liquor if magnified. 

1839,] Linnean Society. 21 

March 19. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V. P., in the Chair. 

Robert John Ashton, Esq., Bromptoni Patrick Leigh Strachan, 
Esq., of the Civil Service, Sierra Leone; and Alfred White, Esq., 
IsHngton, were elected Fellows of the Society. 

Read, " A Notice of the Birds of Iceland, accompanied by speci- 
mens." By George Townshend Fox, Esq., F.L.S. 

It is perhaps not generally known that the Durham University 
has estabhshed a Museum as one of the necessary appendages of an 
academical institution ; the subcurator of which, Mr. Wm. Proctor, 
requested and obtained permission to go out to Iceland in the summer 
of 1837 to procure a collection of the birds of that island. Three 
months were passed on the most northern part of Iceland, this local- 
ity being chosen by Mr. Proctor as one least visited by naturalists, 
and therefore the most likely to repay his labours by the number or 
rarity of the specimens to be obtained. Skins of fifty-two species of 
birds were brought home, besides skins of six Rein Deer, three spe- 
cies of Seals, two large Fishes (Anun-hicas), and a Porpoise. 

Frederick Faber in his Ornithology of Iceland, published at Copen- 
hagen in 1822, enumerates eighty-four species of birds; of which 
about twenty are land birds, and sixty water birds. Faber adopted the 
nomenclature of Linnaeus, but an examination of the skins brought 
home by Mr. Proctor has led to the belief that several of Faber's 
birds are not identical with the Linnean species. The Iceland 
Falcon is considered by Mr. Hancock* as distinct from the whiter 
falcon of Greenland. The Iceland Grouse is correctly considered 
by Faber as peculiar to that island. The Bridled Guillemot, Uria 
lacrymans, Lapyl., is for various reasons believed to be a species 
distinct from the Common Guillemot, Uria Troile, Lath. Clangula 
Barrovii w^as found breeding on the ground in a nest formed of 
its own down, and placed among aquatic plants a little above high- 
water mark. Some rare eggs were also obtained, namely, those of 
the Iceland Falcon, Little Auk, Bridled Guillemot, and Sclavonian 

Read also a paper, " On the Structure and Development of 
the Reproductive organs of Pilularia globulifera." In a letter to 

* See Mr. Hancock's paper on this subject in the * Annals of Natural 
History,' voh ii. p. 241. 

22 Linnean Society. [March 19, 

R. H. Solly, Esq., F.R.S. and L.S. By William Valentine, Esq., 

The author observes, that the involucrum of Pilularia globulifera 
contains two kinds of bodies, which, however, occupy distinct sacs ; 
one kind are round, very numerous, and minute, not larger than the 
460th part of an inch -, they are found principally in the upper part 
of the involucrum, and are about forty in each sac. The other kind 
are of an oblong pyriform shape, a little constricted near the middle, 
with a conical projection at one extremity, and are much less nu- 
merous, about sixty, and occur singly in each sac ; they are about 
the 80th part of an inch broad, and have the power of germination, 
which the former kind do not appear to possess. Both kinds are 
loose in their sacs, and have an opake, pure white, minutely granular, 
testaceous covering, and are imbedded in a kind of gelatin, which 
softens and expands by the action of water, but is not completely 
dissolved. The larger bodies, the undoubted sporules, after a very 
slight maceration in water, (less than a minute is sufficient,) are en- 
veloped by a well-defined covering of gelatinous matter, which be- 
fore the maceration existed in a concrete state. Further macera- 
tion does not appear to affect this gelatinous covering, as it remains 
unchanged long after germination, and gives to the sporule the ap- 
pearance of having a very delicate transparent border, whose breadth 
is about the 4th part of the diameter of the sporule. 

The sporule consists of three coats, the outer of which is white, 
opake, somewhat brittle, more or less incomplete at the conical ex- 
tremity, but much thickened about the upper third of the sporule, 
where it exhibits traces of cellularity. The middle coat is mem- 
branous, elastic, of a light yellowish brown colour, and perforated at 
the apex of the conical projection which is essentially formed by 
this coat, the outer coat being gradually lost upon its surface, or in 
some instances being scarcely continued on to it, in which case the 
sporule appears truncated, the middle membrane not having sufficient 
firmness of itself to support the conical form. This conical projec- 
tion is more or less plicated, and in those instances in which the outer 
coat is very deficient the middle membrane exhibits lines radiating 
from the aperture. The third coat, or internal membrane, is similar 
in colour to the middle, differing from it however in being inelastic, 
and not being continued into the cone, but forming a short cavity, 
by passing directly across the base of the cone, at which point it is 
not in contact with either of the other membranes, and is marked 
by three lines, which radiate from the centre of the unsupported 
portion, and indicate a valvular structure to allow of the protrusion 

1839.] Linnean Society. 23 

of the growing matter in germination. The cavity of the sporule is 
occupied by a quantity of grumous fluid and particles, which are of 
various sizes, the larger ones being mostly of an ovcid shape, but 
altering by pressure. 

I found many of these sporules in a genninating state, the major- 
ity having escaped from the involucrum, but in several instances I 
found them considerably advanced in germination before the rupture 
of the involucrum and whilst they were yet inclosed in their sacs. 
The first external sign of germination is either the appearance of 
four cells projecting through the apex of the conical projection 
or a general swelling of that j)art. By dissection, however, we 
can observe this process at an earlier period, and I find upon re- 
moving the conical projection that the first evidence of germination 
having commenced is an appearance of cellularity within the unsup- 
ported or valved portion of the internal membrane, which is transpa- 
rent ; and I now find for the first time a very delicate pellucid mem- 
brane lining the whole cavity of the sporule, and having the cells 
which give the appearance just mentioned either lying on its exter- 
nal surface or forming that jDortion of it which lies beneath the valves. 
From the appearances and impossibility of separating the cells from 
the membrane 1 am inclined to believe that the cavity formed by this 
membrane is completed by the cells, or, in other words, that the 
sac is partly membranous and partly cellular. It is possible that 
this last described membrane may exist before germination begins, 
not^withstanding the numerous unsuccessful dissections which I 
have made to discover it, the failure being owing to its extreme de- 
licacy ; but I am pretty well satisfied that it is a product of germi- 
nation, because I have not the slightest difiiculty in demonstrating 
it after that has commenced, nor is there the sUghtest trace of it in 
any stage of the development of the sporule. However this may be, it 
is quite certain that fresh cells are gradually formed on the external 
surface of the cellular part of the sac, and that the valves of the 
third membrane are very soon ruptured and gradually turned back 
by the growth and protrusion of this button-like cellular germ. 
The enlarging cellular mass then distends the conical projection, 
unfolding the plicae of that body, and at length appears externally, 
with four of its cells projecting beyond the general mass and com- 
pressed into a quadrangular form, I fancy by the pressure of the apex 
of the cone, the aperture in which is quadrangular. These projecting 
cells soon harden and acquire a reddish brown hue, and iu the ad- 
vanced stage of germination ajjpear like a brown quadrangular space, 
which I should have little hesitation in referring to the above cause 

24 Linnean Society. [March 19, 

did I not find several similar spaces on the germinating sporules of 
Isoetes lacustris, which I could not refer to such an origin : it must 
be observed however that I have not seen the earlier stages of germi- 
nation in Isoetes. Soon after the exposure of the entire germ, which 
is effected by the reflexion of the valves and conical membrane over 
the side of the sporule, where they lie quite concealed by the germ, 
little fibrillse or rootlets begin to shoot from one side. They are 
simply articulated tubes or elongated cells applied end to end wdth 
frequently a bulbous extremity, and each is produced from one of 
the cells of the germ. They differ much in length in different 
sporules ; in some they are not longer than the sporule, whilst in 
others they are three or four times that length, and, in common with 
the cells of the germ, contain granules which in these are colourless 
but in the germ green. The cluster-like appearance of the cells 
which form the germ, soon after the appearance of these fibrillse be- 
gin to change, the cells becoming flatter and more intimately con- 
nected with each other. At the same time an internal change is taking 
place, for by a gradual arching or receding upwards of that part of 
the germ which closes the cavity of the sporule the germ becomes 
hollow, the hollow communicating with the cavity of the sporule, 
which is of course proportionably enlarged. The germ now gra- 
dually points in two places, which are by no means fixed, but occur 
in various situations according to the position of the sporule in rela- 
tion to the light. The direction of the first leaf is generally in the 
direction of the axis of the sporule, or rather a little inclined, and 
that of the first root at right angles or lateral, but very soon chan- 
ghig to an opposite direction to that of the leaf. This would be the 
constant direction if the sporules were always left to themselves free 
from entanglements, on account of the peculiar structure of their 
outer coats ; the spongy fibro-cellular texture of the superior third 
of which, causing that end to be the most buoyant in the water, ex- 
poses the superior surface of the germ to the direct action of the 
light ; but as it cannot always happen that the sporules should be 
free, the direction of the leaf and root is sometimes quite the reverse, 
and at others both leaf and root are lateral, but proceeding from 
opposite sides of the germ. These two points gradually lengthen, 
and if dissected each will be found to consist of a closed sheath, con- 
taining in one instance the leaf, in the other the root in the form of 
a conical process like a finger in a glove. The young leaf, which is 
taper and its cells crowded with green granules, being in advance of 
the root, which is obtuse and destitute of green granules, bursts 
through the summit of its sheath when it has become rather longer 

1839.] Linnean Society. 25 

than the sporule, whilst the root, although more backward in its de- 
velopment, pierces its sheath before it is as long as the sporule. The 
sheaths are not distinct, but communicate with each other ; and the 
only point of connexion between the sheath (there being in fact but 
one) and the germ is around its base close to the sporule, so that 
nearly the whole of the germ is inclosed in this sheath. Besides 
this sheath wliich embraces the upper part of the root, there is an 
exceedingly delicate expansion, which so closely embraces the ex- 
tremity of the root like a cap, that it is only by a careful examina- 
tion that it can be discovered. I am not aware that this has ever had 
any connexion with the sheath through which the root bursts, but, 
on the contrary, I believe it to be a distinct formation. After the 
leaf has grown many times the length of the sporule, or about 2 
lines long, another leaf grows from the germ close to the first, to 
which it is in all respects similar, and then a bud begins to be de- 
veloped from some indefinite part of the germ, but like the leaves 
and root from within the sheath, which is now frequently much lace- 
rated. This bud is covered by a peculiar kind of jointed hairs, whose 
attachments are lateral, at a short distance from their bases, and 
they contain a few colourless granules. This bud sometimes appears 
after the first leaf, in which case there is no second primordial leaf 
formed, and is the rudimentary stem, the first growth from it being 
a leaf which exhibits, although in a small degree, the first evidence 
of gyration, and shortly after a root which is furnished with its own 
sheath. As I have not seen more advanced specimens, I am unable 
to describe the succeeding steps; but as, up to this j^oint, my obser- 
vations were made upon several hundred examples, I may safely 
affirm that the instances were sufficiently numerous for my purpose. 
All the leaves after the primordial ones, or those which grow direct 
from the germ, are developed in a similar manner to ferns, and even 
the running stem partakes in a slight degree of the same gyrate evo- 
lution. The roots are all formed in sheaths, through the apices of 
which they ultimately burst ; the sheath continuing to embrace the 
base of the root, whilst a distinct and far more delicate sheath 
closely embraces its point. Transverse sections of the stem, root, 
and leaves show them all to be hollow with the cavity divided longi- 
tudinally into separate channels. In the stem these longitudinal par- 
titions are about fifteen or sixteen in number, and in the leaf and 
root they are about ten or twelve, which in the latter are arranged 
in pairs. These partitions radiate from a central column of enlarged 
cells which surround a bundle of minutely dotted ducts that may be 
unrolled spirally, and the channels between these partitions are fre- 

26 Linnean Society. [March 19, 

quently divided by transverse partitions or diaphragms. The cells 
which form these partitions are curiously arranged — they are flat- 
tened on t^o opposite sides, and connected vrith each other by their 
narrow sides and extremities, but only at intervals, so that tl\ere are 
numerous holes formed which afford a free communication between 
all the channels. In the partitions of the root the intervening holes 
are so large in proportion to the breadth of the cells that these have 
the appearance of a string of beads. Another peculiarity of the 
root is, that, in addition to the diaphragms formed of this tissue, 
which are also found in the stem and leaf, a peculiar body is fre- 
quently met with occupying a similar position to the diaphragms. 
These bodies (for they are sometimes numerous) are each formed of 
one or more cylindrical cells coiled up in a gyrate manner. They 
grow from the angle formed by the partition and the cuticle, and 
are developed subsequent to the other tissue, for they may be found 
in various stages of advancement in the same root. Their nature I 
have not been able to ascertain. 

The author then proceeds to describe the development of the spo- 
rules. A transverse section of the involucrum when about the size 
of a small pin's head shows it to consist of four integuments, con- 
tainins' a mass of very delicate spongy compressible cellular tissue, 
subdivided into four equal triangular portions by four lines radiating 
from the centre. In the centre of each of these portions is a cavity, 
and projecting into each of these cavities are a number of nipple- 
like processes which are attached in each cavity to a common recep- 
tacle, whUst this again is connected with an open rigid cellular 
tissue that lies between the spongy tissue before described and the 
involucrum, and serves as a connexion between the two. As the 
involucrum advances, the spongy tissue recedes all round the four 
cavities, which consequently become larger and afford more space 
for the growth of the nipple-like processes. This recession of the 
spongy tissue is not caused by the pressure of the growing pro- 
cesses, for it is frequentiy in advance of them ; but it is produced by 
a gradual condensation inherent to the tissue around the cavities 
and along the radiating dividing lines, which, in fact, are nothing 
more than this condensation, which at maturity is so complete that 
the whole of the spongy tissue is condensed into four dissepiments, 
dividing the cavity of the involucrum into four equal loculi. The 
nipple-like processes are found upon a careful examination to be 
hollow sacs with obscurely cellular walls — those which occupy the 
lowest part of the involucrum being considerably in advance of the 
upper ones. These sacs contain a quantity of grumous matter, and 

1S39.] Linnean Society. 27 

a number, j>erhaps about ten, of soft rather opake pulpy bodies, 
which are evidently compounded of four closely connected parts so 
placed on each other as to form a cone with a triangular base. 

April -2. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Henry Bingley, Esq., Queen's Assay Master, Royal Mint ; Joseph 
Dickinson, M.B., Lecturer on Botany at the Philosophical Institu- 
tion, Liverpool : George Everett, Esq., Clapham ; and John Miers, 
Esq., Chelsea, were elected Fellows of the Society. 

Mr. Owen read a Paper on a New Species of the genus Lepido- 
siren of Fitzinger and Natterer. The author commenced by advert- 
ing to the first announcement of that anomalous animal, the Lepido- 
siren paradoxa, as the type of a new genus of Perenmbr3.nchiate 
Reptiles by Fitzinger at the meeting of the German naturalists at 
Prague in 1S37, and to its subsequent description by its discoverer 
Dr. Natterer, the well-known South American traveller. 

With the generic characters assigned by these able German na- 
turalists to their Lepidosiren, the species described by Mr. Owen 
folly and closely agreed ; but it differed specifically in the greater 
relative length of the head and nidimental extremities, and its much 
smaller size. 

Mr. Owen observed, that since the time of the discovery of the 
Ontithorlit/nchus there had not been submitted to naturalists a spe- 
cies which proved more strongly the necessity of a knowledge of its 
whole organization, both external and internal, in order to arrive at 
a correct view of its real nature and affinities, than did the LepidosireA, 
and as he had felt a reluctance to bring before the Society an in- 
complete description, which might only have served to raise new 
doubts in the minds of naturalists vi-ith regard to this animal, he had 
deferred since June 1S37 the completion and communication of the 
present paper. He had however at that time prepared a brief descrip- 
tion of the specific characters of the specimen in question, under 
the name of Protopterus, and. had referred it in the Catalogue of the 
Museum of the CoUege of Surgeons to the Class of Fishes, on ac- 
count of its scaly covering and the condition of its nostrils as plicated 
sacs, and to the abdominal family of the Maiaeopterygian order 
of that class, in which it seemed to present an extreme modification 

28 Linriean Society. [April 2, 

or rudimental condition of the fins indicative of a transition from the 
abdominal to the apodal families. 

The anatomical details which formed the principal part of the pre- 
sent communication, confirmed the propriety of referring the Lepi- 
dosiren to the class of fishes ; but they also led, Mr. Owen observed, 
to a considerable extension in his original views of its affinities in 
that class. 

A minute description was then given of the external characters 
and peculiarities of the present species, which differed from the Le- 
pidosiren paradox a in the greater relative length of the head and ru- 
dimental fins as compared with that of the trunk ; and in its general 
size, which is three-fourths smaller. 

The chief peculiarities of the skeleton consist in its imperfect, or 
rather partial ossification, and in the green colour of the ossified 
paits ; in which it resembles that of the gar-pike (Belone vulgaris) . 
The parts which continue permanently in the cartilaginous condition 
are the petrous elements of the temporal bones containing the acoustic 
labyrinth, a portion of the articular pedicle of the lower jaw, the 
branchial arches, and the bodies of the vertebrae : these, moreover, are 
not separated to correspond with the neurapophyses and ribs, as in 
Plagiostomous Cartilaginous Fishes, but retain their primitive con- 
fluent condition as around continuous chord, extending from the oc- 
ciput to the end of the tail : this vertebral chord consists of an ex- 
ternal firm, elastic, yellowish capsule, enveloping a softer subgelati- 
nous material, as in the Cyclostomous Fishes. The corresponding 
parts or basilar elements of the cranial vertebrae were ossified : and 
Mr. Owen then entered upon a detailed description of the skull. 

The ribs are thirty-six pairs, and consist of short, slightly curved, 
slender styles, encompassing, with the spine, about one-sixth part of 
the cavity of the abdomen. These ribs are attached to the lower part 
of the side of the fibrous sheath of the central vertebral chord ; their 
pointed free extremities are cemented to the intermuscular ligaments. 
The superior spines are throughout separated from the neurapo- 
physes, and these are not anchylosed together at their upper extre- 
mities. Haemapophyseal spines are developed in the caudal region, 
and both these and the neurapophyseal spines have articulated to 
them dermo-osseous spines, of equal length, with their distal extre- 
mities expanded, and supporting the transparent elastic horny raj^s 
of the caudal fin. The rudimental filiform pectoral and ventral 
fins were supported each by a single cartilaginous ray composed of 
many joints. 

The muscles of the head, jaws, hyoid and branchial apparatus 

1839.] Linnean Society. 

were then described : the muscular system of the body caJnsists of 
subvertical layers of oblique fibres separated at brief inti^rvals by 
aponeurotic intersections. 

The following peculiarities of the Digestive system were then 
pointed out ; — two long, slightly curved, slender, sharp-pointed 
teeth project from the intermaxillary bones, which are moveable. 
The upper maxillary bones support each a single dental plate divi- 
ded into three cutting lobes, by two oblique notches entering from 
the outer side : the lower jaw is armed with a single dental plate si- 
milarly modified, the produced cutting edges fitting into the notches 
above : these maxillary teeth somewhat resemble the dental plate of 
the extinct Ceratodus of Agassiz. The fleshy and sensitive parts of 
the tongue are more developed than in fishes generally. The jaws 
are adapted to minutely divide and comminute alimentary substances; 
the pharyngeal opening is contracted ; the entrance to the pharynx 
guarded by a soft semicircular valvular process. Gullet short, straight, 
narrow, but longitudinally plicated. Stomach simple, straight, with 
thick walls, in capacity corresponding with the oesophagus ; termi- 
nating by a valvular pylorus projecting with a scalloped margin into 
the intestine. No pancreas or spleen. Liver well-developed, partly 
divided into two lobes. A gall-bladder, and large ductus choledochus, 
opening by a valvular termination close to the pylorus. Intestine 
round, straight, at first of equal diameter with the stomach, but gra- 
dually contracting to the vent, with thick parietes ; traversed inter- 
nally by a spiral valve describing six gyrations ; the first of which is 
the longest. 

The respiratory organs consist of branchiae, and a double elon- 
gated air-bladder, with the usual vascular and cellular structure of 
the lungs of a reptile. 

The branchice consist of elongated, sub-compressed, soft, pendu- 
lous filaments, attached to cartilaginous branchial arches ; these 
arches are not joined together, or to the os hyoides by an interme- 
diate chain of cartilages or bones below, nor are they articulated to 
the cranium above. There are six branchial arches on each side, 
and five intervals for the passage of the water from the mouth to the 
branchial sac. All the branchial arches do not support branchial 
filaments ; but only the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth. The first and 
last branchial arches each support a single row, the fourth and fifth 
each a double row of branchial filaments. The second and third 
branchial arches have their full proportions, but offer not the slight- 
est trace of gills. The branchial sac is pretty large, and opens ex- 
ternally by a small vertical fissure immediately anterior to the ru- 
dimental pectoral extremities. 

30 L'mnean Society. [A])nl 2, 

The heart is situate below the oesophagus, in a strong pei-icardium ; 
it consists of a single auricle and ventricle and a contorted bulbus 
arteriosus, with a longitudinal valvular process as in the Siren. The 
two branchial arteries, which wind round the gill-less arches, after- 
wards unite together on each side, and give oif branches which form 
the pulmonary arteries, or those which go to the air-bladders. 

The apparatus for aerial respiration commences by a short, single, 
wide and membranous trachea, or ductus pneumaticvs, which com- 
mences by a longitudinal laryngeal slit, one line in extent, situated 
three lines behind the orifice of the pharynx : a single plate of car- 
tilage is continued from this laryngeal opening forwards to that of 
the pharynx : the plate is as broad as the floor of the pharynx, and 
its office seems to be to prevent the collapse of the parietes of that 
tube, and to keep a free passage for the air to the trachea. This tube 
dilates at its lower end into a sac with very thin parietes, which com- 
municates directly with each division or lobe of the air-bludder. 
These lobes or lungs are partially subdivided into small lobes at their 
anterior and broadest part ; and then continue simple and flattened, 
gradually diminishing to an obtuse point situated behind the poste- 
rior extremity of the cloaca. The whole of the parietes of the lungs 
is honey-combed : the cells are largest, deepest and most vascular 
and subdivided at the anterior and broader end of the lung. The 
lungs are situated behind the ovaria, the ladneys, and the perito- 
neum, which is in contact with merely that part of their ventral 
flattened surfaces, not covered by other viscera. 

The two kidneys are quite distinct, very long and narrow, but 
broadest towards the cloaca : the ureters communicate with the back 
part of the common termination of the oviducts. There were not 
any suprarenal bodies, nor any spleen. 

The ovaria are two long, flattened bodies, with ovisacs and ova of 
diflFerent sizes : many between 2 and 3 lines in diameter, scattered 
among clusters of other ova of smaller size. The oviducts are distinct 
tortuous tubes, which commence by a veiy wide and thin-coated 
portion, opening by a slit, 3 lines wide at their anterior extremity, 
and not communicating with each other before opening into the pe- 
ritoneal cavity, as in the Plagiostomes. The oviduct contracts and 
performs many short undulations, adhering to the ovarian capsule 
as it descends : its coats become thicker, and oblique spiral folds are 
developed from the inner surface ; the capacity of the oviduct in- 
creases before its termination, which is by a single prominent open- 
ing, common to the two oviducts in the posterior part of the cloaca. 

A small Allantois is situated between the oviduct and rectum. 
The cloaca receives the above parts in the following order,- — first, or 

1839.] Linnean Society. 31 

most anteriorly, the common opening of the peritoneal canals ; se- 
condly, the anus ; thirdly, the Allantoid bladder ; fourthly, the ovi- 
ducts, with the ureters, which open into the back part of the ovi- 

The brain consists of two elongated subcompressed distinct cere- 
bral hemispheres ; a single elliptical optic lobe, or representative of 
the bigeminal bodies ; a simple transverse cerebellar fold, not cover- 
ing the widely- open fourth ventricle ; largely developed pineal and 
pituitary glands ; and a single corpus mammillare. 

The nerves given off from the brain, were the olfactory ; the optic, 
which arose from the same point at the middle line between the 
crura cerebri, and did not decussate ; the fifth pair ; the acoustic ; the 
pneumogastric ; and lingual nerves : there were no traces of the third, 
fourth, or sixth nerves ; there being no muscles to the eyeballs. 

The eyes are very small, and adhere to the skin, Avhich passes over 
them without forming any projection ; they have a small spherical 
lens, and no choroid gland. 

The organ of hearing consists of a vestibule enclosed in a thick 
cartilaginous case, without external communication except for the 
foramina transmitting the poriio mollis : it consists of two large 
otolithic sacs, containing each a white chalky mass ; the external one 
being six times the size of the one next the brain : above these sacs 
are three small semicircular canals. No trace of tympanic cavity or 
Eustachian tube. 

The organ of smell consists of two oval membranous sacs, pli- 
cated internally, and having each a single external aperture upon 
the upper lip ; but without any communication with the mouth, — a 
structure which the author observed was perhaps the only single 
character which unexceptionably proved the Lepidosiren to be a true 
fish. The remaining evidence of its ichthyic nature reposed rather 
upon the concurrence of many less decisive characters. 

These characters were stated to be, its covering of large round 
scales ; the mucous ducts of the head and lateral line ; the many- 
jointed soft ray supporting the rudimental pectoral and ventral fins ; 
the gelatinous vertebral chord, united anteriorly to the whole of the 
basi- occipital, and not to two condyles as in Batrachia ; a prae- 
opercular bone, the intermaxillary bone being moveable ; the lower 
jaw having each ramus composed simply of a post-mandibular and 
dentary piece ; the double row of spinous processes, both above and 
below the vertebral chord ; the green colour of the ossified parts of 
the skeleton ; the straight intestine, with its spiral valve ; the absence 
of pancreas and spleen ; the single peritoneal outlet ; the position 

32 Limiean Society. [April \Q, 

of the anus ; the single auricle of the heart ; the number of branchial 
arches, and the internal position of the gills ; a long lateral nerve ; 
acoustic labyrinth with large otolithes. These characters, with the 
nasal sacs opening only externally, prove satisfactorily the Lepido- 
siren to be a true Fish, and not a Perennibranchiate Reptile. 

In the class of fishes, Mr. Owen pointed out the interesting rela- 
tions of the Lepidosircn as a link connecting the Cartilaginous fishes 
with the Malacopterygians, and especially with the Sauroid genera, 
Polypterus and Lepidosteus, and at the same time making the near- 
est approach in the class of fishes to the Perennibranchiate Reptiles. 

For the species here described Mr. Owen proposed the name of 
Lepidosiren annectens. It is a native of the river Gambia, Africa. 

April 16. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Read, " Remarks on British Lichens and Fungi, principally on 
species or varieties new to our Flora." By Churchill Babington, 

The object of Mr. C. Babington in this paper is to give descrip- 
tions of some species or varieties of Lichens and Fungi hitherto un- 
published in any British Flora, and also to communicate observa- 
tions on the transit of monstrosities to their proper forms. The 
Lichens brought into notice as not yet introduced into the British 
Flora are, Lecanora elatina, Ach., from Rose Hall, Cumberland; 
Sterocaulon denudatum, Florke, (confounded with S. paschale) from 
Scotland ; Lecidea nitidula. Fries, also from Scotland ; Lecidea mis- 
cella, Ach., as distinct from L. miscella, Eng. Bot. ; Biatora Kro- 
ckiana, Hoppe, from Isles of Rum and Skye ; Biatora anomala, Fr., 
from Yoxall Lodge ; Opegrapha signata, Ach., from Herefordshire ; 
and Verrucaria margacea, Wahl., from Charnwood Forest. Among 
the Fungi are, Agaricus Maria, Klotsch ; A. serrulatus, Fr. ; The- 
lophora ferruginea, Pers. ; T. lactea, Fr. : T. Icevis, Pers. ; Peziza 
I,edi, Alb. and Schw. ; Stictis lichenicola, Mont. ; Sclerotium ro- 
seum, KneifF. ; Sphceria scoriadea, Fr. ; -S. mesiota, Bab. ; S. rhy- 
tismoides, Bab. ; S. arbuticola, Fr. ; S. alnea, Fr. ; S. ostruthii, Fr. ; 
iS. Depazea, Fr. ; Depazea pyricola, Desm. ; Dothidea choetomium, 
Kunze ; Stemonitis pulchella, Bab. ; Stilbum aurantiacum, Bab. ; Syzy- 
gitis megalocarpus, Ehrenb. ; Stibospora macrosperma, Pers. ; Conio- 
thecium amentaceum, Corda ; and Xenodochus carbonarius, Schl, 

1839.] Linnean Society. 33 

Read, " On a Gall gathered in Cuba, by W. S. Maclieay, Esq., 
on the leaf of a plant belonging to the order OchnacecB." By the 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., F.L.S. 

The gall is remarkable for its very close resemblance in habit and 
form to some epiphytous Fungi, for possessing a distinct operculum, 
and, especially, for bursting through the cuticle, which surrounds it 
in the form of a few lacinise at the base. Mr. Berkeley pointed out 
various forms of galls and other productions of insects which have 
been described as Fungi, but in none is the resemblance so striking 
as in the present. He regretted that he was not able to throw any 
light upon the animal by which it is caused, though he was able to 
state positively that it is an animal production, as in most instances 
decayed exuviae were found in its cavity, and in one case a little im- 
perfect grub, which was however unfortunately lost. 

May 7. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

John Hawkins, M.D., of St. Albans, was elected a Fellow ; and 
Carl Gustav Carus, M.D., of Dresden, Henri Dutrochet, M.D., and 
Henri Milne Edwards, M,D., Members of the French Institute, 
Stephen Endlicher, M.D., of Vienna, and John Torrey, M.D., of 
New York, were elected Foreign Members of the Society. 

Read, " Supplementary Observations on the Development of the 
Theca, and on the Sexes of Mosses." In a letter to R. H. Solly, 
Esq., F.R.S. & L.S. By William Valentine, Esq., F.L.S. 

The author commences his letter by stating that subsequent ob- 
servations have induced him to concur entirely with the views of 
Professor Mohl as to the sporules of Mosses being developed by four 
in a mother cell, a fact which he was led to doubt in his former com- 
munication printed in the 17th volume of the Society's Transactions. 
The present paper contains a detailed account of the development 
of the theca in CEdipodium Griffithianum, which exhibits a beau- 
tiful example of the tetrahedral union of the sporules. In this moss 
the four sporules in each mother cell are piled on each other so as to 
form a cone with a triangular base, and they appear to be connected 
with each other in the young state by a very minute stalk which is 
situated at the conjunction of three radiating lines. This connexion 

No. IV. — ^Pboceedings of the Linnean Society. 

34 Linnean Society. [May 24 

is perhaps in most instances dissolved at an early period, and the 
sporules recede a little from each other, but are still kept in the tri- 
angular form by the mother cell. It is not uncommon however to 
find the connexion unbroken after the sporules have arrived at ma- 
turity, and in these instances there seems to be a general adhesion 
at the opposing faces of the sporules. 

The author concludes his paper with some remarks on the analogy 
that exists between sporules and pollen, which he observes, is so re- 
markable, and the particulars so numerous, that the essential identity 
of the two can be scarcely a matter of opinion. 

May 24. 
The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

This day, the Anniversary of the birthday of Linnaeus, and that 
appointed in the charter for the election of Council and Officers, the 
President opened the business of the Meeting, and in stating the 
number of Members whom the Society had lost during the past year, 
gave the following notices of some of them : 

Samuel Brookes, Esq. — Mr. Brookes was devoted to the science of 
Conchology, and possessed a valuable collection of British and Fo- 
reign Testacea. He was the author of an Introduction to the Study 
of Conchology which appeared in 1815. 

The Rev. Martin Davy, D.D., F.R.S., Master of Caius College, 

The Rev. Richard Dreyer, LL.B. 

John Lord Farnham. 

Charles Holford, Esq. 

Lawrence Brock Hollinshead, Esq. 

John Hull, M.D. — Dr. Hull was ardently attached to the study of 
Botany, and in the midst of an extensive medical practice, he found 
occasional moments of leisure to devote to the cultivation of his 
favourite pursuit. "We are indebted to him for the publication of a 
British Flora in 1799, of which a second edition appeared in 1808 ; 
and the Elements of Botany, in 2 volumes, 8vo, in 1800. These 
works, highly creditable to their author, tended to increase the taste 
for botanical pursuits. 

1839.] Linnean Society. 35 

Matthew Martin, Esq. — Mr. Martin reached the advanced age of 
90, He became a Fellow of this Society in 1791. 

George Milne, Esq. — Mr. Milne pursued with much ardour the 
study of Entomology for more than half a century, and his name is 
familiar to the cultivators of that branch of science in this country^ 
He possessed an extensive cabinet of insects, particularly rich in Bri- 
tish and Exotic Lepidoptera. He had retired from London for several 
years to his native place Johnshaven, Kincardineshire, where he died 
some months ago at an advanced age. 

The Rev. Robert Nixon, B.D., F.R.S. 

William Younge, M.D. — Dr. Younge was the early friend and a 
fellow student of our late distinguished President and Founder Sir 
J. E. Smith, and the companion of his tour on the continent in the 
years 1786 and 1787, of which an account appeared in three volumes 
8vo, in 1793, and a second edition in 1807. Dr. Younge was elected 
a Fellow of this Society at its first institution in March 1788. 

Amongst the Foreign Members occur M. Frederic Cuvier, Mem- 
ber of the Academy of Sciences of the French Institute, the younger 
brother of the great Cuvier, and eminently distinguished as a system- 
atic zoologist. He was the author of a work on the value of the 
teeth as affording zoological characters in the class mammalia, and 
of a number of valuable papers on Descriptive Zoology in the An- 
nales and Memoires du Museum. He likewise wrote the principal 
part of the text to the Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes, a work 
which he had undertaken in conjunction with Geoffroy St. Hilaire. 
Among his last productions may be noticed his Memoire sur les Ger- 
boises et les Gerbilles, printed in the second volume of the Transac- 
tions of the Zoological Society of London. He was distinguished, 
like his brother, for his candour and frankness of character, and a total 
freedom from those petty jealousies which too often beset men of 

M. Charles de Gimbernat. 

Gaspard Count Sternberg, Founder and President of the Royal 
Museum of Natural History at Prague, a distinguished patron of 
science, and author of a valuable original work on Fossil Plants, 
which were chiefly obtained from his own coal ndnes in Bohemia, 
and of an excellent Monograph of the genus Saxifraga, illustrated 
by coloured figures. To him we are indebted for the recovery of the 
vegetable treasures collected by Hsenke in Peru, Cochabamba, and in 
the Phihppines, whither he had accompanied the Spanish voyage of 
discovery under the celebrated, but unfortunate, Malaspina. ITiese 
interesting plants have been published by Presl, under the auspices 

36 Linnean Society. [June 4, 

of Count Sternberg, in a work entitled ' Reliquiae Haenkeanse.' 
Count Sternberg was distinguished for his mrbanity, hospitality, and 
an eager desire to promote every useful work. He left his collections 
and books of Natural History to the Museum already mentioned. 

Among the Associates are the following : 

Mr. John Hunneman. — Mr. Hunneman having been long the me- 
dium of communication between the botanists of this country and 
those of Germany, Switzerland, and Russia, our collections have 
been enriched through his means with a vast variety of new and in- 
teresting plants, A curious Mexican genus, belonging to the natural 
family Papaveracea, bears his name, and commemorates the services 
rendered by him to science. 

Mr. George Penny. — He was well acquainted with the plants 
which he successfully cultivated, and was the author of the ' Hortus 
Epsomensis', and of several papers on Garden Botany in Mr. Loudon's 
Gardener's Magazine. 

Mr. William Weston Young made the drawings for Mr. Dillwyn's 
valuable work on British Confervse, and a series of drawings of Bri- 
tish birds now in the possession of Mr. Yarrell. 

The President also announced that twenty Fellows, five Foreign 
Members, and two Associates had been elected since the last An- 

At the election, which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop of 
Norwich was re-elected President ; Edward Forster, Esq., Treasurer ; 
Francis Boott, M.D., Secretary; and Richard Taylor, Esq., Under- 
Secretary. The following five Fellows were elected into the Council 
in the room of others going out, viz. W. J. Burchell, Esq., J. W. 
Lubbock, Esq., Hugh Duke of Northumberland, John Forbes Royle, 
M.D., and William Yarrell, Esq. 

June 4. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V.P. in the Chair. 

Mr. George William Francis was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

Read, " Further Observations on the Spongillafluviatilis, with some 
remarks on the nature of the Spongia Marina." In a letter to the 
Secretary, by John Hogg, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

1839.] Linnean Society. 37 

In the latter portion of this letter the author endeavours (in addi- 
tion to what has been already stated at p, 8,) to demonstrate the ve- 
getability of the river sponge, from the following facts, which were 
obtained by many experiments made by him upon that substance 
during the last two summers. 

1 . From the general resemblance of the membrane which invests 
the soft portion or jelly with the membrane or cuticle of the leaves 
of many plants. 

2. From this gelatinous or soft portion being so similar to the 
parenchymatous substance of the more fleshy kinds of leaves, and 
being chiefly composed of numerous pellucid globules. 

3. From the green colouring matter or chromule contained in those 
globules, on being pressed out, giving a permanent green or yellow- 
ish-green colour to white paper, as is the case with the chromule of 

4. From strong acids having the same eff'ects on this sponge as 
they are seen to have upon plants when they are macerated in them. 

5. From the mode in which numerous bubbles of gas, most pro- 
bably oxygen, are disengaged from the surface of the living mass of 
Spongilla, when exposed to the brightest solar light, being so ex- 
tremely analogous to that which is known to occur with the leaves 
of a plant when immersed in water and submitted to the direct ac- 
tion of the light of the sun. 

As to the currents of water which take place in the Spongilla flu- 
viatilis, and are so similar to those which have been noticed by Dr. 
Grant and other authors in the sea sponges, and relied upon by them 
as the best evidence of their supposed animal nature, Mr. Hogg 
has, after many careful experiments, never been able to witness them 
taking place in any specimens which have been entirely destitute of 
every parasitical insect or other animal ; he therefore concludes that 
these currents are caused by some insect, which is seen so generally 
to inhabit nearly every specimen of the Spongilla ; and by means of 
the animal's performing the function of respiration, the streams or 
currents of water are found to enter into and flow out from the pores 
or oscules of that structure. But if on future investigation it shall 
be proved that these currents do occur in such individual masses 
of the Spongilla fluviatilis as are quite free from every parasite, Mr. 
Hogg would then consider that they are effected by the same agents 
as cause the motions or circulation of the fluids in vegetables. 

The author has not perceived any trace of animal organization, or 
the least symptom of sensation, or any powers of contraction and di- 
latation in this species of sponge, although he has applied to it, when 
in a fresh and vigorous state, several sorts of powerful stimuli. 

38 Linnean Society ^ [June 4, 

He next showed that no arguments in support of the fancied ani- 
mality of the Spongilla can be brought forward, either from its smell- 
ing like carrion or animal matter, or from numerous spiculae being 
present in its composition. And the manner in which he raised 
young Spongilla from the seed-like sporidia and locomotive sporules 
makes it perfectly conclusive that this freshwater sponge cannot be, 
as Montagu supposed, the nidus of some aquatic insect, although 
such an opinion might, without those successful experiments, have 
been somewhat confirmed by the author's discovery of an unknown 
and anomalous insect, which he has at present only observed inhabit- 
ing this production. Some specimens of this small insect were ex- 
hibited, and presented to the Society. 

Mr. Hogg concluded his letter with some general remarks on the 
nature of the Spongia marina. He stated that hitherto he had al- 
ways accounted these substances as being principally composed of 
an animate or live jelly, which was endowed, as some authors af- 
firmed, with a certain degree of sensation, and consequently had, 
fourteen years ago, instituted for them an order " Gelatinifera," 
which he arranged the last among the Polyparia Composita. That 
on becoming convinced by his late researches on the river sponge of 
its vegetability, he began in some measure to concur in the opinion 
of Montagu, that that substance might probably be quite distinct 
from the sea sponge, and to think that the latter might still be of an 
animal nature ; but, on a more recent examination and comparison 
of the Spongilla with many of the Spongia, he has found that there 
exist no real grounds for that opinion, and that there scarcely is even 
a generic difference between them. 

The author then compared the freshwater sponge with the sea 
sponge, and showed, among other extreme resemblances in their 
structure and composition, that many of the latter possess similar 
seed-like bodies or sporidia, as well as the locomotive germ-like bo- 
dies or sporules which have been described by Dr. Grant. 

Mr. Hogg concludes, if the currents of water do flow in and issue 
out from the sea sponge, independent of the function of respiration 
of any marine insect or parasitical animal nestling within it, that 
then they are caused by the same means which effect the motions of 
fluids in plants, and that these currents convey nutriment to the in- 
ner parts of the sponge, after the same manner as food is supplied 
to vegetables. He observed that neither the odours of the fresh, 
dried, and burnt sponges, nor the presence of ammonia in them, af- 
forded proofs of their animality, and that there really is no more pe- 
culiarity in their chemical composition than what likewise exists in 
that of certain plants. 

1839.] Linnean Society. 39 

Mr. Hogg therefore maintains it to be impossible to account the 
Spongilla as belonging to the vegetable kingdom and the Spongia 
to the animal ; and since he has become sure of the former, and since 
the Spongia is now known to possess neither one organ nor a single 
property peculiar to an animal, he has been at length forced to ac- 
knowledge the vegetable nature of the Spongia. 

Moreover, the fact of Dr. Grant having witnessed the locomotive 
sporules of some of the sea sponges germinating and developing 
themselves after the forms of their parent structures, at once decides 
that they cannot be the nidus or matrix, or the fabrication or produc- 
tion of any marine animal. 

Lastly, Mr. Hogg, considering to what order of plants the fresh- 
water and the sea sponges should be referred, proposed to classify 
them in a separate order " Spongiae," which ought to be placed 
between the orders Fungi and Algae. 

June 18. 

Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

The Secretary read a letter addressed to him by the President no- 
minating the four following Members of the Council to be Vice-Pre- 
sidents for the year ensuing, commencing the 24th of last month, viz. 

Robert Brown, Esq. ; Edward Forster, Esq. ; Thomas Horsfield, 
M.D. ; Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq. 

The V. P., in the chair, read a notice, addressed to the Society 
from Upsal, announcing the death of Louisa von Linne, the third and 
last surviving daughter of Linnaeus, which took place at Upsal, on 
the 21st of March last, at the very advanced age of 90. 

Read " A Biographical Sketch of Ferdinand Bauer, Natural Hi- 
story Painter to the Expedition under Capt. Flinders." By Dr. John 
Lhotsky. Communicated by the Secretary. 

Ferdinand Bauer, the celebrated Natural History Painter and Tra- 
veller, was bom in the year 1760, at Feldsberg in Austria, where 
his father held the appointment of Painter to Prince Lichtenstein. 

In the year 1775 we find him employed by the Rev. Norbert 

40 lAnnenn Society » [June 18, 

Boccius, of the same place, to make miniature paintings of plants 
from nature. 

In 1784, while still in the same employment, he was through the 
recommendation of the elder Jacquin engaged by Dr. Sibthorp to 
accompany him in his first Journey to Greece, and on his return he 
was for several years occupied in finishing the numerous drawings 
of plants made in that journey, and which prove him to have been, 
even at that period, a very accurate observer, as well as a highly ac- 
complished artist. 

In 1801 he was selected by Sir Joseph Banks as the Natural Hi- 
story Painter in the voyage of Capt. Flinders. From this expedition 
he returned to Europe in 1805, bringing with him no less than 1600 
finished sketches of plants, besides numerous drawings of animals, 
of equal merit, and for several years was engaged in finishing a se- 
lection of his drawings of plants, which are deposited at the Admi- 
ralty, the board by which he was employed. 

After the Investigator was condemned as unfit for the prosecution 
of the voyage, and Capt. Flinders had left New Holland to return to 
Europe, Mr. Bauer, along with Mr. Brown, remained in New South 
Wales, chiefly at Port Jackson ; but he also visited and remained a 
considerable time in Norfolk Island, where he diligently collected and 
made drawings of all the plants of that remarkable island, and from 
his materials Dr. Endlicher has lately published his very interesting 
' Prodromus Florae Norfolkiceae.' 

In 1813 Mr. Bauer commenced the publication of a work entitled 
' Illustrationes Florae Novae HoUandiae,' which did not extend beyond 
three numbers, and of these the last was finished at Vienna, where 
he had returned in 1814. This work met with very little encou- 
ragement, either in this country or in his own. 

In the vicinity of Vienna he continued to reside, employing him- 
self in drawing the more remarkable plants that flowered in the im- 
perial gardens of that capital, and even in making occasional bota- 
nical excursions into the Austrian and Styrian Alps. Besides the 
works already noticed, during his stay in England he prepared the 
greater part of the drawings of the first volume of Mr. Lambert's 
work on the genus Pinus, and the plates of that work were chiefly 
coloured by him. He also prepared a series of drawings of the spe- 
cies of Digitalis, which have since been published by Dr. Lindley, in 
his ' Digitalium Monographia.' 

Mr. Bauer was seized with a severe illness in 1825, which termi- 
nated in his death on the 17th of March 1826, having attained the 
age of 66. 

1839.] Linnean Society. 41 

Read, " A Notice of a Plant which produces perfect Seeds without 
any apparent action of Pollen on the Stigma." By Mr. John Smith, 

The subject of the present notice belongs to the natural family of 
Euphorbiacea, and has been cultivated for several years in the Royal 
Botanic Garden at Kew, under the name of Saphim aquifoUum. It 
is a native of Moreton Bay, on the east coast of New Holland, where 
it was discovered by Mr. AUan Cunningham, who sent three plants 
of it to Kew in 1829. A short time after their introduction the 
plants flowered, and they proving to be all females, they were na- 
turally passed over as belonging to a dioecious })lant, until Mr. 
Smith's attention was particularly drawn to them by the fact of their 
producing perfect seeds. They have annually flowered and matured 
their seeds since, and notwithstanding the most diligent search and 
constant attention no male flowers or any pollen-bearing organs have 
been detected. Young plants have been raised at diff'erent times 
from the seeds, and they bear so close a resemblance to their parents 
that it is scarcely possible even to suspect the access of pollen from 
any other plant. 

Mr. Smith considers the plant as the type of a new genus, which 
he names Conlebogyne . It forms an irregularly branched, rigid, ever- 
green shrub, of about three feet in height, with alternate, petiolate, 
elliptical, mucronate, coriaceous leaves, having three large spinous 
teeth on each side, and furnished with two small subulate persistent 
stipules. The paper was accompanied by a young plant raised from 
seed produced at Kew, and by a beautiful drawing of the parts of 
fructification from the pencil of ]\Ir. Francis Bauer. 

Read also, " Descriptions of newly discovered Spiders." By John 
Blackwall, Esq., F.L.S. 

This paper comprises descriptions of new species of Spiders, re- 
cently discovered, and principally by the author himself, in the north 
of England and Wales, and it must be confessed that the success 
which has attended his labours in this department is greater than 
could have been anticipated, no fewer than fifty-three species having 
been added by him to the catalogue. Much of tliis success is to be 
attributed to the fact of his attention having been chiefly directed 
to those species which, on account of their diminutive size, require 
the aid of optical instruments, of a high magnifjing power, for their 
accurate examination. 

The genera to which the species chiefly belong are Drassus, CIu- 
biona,Lycosa,Agelena, Theridmn, JValckenaera, Neriene and Linyphia. 

No. V. — Proceedings of the Linneax Society. 

42 Linnean Society. [Nov. 5, 

November 5. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Society assembled this evening for the Session. 
Beriah Botfield, Esq., of Norton Hall, Northampton, was elected 
a Fellow of the Society. 

The Rev. William Wood, B.D., F.L.S., exhibited specimens of a 
variety of Typha angustifolia, remarkable for its small size, and the 
shortness of its female catkins, collected by him in the extensive 
marshes situate between Sandwich and Deal. 

Read, " Descriptions of some new Insects collected in Assam, by 
William Griffith, Esq., Assistant Surgeon in the Madras Medical 
Service." By the Rev. F. W. Hope, M.A., F.R.S. & L.S. 

The insects described in this paper, some of which are remarkable 
for their size and splendid colours, were mostly collected in Assam 
by Mr. Griffith, during the stay of the late Scientific Mission from 
Calcutta, to which he was attached. They chiefly belong to the 
longicom beetles, and to the family of Lamiadce. The following are 
the characters of the new genera and species : 

1. L. Horsfieldii. 

Long. lin. 26 ; lat. lin. S^. 

Corpus cinereum ; antennis corpore longioribus elytrisque flavo-creta- 

ceis maculisque ornatis, antennae articulis tribus priniis subscabris. 

This species, which has been named in compliment to Dr. Hors- 
field, is the largest of the family, and is nearly related to L. catenata 
of De Haan from Japan. 


Corpus subdepressum. Antennce lamiasformes, fere ut in OmacanthS. 
Thorax utrinque spinosus, dovso punctulatus. Elytra depressa, api- 
cibus 2-spinosis, spina suturali minora, lateraJibus majoribus. In re- 
liquis cum Lamia convenit. 

1. E.polyspila. 

Besides the one enumerated, the author possesses five other species, 
all natives of India, and which are still undescribed. 


Cfl;?M< fere quadratum. M andibulce iaXciiormes. ^w<e«n<E corpore paulld 
longiores, articulis basi pallidis. Thorax utrinque armatus, dorso for- 


1839.] Linnean Society. 43 

titer rugoso, tuberculo in medio disci posito. Elytra thorace 4-pI6 lon- 
giora, basi sinuata, subscabra, gradatim e humeris ad apicem magni- 
tudine decrescentia, apicibus rotundatis. Corpus infra annulis abdo- 
minis ad apicem sensim attenuatis. Pectus valde convexum, mucrone 
armatum. Pedes difFormes et robusti. 
1. O.Sollii. 

This splendid species is dedicated to Richard Horsman Solly, 
Esq., F.R.S. & L.S., in whose cabinet the chief part of the insects 
described in this paper is contained. To the same genus belong 
Lamia punctata of Fabricius, and two undescribed Indian species. 


Caput quadratum. AntenncB corpore duplo longiores, ultimo articulo 
valde elongate. Thorax utrinque spinosus, medio depressus. Elytra 
antice et postice fere aequalia, apicibus rotundatis. Corpus infra squa- 
mosum, pectore inermi. Pedes difFormes et robusti. 

1. A. Stanley ana. 

This insect, distinguished for its brilliant colours, which rival those 
of some of the more splendid Lepidoptera, has been named in honour 
of the Lord Bishop of Norwich, President of the Linnean Society. 


1. C. Cantori. 

Long. lin. 21 ; lat. Hn, 5. 

Viride, nitidum ; antennis violaceis, femoribus tibiisque laete cyaneis tar- 
sisque aureo-ornatis. 

This species is named in compliment to Dr. Cantor, a distinguished 
zoologist in the service of the East India Company, and whose va- 
luable collection of Indian Reptilia and drawings are deposited in the 
RadclifFe Library at Oxford. 

2. C. Griffithil 

Long. lin. 20i ; lat. lin. 8. 

Obscure atrum ; antennis tarsisque luteis, elytris nigiis et flavo-fasciatis. 

This species is dedicated to its discoverer, an acute and enter- 
prising botanist, and author of two valuable memoirs on the deve- 
lopement of the ovulum of Santalum and Loranthus, printed in the 
18th Volume of the Society's Transactions. 

\. M. ruber. 

Long. lin. 1 1 ; lat. lin. 4§. 

Ruber ; antennis corpore duplo longioribus, thorace elytrisque nigro-ma- 
culatis, pedibus concoloribus. 

44 Linnean Society. [Nov. 19^ 

Read also, " On Cuscuta epilimtm and halophyta." By Charles C. 
Babington, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

The first of these species has been recently added to the British 
Flora by J. E. Bowman, Esq., F.L.S. , having been found by him 
growing abundantly on flax, near Trelydan Hall, Montgomeryshire, 
in August last. The other species, which occurs on the coast of 
Norway, growing upon Chenopodeee, has not been hitherto observed 
in this country. The author gives the following characters of the 
two plants : — 

1. C. epUinum (Weihe), flonim gloraerulis bracteatis sessilibus, squamis 
palmati-subsexfidis tubo coroUse semper ventricoso adpressis, sepalis 
carnosis basi deltoideis corolla vix brevioribus. 

2. halophyta (Fries), " floi-um glomerulis subbracteatis" sessilibus, squa- 
mis bifidis tubo corollas ventricoso adpressis : segmentis bifidis, calyce 
corolla multo brevioii. 

November 19. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

WiUiam Borrer, Jun., Esq., B.A., of St. Peter's College, Cam- 
bridge ; Richard Davis, Esq., of St. Helen's Place ; and Christopher 
Parsons, Esq., of South Church, Essex, were elected Fellows of the 

Read, " A Monograph of the genus Disporum." By D. Don, Esq., 
Libr. L.S., Prof. Bot. King's College. 

This genus was first suggested by Mr. Brown, in his ' Prodromus 
Florae NovseHollandiae'; and the name of Z)?5/)orMm was subsequently 
given to it by Salisbury in the first volume of the Transactions of 
the Horticultural Society of London. It remained, however, unde- 
scribed, and almost unnoticed, until the publication of the author's 
work on the plants of Nepal, in which a detailed description of the 
genus, and the characters of two additional species were given. 
The characters of the genus consist in its campanulate perianthium, 
with the sepals produced into a pouch or spur at the base, in the 
cells of its ovarium bearing two ovula, in its baccate pericarpium, 
and in its umbellate inflorescence. These distinctions will be found 
to be common to all the Asiatic species hitherto referred by most 

1839.] Linnean Society. 45 

botanists to Uvularia. We subjoin the characters of the species 
described in this paper : — 

1. D. calcaratum, umbellis pednnculatis sub-5-flovis, sepalis lanceolatis 
acutiiisculis basi longe calcaratis, antheris filameiitis stigmatibusque 
stylo triple longioribus, foliis ovato-lanceolatis sessilibus. 

Uvularia calcarata. Wall. Cat. n. 5087. 

2. D. WalUchii, umbellis subsessilibus siib-5-floris, sepalis lanceolatis 
acuminatis, calcaribus rectis abbreviatis, antberis filamentis 4-pl6 bre- 
vioribus, stylo stigmatibus longiore, foliis ovato-lanceolatis subpetio- 

Uvularia Hamiltoniaua, B. et C. Wall. Cat. n. 5088. 

3. D. Hamiltonianwn, imibellis pedunculatis sub-5-floris, sepalis lanceo- 
latis acutis, calcaribus abbreviatis recurvis, antberis filamentorum longi- 
tudine, stylo stigmatibus subsequali, foliis ovato-lanceolatis subpetio- 

Uvularia Hamiltoniana, A. Wall. Cat. n. 5088. 
U, Betua. Ham. MSS. 

4. D. Horsfieldii, umbellis pedunculatis sub-5-floris, sepalis spathulatis 
mucronatis puberulis, antheris filamentis duplo brevioribus, stylo stig- 
matibus duplo longiore, foliis ovato-lanceolatis subpetiolatis. 

Uvularia Hamiltoniana, D. Wall. Cat. n. 5088. 

5. D. Leschenaultianum, umbellis sessilibus 3 — 5-floris, sepalis ovato- 
lanceolatis acutis basi gibbosis, antberis filamentis vix duplo breviori- 
bus, stylo stigmatibus ter longiore, foliis ovatis subpetiolatis. 

Uvularia Leschenaultiana. Wall. Cat. n. 5089. 

6. D. Pitsutum (Don, Prodr. p. 50.), umbellis pedunculatis 7 — 9-floris, 
sepalis cuneato-lanceolatis obtusiusculis basi gibbosis, antheris fila- 
mentis ter brevioribus, stylo stigmatibus duplo longiore, foliis lanceo- 
latis subpetiolatis. 

7. D. parviflorum (Don, Prodr. p. 50.), umbellis subsessilibus 2— 7-floris, 
^ sepalis lanceolatis acuminatis basi gibbosis, antheris filamentis duplo 

brevioribus, stigmatibus stylo ter brevioribus, foliis lanceolatis subpeti- 

8. D.fulvum (Salisb. in Hort. Trans, i. p. 330.), umbellis sessilibus sub- 
4-floris, sepalis lanceolatis acutis basi breviter calcaratis, antheris fila- 
mentis vix brevioribus, stigmatibus styli longitudine, foliis lanceolatis 

The author concludes his paper with the description of a new and 
nearly-related genus, founded upon a plant which was introduced 
by Mr. Allan Cunningham from New South Wales into the Royal 
Botanic Garden at Kew, in 1823, and which is remarkable for its 
unenclosed embryo, and for the singular appendages, similar to 
those of Parnassia, which are seated at the inner base of the sepals. 
The following is the description of this interesting genus : — 

46 Linnean Society. [Dec. 3, 


Perianthium 6-phylluni, petaloideum, patens, aequale, deciduum : foUolis 
asstivatione involutis, basi biappendiculatis ! sessilibus. Stamina 6, 
toro, nee basi sepalorum inserta. AnthercB erectse, extrorsffi, bilocu- 
lares, duplici rima longitudinal! dehiscentes. Ovarium liberum, trilo- 
culare : loculis biovulatis : ovulis campylotropis, collateralibus, erectis. 
Stigmata 8, recurvata. Pericarpium subbaccatum, 3-loculare, 3-valve, 
loculicido-dehiscens : loculis 1 — 2-spermis. Semina sub-orbiculata, hinc 
convexa, inde angulata, v. coneaviuscula, glabra, nitida, colore suc- 
cinea, hilo maxime fungoso-strophiolato, chalaza orbiculata concava 
fusca, raphide dimidio seminis vix breviori, elevata : testa tenui, mem- 
branacea; albujnen copiosum, corneum, album. Embryo oblongus, 
albus, hinc convexus, inde planiusculus, more Graminum extra albumen 
locatus, eodemque facie plana applicatus, funiculo maxime strophiolato 
solummodo obtectus ! extremitate radicular! (cauliculari) paullo latiori. 

Herba (Novge Hollandia) perennis, rhizomate multicepite, caulihus subsim- 
pUcibus multangulis, foliis amplexicaidibus ovato-lanceolatis, peduncuUs 
axillaribus solitariis unijloris infra medium articulatis involucrelloque 
3-phyllo munitis. 

1. T. Cunninghamii. 

December 3. 

Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Edward S. Blundell, M.D., Lower Seymour-street, Portman- 
square, was elected a Fellow ; and the Rev. William Stobbs, Strom- 
ness, Orkney, was elected an Associate of the Society. 

The Rev. W. S. Hore exhibited a specimen of a remarkable va- 
riety of Duck, supposed to be hybrid between the Anas Boschas 
and Anas acuta of Linnaeus. 

Read, " Descriptions of three Vegetable Monstrosities lately found 
at York." By the Rev. W. Hincks, F.L.S. 

Two of these monstrosities occur in species of Iris and much re- 
semble each other. The species are /. versicolor and /. samhucina. 
They have 5 parts in each circle, except that the inner circle of pe- 
tals consists of 4 in one instance and only 3 in the other. It is suf- 
ficiently manifest that they are produced by the union of two flowers 
to form each, and they lead to the conclusion that when Irises with 
4 parts in each circle occur (which are not very uncommon) they are 

1839.] Linnean Society. 47 

unions of two flowers, one third part of each having perished in the 
junction. Various other monstrosities consisting in the union of 
two flowers were compared with the subjects of the description, par- 
ticularly some of CEnothera, flowers having 7 petals, 14 stamens, 
and 7 stigmas, where the parts preserved in the union are in exactly 
the same proportion as in the Irises. 

The third specimen described as a monstrous union of 4 flowers 
in Scrophularia nodosa. The flower-stalk may be perceived to be 
formed by the adherence of several stalks. The parts found are 15 
sepals, 16 petals, 20 stamens, 2 separate ovaria, each with 2 carpels, 
and a third ovarium formed by the adherence of 2 more, and con- 
sisting of 8 carpels. Explanations were attempted of the manner in 
which the union of 4 flowers would account for these numbers of 
parts. The increased developement of the circle of stamens, 5 ap- 
pearing for each flower, though of these several are united in threes 
together, and two are imperfect, and the increased number of carpels 
in two of the united flowers, are interesting facts. They show that 
the union of the flowers had the eflfect of diminishing and rendering 
more equable the pressure on the interior circles so as to allow of 
the growth of parts which are usually abortive. 

There was also read, " A monograph of Streptopus, with the de- 
scription of a new genus now first separated from it." By D. Don, 
Esq., Libr.L.S., Prof. Bot. King's College. 

The genus Streptopus was established by the elder Richard in 
Michaux's ' Flora Boreali-Americana,' and was intended to include, 
besides the Uvularia amplexifolia of Linnaeus, which is to be regarded 
as the type, two other species, then entirely new to botanists, namely, 
S. roseus and lanuginosvs. The first is common to Europe and Ame- 
rica, while the two last are confined to the latter continent. A fourth 
species, a native of Gosaingthan and Kamaon, was described under 
the name of simplex in the ' Prodromus Florae Nepalensis.' The lanu- 
ginosus is considered by Professor Don as the type of a new genus, 
which he has named Prosartes, and which is distinguished from 
Streptopus by its lengthened filaments, binary pendulous ovula, and 
terminal inflorescence. In Streptopus the filaments are short, with 
erect sagittate anthers, the cells of its baccate pericarpium are po- 
lyspermous, the seeds erect, and the flowers are axillary and solitary. 
Both genera belong to the Smilaceee, and serve to connect that family 
with Melanthacece. The characters of the new genus and of the 
species belonging to both are here subjoined : — 

43 Linnean l^ociety. [Dec. 3, 

1. S. am-plexifolius (Lam. et DeCand. Fl. Franc. 3. p. 174.), glaber ; 
pedunculis medio convolutis appendiculatis, sepalis obtuse acumi- 
natis, antheris sagittatis acuminatis, stigmate trilobo, baccse loculis 

2. S. roseus (Mich. Fl. Bor. Amer. i. p. 201.), hirtellus; foliis ciliatis, pe- 
dunculis recurvatis subbifloris, sepalis lanceolatis acuminatis, antheris 
bicuspidatis filamentorum longitudine, stigmatibus stylo 6-pl6 brevi- 
oribus, baccas loculis 4 — 6-spermis. 

3. S. simplex (Don, Prodr. p. 48.), glaber; pedunculis rectis! nudis, se- 
palis obtusis, antheris cordato-lanceolatis obtusis, stigmatibus styli sub- 
longitudine, baccae loculis 10 — 12-spermis. 


Streptopi sp., Mich. 

Perianfhium 6-phyllum, petaloideum, campanulatum, sequale, deciduum : 
foUnlis basi foveolatis v. saccatis. Stamina 6, basi sepalorum adnata, 
simulque decidua. Ant/iercs erectse, innatae, obtusje, biloculares, rimi 
duplici marginali longitudinaliter dehiscentes. Ovarium liberum, 3- 
loculare : loculis biovulatis : ovuUs obovatis, a placentse apice pendulis ! 
Stigmata 3, brevissima, recurvata. Pericarpium baccatum, 3-loculare. 
Semina solitaria, v. rariiis bina. 

Herbae (Amer. bor.) perennes, pube ramosd vestitce, rhizomate diviso mul- 
ticepite. Caules teretiusculi. Folia sessilia, dilatata. Inflorescentia 
terminalis, umbellata. Bacca rubra. 

1. P. lanuginosa, umbellis bifloris sessilibus, sepalis lanceolatis acumi- 
natis 3-nerviis basi foveolatis, stylo glabro, foliis cordato-ovatis subam- 
plexicaulibus utrinque pubescentibus. 

2. P. Menziesii, umbellis sessilibus bifloris, sepalis oblongis mucronatis G- 
nerviis margine revolutis basi saccatis, stylo longissimo piloso, foliis 
ovatis sessilibus glabriusculis. 

This new species is a native of the north-west coast of America, 
where it was first found by Mr. Menzies in the voyage of discovery 
under Vancouver, and it has been very properly named in compli- 
ment to that venerable botanist. 

The plant bears a close resemblance to some species of Disporum, 
and it moreover agrees with that genus in its sepals being produced 
into a short spur or pouch at their base. The flowers are consi- 
derably larger than those of lanuginosa, and they are apparently of a 
yellow colour. The style is long and copiously hairy. The genus 
is essentially distinguished fi-om Disporum by its innate anthers, 
nearly concrete styles, and pendulous seeds. 

1839.] lAnnean Society. 49 

December 17. 
Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Specimens of the Lugurus ovatus collected last summer at Sewer's 
End, two miles from Saffron Walden, were presented by Mr. Gum- 
ming, who discovered the plant about three years ago in that locality, 
which is its only actual English station. 

Read, " Description of the Curata, a plant of the tribe of Bambusece, 
of the culm of which the Indians of Guiana prepare their Sarbacans 
or Blow-pipes." By Robert H. Schomburgk, Esq., communicated 
by the Secretary. 

Referring to a passage in Baron Humboldt's " Personal Narra- 
tive" of his Travels in America, in which the learned author de- 
scribes the reeds of which the Indian Blow -pipes are made, and re- 
grets his inability to determine from what plant they were obtained, 
Mr. Schomburgk states it to have been a point of the greatest in- 
terest with him in his recent journeys in the interior of Guiana to 
ascertain this fact. He found that the Macusi tribe of Indians ob- 
tained these remarkable reeds by barter from the Arecunas, who 
again made journeys of several months' duration to the westward to 
procure them from the Maiongcong and Guinan Indians, to whose 
country they are restricted, and who have thence acquired among 
the other natives the appellation of the Curata people. The Are- 
cuna thus becomes the medium of the barter carried on of blow- 
pipes on the one hand for Urari poison on the other, the latter being 
found in the district inhabited by the Macusi, and exchanged by 
them for the tube through which the arrows impregnated with it are 
discharged with such deadly effect. It was at a settlement of Maiong- 
cong Indians near the river Emaruni that Mr. Schomburgk at last 
succeeded in obtaining positive information of the locality of these 
reeds, which he was informed were found on two lofty mountains, 
named by the Indians Mashiatti and Marawacca, the former of which 
was pointed out to him at the distance of about 20 miles. The latter 
however lying more directly on his route was visited by him in pre- 
ference ; it is seated at a day's journey from a Maiongcong settle- 
ment on the banks of the Cuyaca, from whence the natives showed 
the beaten track. After having ascended the mountain to a height 
of about 3500 feet above the Indian village, the traveller followed the 
course of a small mountain stream, on the banks of which the Curas 
or Curatas, as these reeds are called by the Indians, grow in dense 
tufts. They form in general clusters of from forty to a hundred- 
No. VI. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

50 Linnean Society. [Dec. I7j 1839. 

stems, which are pushed forth, as in many other Bambusea, from a 
strong jointed .subterranean rootstock. The stem rises straight 
from the rhizoma, without knot or interruption, and preserving an 
equal thickness throughout, frequently to the height of 1 6 feet, be- 
fore the first dissepiment is stretched across the interior and the first 
branches are given oiF. The joints that follow succeed each other 
at intervals of from 15 to 18 inches; and the whole plant attains a 
height of from 40 to 50 feet. The stem when full-grown is at the 
base about an inch and a half in diameter, or nearly 5 inches in cir- 
cumference ; but Mr. Schomburgk mentions having seen young 
stems, which at the height of 20 feet, and with a thickness of scarcely 
a quarter of an inch, offered no signs of articulation. The branches 
are only formed when the stem begins to increase in diameter. The 
full-grown stem is of a bright green colour, perfectly smooth and 
hollow within. The branches are verticillate, generally from 3 to 4 
feet in length, very slender, terete and nodose ; the upper joints 
separated by an interval of from 2 to 3 inches, and clothed by the 
sheaths of the leaves, which are split at the apex, persistent, striate 
and somewhat scabrous. The leaves are linear-lanceolate, obliquely 
rounded at the base, acute, of a bright green above, glaucescent 
below, nervoso-striate, with the midrib prominent, and the margin 
scabrous, from 8 to 9 inches long, and 5 or 6 lines broad ; they are 
furnished with a short petiole, which is articulated to the vagina ; 
and a series of long setae occupy the place of the ligula. The inflo- 
rescence is in terminal spikes, with a flexuose rachis ; the locustse 
subsessUe, lanceolate, lax, from 11 to 2 inches in length. The en- 
tire plant is from 40 to 50 feet in height ; but the weight of its in- 
numerable branches causes the slender stem to curve downwards so 
that the upper part generally describes an arch, which adds greatly 
to the gracefulness of its appearance. Leaving out of consideration 
the length of the first nodeless joint, it resembles in its general habit 
the Bamhusa latifolia of Humboldt, which Mr. Schomburgk was not 
unfrequently led into the mistake of confounding with it at a di- 
stance. He estimates the height at which it grew as 6000 feet above 
the level of the sea ; and its growth appears to be limited to the 
chain of sandstone mountains which extends between the second and 
fourth parallel, and forms the separation of waters between the rivers 
Parima, Merewari, Ventuari, Orinoco and Negro. The only ascer- 
tained localities were Mounts Mashiatti, Marawacca and Wanaya. 

Mr, Schomburgk describes at length the process by which the 
blow-pipes are prepared, and encased, for their better security in the 
hollowed trunk of a slender species of palm ; together with the mode 

Jan. 21, 1840.] Linnean Society. 51 

in which other parts of the apparatus are supplied in order to render 
it available for its important uses, and the various modifications in 
its construction occurring among the different tribes. He adds also 
9. particular description of the arrows and quivers in use among 
several of the native tribes. 

To this paper was appended the following note by John Joseph 
Bennett, Esq. F.L.S. 

" Mr. Schomburgk having placed in my hands specimens of the 
grass which forms the subject of his communication, with a request 
that (if I should find it to be unpublished) I would describe it, I 
consulted the publications of Nees von Esenbeck and Kunth, and 
was at first strongly inclined to suspect that it was identical 
with the Arundinaria verticillata of those authors ; but a subsequent 
examination has satisfied me that it is a distinct species of that 
genus. I have had no opportunity of comparing it with specimens 
oi A. verticillata, but it differs from the descriptions of that species, 
given by the two eminent botanists above named, in the following 
particulars. Its leaves are linear, instead of lanceolate, and smooth 
on both surfaces, instead of scabrous ; the mouth of their sheaths 
is furnished on either side of the articulation of the leaf with a fringe 
of long rigid setae, which are not mentioned as occurring in A. verti- 
cillata ; its locustse are sessile, instead of being pedicelled ; and the 
hypogynous scales are lanceolate and acute, instead of obovate and 
obtuse. The following character will therefore serve to distinguish 

the species : — 

Arundinaria Sckomburgkii. 

A . foliis linearibus acuminatis Isevibus ; vaginarum ore utrinque longS 
setoso, spica simplici pauciflora, locustis sessilibus, squamulis hypogynis 
lanceolatis acutis." 

January 21, 1840. 

Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Hyde Clarke, of Great Ormond Street, and James Rankine, 
M.D., of Ayr, were elected Fellows. 

Mr. Hewett Cottrell Watson, F.L.S. , exhibited specimens of Ca- 
rum Bulbocastanum discovered by Mr. W. H. Coleman, near Cherry 
Hinton, Cambridgeshire, and of Seseli Libanotis gathered by the 
same in a Dean west of the river Cuckmere, near Seaford, Sussex, 
being the first time it has been observed in that county. 

52 Linnean Society. [Feb. 4, 

Mr. Solly, F.L.S., exhibited two splendid drawings executed by- 
Mrs. Withers of a male plant of Encephalartos pungens, which 
flowered in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, in October last. 

Mr. IliiF, F.L.S., exhibited some urate of ammonia voided by the 
Boa Constrictor at the Surrey Zoological Gardens, in the midst of 
which were several larvse supposed by Mr, Curtis to be those of the 
Musca Canicularis of Linnaeus. Mr. Iliff is of opinion they were 
voided with the excrements of the Boa, and referred to a case in the 
Memoirs of the Medical Society of London, where he beUeves si- 
milar larvae were voided from the intestines of a man. 

Specimens of the Lastrea rigida collected at Settle, Yorkshire, 
were presented by Mr. Daniel Cooper, A.L.S. 

Read " Observations on the Ergot." By Francis Bauer, Esq., 
F.R.S., and L.S. 

The author, as is well known, has made the ergot a subject of 
particular study, and about thirty years ago he undertook, at the 
suggestion of Sir Joseph Banks, a series of careful microscopical ob- 
servations, with a view to determine the nature and cause of that 
singular production, and the beautiful drawings prepared by him at 
that time, illustrative of the ergot in various stages of its develop- 
ment, form part of the Banksian collections now deposited in the 
British Museum. Mr. Bauer's investigation led him to determine 
the ergot to be a morbid condition of the seed, but he was unsuc- 
cessful in ascertaining the cause of the disease, which Messrs. Smith 
and Quekett have satisfactorily shown to be occasioned by a mi- 
nute filamentous fungus, a fact already recorded at p. 1 & 4. After a 
long lapse of years Mr. Bauer was induced to resume the subject, 
and the result has been an additional drawing from his masterly 
pencil, displaying the minute fungus already noticed in different 
stages of its growth. The fungus has been named by Mr. Quekett 
Ergotatia abortifaciens. 

February 4. 
Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Thomas White Mann, Esq., of Upper Hollo way, was elected a 
Fellow ; and Mr. David Moore, Curator of the Botanic Garden at 
Glasnevin near Dublin, was elected an Associate of the Society. 

1840.] lAnnem Society. 53 

Read, " On the Heliamphora nutans, a new Pitcher Plant from 
British Guiana." By George Bentham, Esq., F.L.S, 

The interesting subject of this communication was discovered by- 
Mr. Schomburgk growing in a marshy savannah on the mountain of 
Roraima, on the borders of British Guiana, at an elevation of about 
6000 feet above the level of the sea. It belongs to the Sarraceniacece, 
and constitutes a very distinct genus of that small but remarkable 
family of plants, hitherto exclusively confined to the United States. 
The genus is principally distinguished from Sarracenia by the entire 
absence of petals, small apterous stigma, and trilocular ovarium. 

The following are the characters of this new genus : 


Perigonii foliola 4, 5, (vel 6 ?) hypogyna, libera, sestivatione valde imbri- 
cata, subpetaloidea. Stamina numero indefinita, hypogyna. Antherce 
oblongo-lineares, versatiles, biloculares, loculis oppositis iongitudinaliter 
dehiscentibus. Ovarium triloculare, ovulis numerosis anatropis pluri- 
serialiter placentae axili afRxis. Stylus simplex, apice truncatus. Stigma 
parvum, obscure trilobum, minute ciliatum. " Capsula trilocularis, 
trivalvis, polysperma" (Schomb.). Semina obovata, compressa, testa 
fusca laxiuscula, vix rugosa, in alam fusco-membranaceum semen 
cingentem expansa. Embryo parvus, teres, rectus, prope basin albu- 
minis copiosi, radicula juxta hilum, cotyledonibus parvis. 

Hevha. perennis, uliginosa. Folia, radicalia; petiolus tubuloso-ampJiorce- 
formis, ore obliquo margine subrevoluto. Scapus erectus, apice simpli- 
citer racemosus, glaber. Flores nutantes, albi v. pallide rosei. 

1. H. nutans. 

Read a paper, entitled " On the Structure of the Tissues of Cy- 
cadece," By D. Don, Esq., Libr. L. S., Prof. Bot. King's College. 

In Coniferce the structure of the stem presents the ordinary appear- 
ance of dicotyledonous trees ; the annual layers are distinctly 
marked, and there is a regular bipartition of each into wood and bark 
(liber) ; but in Cycadece no bipartition takes place of the fibro-vascular 
bundles, which in that respect resemble those of monocotyledonous 
plants, and the differences otherwise are very striking, Cycas having, be- 
sides a large central pith, several thick concentric alternating layers 
of celMar and fibro-vascular tissue ; and in Zamia and Encephalartos, 
besides the pith, there are only two very thick layers, one of fibro- 
vascular, and the other, which is also the exterior one, of cellular 
tissue. The great peculiarity of the Coniferce, and which distin- 
guishes them as well from Cycadece as from every other family, is 
the remarkable uniformity of their woody tissue, which consists of 

54 Linnean Society. [Feb. 4, 

slender tubes, furnished on the sides parallel to the medullary rays 
with one or more rows of circular or angular dots ; but in Cycadee 
no such uniformity is observable, their tissue, as in other phsenoga- 
mous plants, consisting of two kinds of vessels, namely of slender 
transparent tubes, without dots or markings, and of dotted, reticulated 
and spiral vessels, which are capable of being unrolled. The former are 
identical with the fibrous or woody tissue, whilst the latter, which form 
a part of each bundle, can only be compared to the strictly vascular 
tissue of other plants. These dotted vessels in Cycadece bear a con- 
siderable resemblance to the vessels of Coniferce, and especially to 
those of Dammara and Araucaria, from the dots being disposed in 
rows, and confined to the two vertical sides of the vessel only, and 
they are moreover alternate, as in the two genera just mentioned. 
In Cycadeee, however, the dots present much less regularity in 
number and size than in Coniferce, not only in different vessels of the 
same bundle, but in different parts of the same vessel, forming one, 
two, three, four, and five rows ; and they are not always confined 
to the vertical sides, but appear in some cases to follow the entire 
circle of the vessel. Their form is oblong, or elliptical, in Cycas re- 
voluta, circinalis, glauca, and speciosa, Zamia furfur acea and puniila, 
as well as in Encephalartos horridus and spiralis ; but they are 
sometimes longer, narrower and nearly linear, giving the vessel 
the appearance of being marked with transverse stripes. The 
vessels in all present so much similarity, that no generic distinction 
can be drawn from them. The dots are always arranged dia- 
gonally. The dotted vessels of Zamia furfuracea and pumila 
were observed to unroll spirally in the form of a band, pre- 
senting a striking resemblance to those of Ferns. The band was 
found to vary in breadth in different vessels, and was furnished 
with transverse rows, composed of two, three, or more dots. The 
coils followed the direction of the dots, and the unrolling was from 
right to left. In Cycas revoluta dotted vessels frequently occur with 
a single row of dots; but, from the circumstance of the dots on both 
sides being in view at the same time, they are liable to be mistaken 
as having a double row on each side. Besides the dotted vessels, 
there occurs throughout Cycadeee another variety, differing but 
little from the ordinary spiral vessel, except in the tendency of the 
coils to unite. In some vessels the colls are free, and the fibre ex- 
hibits frequently, at intervals, bifurcations or narrow loops ; in others 
the coils unite at one or both sides, in which case the vessel presents 
a series either of rings or bars ; the fibre then is with difficulty ua- 

1840.] Linnean Society. 55 

rolled, and it often breaks oflF into rings, or the bars separate at the 
point where the coils unite, which is generally on the perpendicular 
sides of the vessel. In other cases the vessels are distinctly reticulated, 
and they then exhibit a striking analogy to the dotted cellules in Cycas 
revoluta. All these modifications are frequently to be observed in 
the same vessel 'm. Zamia furfur acea and pumila, a fact which affords 
conclusive evidence of the accuracy of the theory advanced by Meyen, 
which refers the spiral, annular, reticulated, and dotted vessels to a 
common type. The dots and stripes are evidently the thinnest por- 
tions of the tube, being most probably parts of the primitive mem- 
brane remaining uncovered by the matter subsequently deposited on 
the walls. 

The cellular tissue of Cycadece consists of tolerably regular paren- 
chyma, composed of prismatic, six-sided cellules. In the species of 
Zamia and Encephalartos, so often referred to, the walls of the cellules 
appear to be of a uniform thickness and transparency, and destitute 
both of dots or markings ; but in the adult fronds of Cycas revoluta 
a different structure presents itself, for the walls of the cellules are 
furnished with numerous elliptical, obliquely transverse dots or 
spaces, where the membrane is so exceedingly delicate and trans- 
parent as to give to the cellules the appearance of being perforated 
by holes, the intervening spaces being covered by incrustating 
matter, disposed in the form of confluent bands, which, when 
viewed under the microscope, resemble a kind of network. The 
dots or spaces uncovered by incrustating matter, are generally of 
a large size, and occur more particularly on the vertical sides 
of the cellules, a band usually running along the middle of the 
two opposite sides. The bands vary in breadth, as do the dots, 
and they not unfrequently exhibit minute transparent points or 
spaces where the solid matter forming the band shows a tend- 
ency to separate. The extreme delicacy and transparency of the 
dots or spaces of whatever size, appear fully to prove that they 
are parts of the primitive membrane of the cellule, which are un- 
covered by the incrustating matter. A solution of iodine will be 
found of great service in determining the actual existence of the 
membrane at those parts ; for although it does not materially alter 
its colour, it tends very much to diminish its transparency and ren- 
ders it distinctly visible, so as to leave no doubt that the spaces eire 
not openings. The bands are evidently the result of a partial hgni- 
fecation ; and indeed no better example can be offered than Cycas 
revoluta to illustrate and confinn the correctness of the views ad- 

56 Linnean Society. [Feb. 4, 

vanced by Schleiden as to the origin of the bands and fibres 
in the cellules and vessels of plants. Being anxious to ascer- 
tain whether the bands exist at an early period, the author had 
recourse to the examination of a young undeveloped frond, about 
two weeks old, and he was much gratified by finding his previous 
suspicions fully confirmed ; the cellules then being of a uniform 
transparency, presenting neither bands nor dots, but furnished with 
a distinct cytoblast or nucleus, which was found to have entirely dis- 
appeared from those cellules in which the incrustating matter was 
visible, proving that the incrustating matter is formed at the expense 
of the nucleus. The matter forming the bands is continuous, and is 
evidently not formed by a coalescing of spiral fibres, as some might 
suppose ; for it is perfectly solid, and shows no disposition to un- 
roll or to break up into fibres. The bands most probably originated 
from the shrinking up of the incrustating substance, which at first 
was equally diffused in a fluid state over the walls, and which, from 
the mere effects of consolidation, aided by the distention, and per- 
haps enlargement of the cellule, would naturally leave portions of 
the primitive membrane uncovered. That the dotted and reticulated 
vessels in Cycadece are of the same nature, and originate in a similar 
way as the cellules just described, there seems no reasonable ground 
to doubt. The parenchymatous cellules in Cycas circinalis, glauca, 
and speciosa resemble those of Zamia and Encephalartos in having 
their walls of a nearly uniform thickness and transparency, being 
but rarely furnished with a few elliptical obliquely transverse spaces 
or dots. The cellules in Cycas revoluta vary both in size and 
structure, some being three or four times longer, whilst others are 
still longer and narrower, and furnished with more numerous and 
much smaller dots, which are not confined to the sides, but are 
disposed around the tube. These last, which have been observed 
also in Cycas glauca and circinalis, present an evident transition to 
the dotted vessels. 

The whole of the Cycadete are supplied with numerous gummife- 
rous canals, often of great length, and uniformly furnished with 
distinct cellular walls of considerable thickness, and which have 
been accurately described and figured by Professor Morren in a 
recent memoir. 

Notwithstanding the analogies presented by their reproductive 
organs, the author considers the Cycadecs as related to Coniferee 
only in a remote degree, and that they constitute the remains of a 
class of plants which belonged to a former vegetation. 

1840.] Linnean Society. 57 

February 18, 
The Lord Bishop of Nor-nich, President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. George Isherwood, of Old Windsor, was elected a Fel- 
low of tlie Society. 

Mr. George T. Fox, F.L.S., exhibited a specimen of the Phryno- 
soina cornutum (Agama cornuta of Harlan) from Texas. 

Mr. Cameron, A.L.S., presented a specimen of a new fern (Cibo- 
tium Baromez, J. Sm.) which has lately borne fructification, for the 
first time in this country, in the garden of the Birmingham Horti- 
cultural Society. A description of the plant by Mr. Westcott ac- 
companied the specimen. The fern has been cultivated for some 
years in the gardens as the Agnus Scythicus or Vegetable Lamb 
{Polypodium Baromez, Linn.), but whether identical with the plant 
of Linnaeus is a question still undetermined, as there happens to be 
no specimen in his herbarium, and the description alone is too meagre 
to settle the point. Mr. Westcott is however in possession of a spe- 
cimen of a fern collected in Mexico by Mr. Ross, which closely re- 
sembles the plant of the gardens, and should they prove to be iden- 
tical, aU doubt will be removed as to the claims of the present plant 
to be regarded as the Baromez of Linnaeus, which is a native of 

The following is Mr. Westcott's description of the species : — 

Rhizoma densely clothed with yellow woolly articulated hairs. 
Stipes about 7 feet high, roundish, of a dark reddish brown colour, 
more or less covered with tufts of woolly hairs near the base, naked 
for about half its height : upper part flexuous from the point where 
the pinnae commence. Frond bipinnate ; pinna alternate, ovate-lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, smooth, under surface glaucous, upper surface 
dark green ; those pinnae bearing the sori curved, the barren pinnee 
straight ; pinnules pinnatifid, alternate, linear-lanceolate, acuminate ; 
upper ones decurrent ; lower ones shortly petiolate ; lobes oblong, 
sharply serrated, more or less truncated, acute ; margins somewhat 
revolute, lobes in the upper row of each pinnula somewhat larger 
than those of the lower row, and those nearest to the rachis in the 
upper row the largest of all. Venation in the barren pinnae branched, 
in the fertile pinnae simple ; veins alternate. Indusia pouch-like, 
coriaceous sessile, situate on the apex of a vein at the margin, and 
near the base of the lobe of the pinnula : dehiscence by a transverse 

No. VII. — Proceedings of the Linneax Society. 

58 Linnean Society. [March 3, 

slit near the apex ; outer valve white, inner valve brown, and form- 
ing a persistent operculum or lid. Thecee roundish, stipitate, half 
surrounded by an articulated ring. Sporules numerous, angular. 

Read, " Observations on a certain Crystalline Matter found on the 
recently cut surfaces of the Wood of the Red Cedar." By Edwin J. 
Quekett, Esq., F.L.S. 

Mr. Quekett remarked, that on the recently cut surfaces of the 
wood of the Red Cedar {Juniperus virginiana) a crystalline matter is 
observed to form, which puts on the appearance of a mouldiness, but 
which, when viewed with a magnifying glass, is seen to consist of 
innumerable extremely minute crystals of an acicular form. The 
substance was observed to form on the duramen or heart wood only, 
and not universally, but in patches. It is easily volatilized by heat, 
and gives out the well-known odour of the wood. Mr. Quekett 
showed that the duramen of the red cedar contains an abundance of 
a concrete volatile oil, on which the peculiar odour depends, and 
that the crystalline substance is a compound formed between the air 
and the oil, for when the latter was obtained from the wood, and ex- 
posed to the action of the air, it was soon also found to be covered 
with the same acicular crystals. This substance, which possesses 
many of the properties of benzoic acid, Mr. Quekett considers new, 
and he proposed for it the name of Cedarine. 

March 3. 

Mr. Brown, V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Francis Boyle Garty, of Camberwell, and the Rev. William 
Strong Hore, M.A., of Devonport, were elected Fellows; and Mr. 
Frederick John Bird, of Wilmington Square, was elected an Associate 
of the Society. 

Mr. Ward, F.L.S. , exhibited a specimen of the Agnus Scythicus, 
or Vegetable Lamb, from the collection of the Apothecaries' Com- 

Read, " A Note on the Fern known as Aspidium Baromez." By 
Mr. John Smith, A.L.S. 

This plant, of which a description by Mr. Westcott was read at 
the preceding Meeting, and of which an abstract has been given, 

1840.] Linnean Society. 59 

was shown by Mr. Smith to be a legitimate species of the genus 
Cibotium, with which it agrees in the venation of its frond, the dis- 
position of its sori, and in the structure and texture of its indusium. 

March 17. 
Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

William Ifill, M.D., of Welbeck Street ; Edwin Lankester, M.D.. 
of Campsall Hall, near Doncaster ; and Lieut. William Munro, of 
Her Majesty's 39th regiment of foot, were elected Fellows of the 

The following addresses of congratulation to Her Majesty and to 
His Royal Highness Prince Albert of Saxe Coburg and Gotha, on 
occasion of Her Majesty's marriage, were read from the Chair, and 
unanimously adopted by the Meeting, viz. 

" To the Queen's most Excellent Majesty. 
" The humble Address of the President, Council, and Fellows 

of the Linnean Society of London. 
" Most Gracious Sovereign, 
" We, Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Pre- 
sident, Council, and Fellows of the Linnean Society of London, beg 
leave to approach Your Majesty, humbly to offer our heart-felt con- 
gratulations on the joyful occasion of Your Majesty's nuptials with 
His Royal Highness Prince Albert of Saxe Coburg and Gotha. 

" Deeply impressed wdth feelings of loyalty and devotion towards 
Your Majesty, we hail this auspicious event as an assurance of last- 
ing happiness to Your Majesty, and of permanent blessings to the 
British Empire, and we most fervently implore the blessings of Al- 
mighty God upon Your Majesty, that through His mercy and good- 
ness He may be pleased to extend His watchful care over the lives 
and the happiness of Your Majesty and Your Majesty's Royal Con- 

" To His Royal Highness Prince Albert of Saxe Coburg and Gotha. 
" The humble Address of the President, Council, and Fellows 

of the Linnean Society of London. 
" May it please Your Royal Highness, 
" We, the President, Council, and Fellows of the Linnean So- 
ciety of London, beg leave humbly to present to Your Royal High- 

60 Linnean Society. [March 17» 

ness our cordial congratulations on the happy occasion of Your Royal 
Highness's marriage with Her Majesty our gracious Queen and 

" We hail this auspicious event as equally promoting the happi- 
ness of Her Majesty and the best interests of Her Majesty's affec- 
tionate and loyal people, and we most devoutly implore the blessings 
of Almighty God on Your Royal Highness, that He through His 
goodness and mercy may be pleased to extend His watchful care 
over the lives and happiness of our beloved Sovereign and Your 
Royal Highness." 

Read " On some new Brazilian Plants allied to the Natural 
Order Burmanniaceee." By John Miers, Esq., F.L.S. 

Of the thirteen recorded species of Burmannia five are natives of 
Brazil, where they were found by Von Martius, who has not only 
accurately described them, but has given an able detail of the genus. 
The author, previous to his departure from Brazil, discovered five 
new plants, evidently allied to Burmannia, but which differ in many 
essential characters : from these he has established three new ge- 
nera, Dictyostega, Cymbocarpa, and Stemoptera : they possess the 
habit of Burmannia in their thickened rhizoma with branching fibres, 
an erect stem, almost naked, or furnished with a few distant bracti- 
form leaves and terminal flowers, with a tubular petaloid perian- 
thium, having a six-partite border, composed of three sepals and three 
petals ; stamens three, almost sessile, in the mouth of the tube be- 
low the petals ; anthers with the cells disjoined and opening trans- 
versely ; a simple style ; three stigmata and a capsule surmounted by 
the withered perianth bursting irregularly ; seeds minute, resembling 
those of Orchidea ; but the most important difference consists in their 
having unilocular capsules, wdth three parietal placentae, while Bur- 
mannia has always a trilocular capsule, with central placentation, 
an essential difference, which entitles them to be considered, if not 
as forming a new natural order, at least as constituting a distinct 
sub-family. Allied to these are to be arranged three other plants, 
already recorded, the Apteria setacea of NuttaU, a native of North 
America, and Gonyanthes Candida and Gymnosiphon aphyllum of 
Blume, by whom they were found in Java. The author considers 
his genus Dictyostega as coming very near Apteria, which, however, 
from the drawing and description of Mr. Nuttall, would seem to re- 
semble Stemoptera still more closely in its habit, its seeds, and its 
large single flowers ; but it does not appear to possess the very 

1840.] Linnean Society. . ■ 61 

remarkable stamens of the latter genus, nor the habit or singular 
seeds of Dictyostega. He gives a full description of the charac- 
ters of his new genera and species, adding at the same time the 
character of Apteria and of Dr. Blume's two genera, so as to collect 
all the evidence yet known respecting the order of Burmanniacea, 
Of the genus Dictyostega he describes three species, which he found 
in Brazil, to which is to be added a fourth species, discovered by 
Mr. Schomburgk in British Guiana. 

The following are their characters : — 


Perianthium tubulosum, ovario adnatum, superne liberum : limbo G-fido, 
laciniis 3 alternis minoribus. Stamiiia 3 : jtlamentis brevissimis : an- 
therce loculis disjimctis, transversim debiscentibus. Stylus simplex. 
Stigmata 3. Capsula 1-locularis, sub 3-valvis, polysperma, apice debi- 
scens : valvis medio placentiferis. Semina minuta, scobiformia, testa 
laxa, reticulata, pertranslucida, nucleo quintuple longiore vestita. 

Plantse (brasilienses) rhizocarpece, radice fihrosd, squamis memhranaceis, 
imbricatis, ciliatis, incanis tectd. Caulis erectus, subjlexuosus, pallide 
purpurascens, subsolitarius, rarius ramiferus, et tune ramis 1 — 3 
erectis, alternis, trunco consimilibus. Folia bracteiformia, subsessilia, 
adpressa. Inflorescentia terminalis, dichotome racemosa, vel subum- 
bellato-cymosa, florihus purpurascentibus, jiedicellatis. 

1 . D. orobanchioides, caule erecto simplici vel ramifero, racemis geminis, 
floribus nutantibus unibracteatis, bracteis cum pedicellis alternantibus, 
capsuM subvalvata ecostata longitudinaliter debiscente. — Monte Corco- 
vado, Rio de Janeiro. 

2. D. umbellata, caule erecto simplicissimo, foliis erecto-patulis, umbella 
simplici 6 — 9-flora, floribus erectis, pedicellis basi bracteatis, ovario 
ecostato. — Serra dos Orgaos, Prov. Rio de Janeiro. 

3. D. eostata, caule erecto simplici, floribus erectis, cyma bibracteatS, pe- 
dicellis ebracteatis, capsuld evalvi 6-costata apice debiscenti. — Rio de 

4. D. Schomburgkii, caule erecto subsimplici, racemis geminis paucifloris, 
floribus unibracteatis, bracteis pedicello oppositis, periantbio medio 
baud constricto, laciniis obtusioribus, capsula 6-costata apice debiscenti. 
— Guiana. 


Perianthium tubulosum, ovario adnatum, superne liberum : limbo 6-fido, 
laciniis tribus alternis minoribus. Stamina omnino Dictyostegce. 
Stylus simplex. Stigmata 3-loba, lobis gibboso-rotundatis, cornubus 2 

62 Linnean Society. [March 17, 

subulatis erectis instructis. Ovarium gibboso-3-gonum, 1-loculare, 
placentis 3 parietalibus. Capsula 1-locularis, latere unico angulo su-. 
periore tantum dehiscens. Semina scobiformia, numerosissima, testa 
reticulata nucleo vix excedente. 

Plantae (brasilienses) rhizocarpecs, radice fihrosd. Caulis simplex, suh- 
flexuosus, erectus, albescens. Folia sessilia, hracteiformia, erecta, aut 
adpressa. Inflorescentia dichotome spicata, pauciflora, fiorihus fia~ 
vescenti-albidis, basibracteatis, cum pedicellis brevissimis summo abrupte 
declinatis geniculatis. 

1. Cymbocarpa refracta. — Monte Corcovado, Rio de Janeiro. 


PeriarJhium ovario adnatum, supra liberum, subinfundibuliforme : faiice 
turgida sacculis 3 interioribus aucta : limbo 6-partito, laciniis acutis, 
sestivatione marginibus induplicatis, 3 alternis brevioribus. Stamina 
3, fauci adnata : filamentis complanatis, e margine sacculorum orienti- 
bus bifurcatis, ramulo singulo antherifero alato. Ovarium turbinatum, 
1-loculare, placentis 3 parietalibus. Stylus longitudine staminum. Stig- 
mata 3, recurvata, apice glandulifera. Capsula 1-locularis, polysperma, 
subtrivalvis, apice 3-fisso dehiscens. Placentce 3, parietales. Semina 
numerosissima, scobiformia, testa nucleo vix excedente, reticulata, are- 
olis elongatis obliqu^ dispositis. 

Plantae (brasilienses) rhizocarpecs, radice fibrosa. Caulis erectus, subdi- 
chotome ramostis, ramis subflexiiosis, pallidis, subpurpurascentibus. Fo- 
lia pauca, sessilia, erecta, bracteiformia, pallida. Inflorescentia termi- 
nalis, unijlora. Flores cceteris majores, ebracteati, purpurascentes, Ap- 
terise Nutt. hand absimiles. 

1 . Stemoptera lilacina. — In uliginosis ad Serra dos Orgaos Prov. Rio de 

All the species are described at length in the paper, and their cha- 
racters are further illustrated by drawings, with details of the parts 
of fructification. The author remarks, that upon the same principle 
that Apostasiacece have been separated from Orchidee, and Xyridece 
from Restiacece, these plants ought to constitute an order distinct 
from Burmanniacea ; but the difference between the unilocular cap- 
sule with parietal placentation and the trilocular capsule with axile 
placentation, which at first sight seems to offer a wide and well- 
founded distinction, appears of less value when we consider that 
the extensive order Gentianeee presents similar differences, toge- 
ther with every possible gradation of transition from one extreme 
to the other. He therefore inclines to the \'iew of preserving all 

1840.] Linnean Society. 63 

within the natural order Burmanniacecs, dividing it into two sub- 
families, \\z. 1. Burmanniea, which will contain only the single 
genus Burmannia (and perhaps the Gonyanthes of Blume may be 
found to belong also to this section) ; 2. Dictyostegece, com- 
prising Dictyostega, Cymbocarpa, Stemoptera, Apteria, Gonyanthes, 
and Gymnosiphon. He then proceeds to show the close affinity which 
Burmanniacea bear to OrchidecB, which often also present nearly a 
naked stem, with imperfectly developed leaves, and instances are 
moreover known in which they exhibit three distinct stamens and 
three stigmata : they have also an unilocular ovarium, with parietal 
placentation ; there exists also a close resemblance in the structure 
of the walls of the capsule, and there is hardly any difference in the 
shape and structure of the seeds of Dictyostega and some species of 
Pleurothallis, which have both a transparent reticulated testa, show- 
ing distinctly the included nucleus suspended from the apex. The 
pollen of these plants also bears much resemblance to that of Or- 
chideee, in being inclosed in a peculiar anther-case, and consisting of 
coarse grains cohering in waxy masses. Dictyostega orobanchioides 
also offers a beautiful illustration of the emission of poUen tubes, 
which are seen penetrating the stigmata in crowded bundles of cot- 
tony filaments, each thread being clavately terminated by its re- 
spective grain of pollen. 

There was also read a paper, entitled, " On the existence of Spiral 
Cells in the Seeds of Acanthaceee." By Mr. Richard Kippist. Com- 
municated by Prof. Don, Libr. L.S. 

After briefly enumerating the other natural families in whose seeds 
spiral cells had been previously observed, the author proceeds to de- 
scribe those of a plant brought from Upper Egypt by Mr. Holroyd 
(^Acanthodium spicatum, Dehle), whose peculiar appearance when 
placed under the microscope, first led him to examine those of other 
Acanthacete, in which family the existence of spiral cells had not be- 
fore been noticed. The entire surface of the seed in Acanfhodium is 
covered with whitish hairs, which are appressed, and adhere closely 
to it in the dry state, being apparently glued together at their ex- 
tremities. On being placed in water, these hairs are set free, and 
spread out on all sides, they are then seen to be clusters of from five 
to twenty spiral cells, which adhere firmly together in their lower 
portions wliile their upper parts are free, separating from the cluster 
at different heights, and expanding in all directions like plumes, 
forming a very beautiful microscopic object. The free portions of the 

64 Linnean Society. [March 1 7, 

cells readily unroll, exhibiting the spire formed of one, two, or occa- 
sionally of three fibres, which may sometimes be seen to branch, and 
not unfrequently break up into rings. Throughout the whole length 
of the cell the coils are nearly contiguous ; in the lower part they are 
united by connecting fibrils, and towards the base of the adherent 
portion become completely reticulated. The testa is a semitrans- 
parent membrane formed of nearly regiilar hexagonal cells, whose 
centre is occupied by an opake mass of grumous matter. Those 
cells which surround the bases of the hairs are considerably elon- 
gated, and, gradually tapering into transparent tubes, appear to oc- 
cupy the interior of the spiral clusters. Some of these appearances 
were noticed by Delile, who described the Acanthodium in the 
splendid work on Egypt, published by the French Institute, where 
also a slightly magnified figure of the seed will be found, but with- 
out representing the spiral cells, which Delile does not appear to 
have detected. 

Two species of Blepharis are mentioned as possessing a structure 
very similar to that of Acanthodium spicatum, differing chiefly in the 
smaller and more uniform diameter of the spiral cells, and in their 
thicker fibre, which is always single and loosely coiled. 

The seed of Ruellia formosa on being placed in water develops 
from every part of its surface single short thick tapering tubes, 
within which in some cases a spiral fibre is loosely coiled ; whilst in 
others the place of the spiral fibre is supplied by distant rings. 

In the seeds of Ruellia littoralis, Phaylopsis glutinosa, and Barleria 
noctiflora, the whole surface becomes covered with separate tubes, 
very similar in form, but destitute of spiral fibre, and terminating in 
a minute pore, from which streams of mucilage are discharged. 

Those of several species of Barleria, Lepidagathis, &c. are entirely 
covered with long tapering simple hairs, which expand in water, and 
like the rest are enveloped in a thick coat of mucilage. 

In all the foregoing species the hairs occupy the entire surface of 
the seed, and are usually directed towards its apex, though they 
occur often most abundantly at the edges ; in others they are only 
found attached to a marginal ring of a different texture from the rest 
of the seed. This is the case in Strobilanthus lupulina, Blechum 
Brownii, and Ruellia secunda. The seeds of many plants of this family 
are wholly destitute both of spiral cells or of any other appendages 
possessing hygroscopic properties, such for example as Acanthus 
mollis and ilicifolius, Dipteracanthus erectus, and several species of 
Justicia and Eranthemum. 

IS 40.] Luinean Socieiif. 65 

April 7. 

Mr. Forster, Y.P., in the Chair. 

The Rev. John Berrington, A.M., of Kingston, Surrey, and Si- 
gi&mond Rucker, Jun., Esq., of Wandsworth, were elected Fellows ; 
and Mr. Henry Letheby, of Pentonville, was elected an Associate of 
the Society. 

Dr. Farre, F.L.S., exhibited specimens of a singular form of gall 
on the leaves of a species of oak from Mexico. The gall consisted 
of an aggregation of hollow cylindrical tubes, nearly an inch in 
length, and furnished with a fringed orifice. The tubes were 
remarkable for their elegance and uniformity ; their colour was 
white, suffused with red, especially towards the apex. 

Mr. Yarrell, F.L.S., exhibited a specimen of a satin-like mass of 
Conferva fiuviatilis, w^hich grew in a water meadow near Totness. 
A spring, which flows only in wdnter, rises in the meadow, and this 
substance is taken from naiTow gutters, from one of which, twelve 
inches wide, a piece was taken up which measured seventy-nine feet 
in length, so firm and tough was its consistence ; and another piece 
broke off at thirty-nine feet. In consistence and appearance it bore 
considerable resemblance to a piece of cotton wadding, but of a 
firmer texture. A portion was carefully examined under the micro- 
scope, and found to consist entirely of an interwoven mass of filaments 
of Conferva fiuviatilis. The plant was compared mth the authentic 
specimen of that species preserved in the Linnaean Herbarium, and 
was seen to differ only in the greater length of the articulations. 
The under surface of the mass was of a bright green colour, but the 
upper surface was white from the effects of direct exposure to the 
air and light, which had caused the death of the plant at that part. 

Read, a continuation of Mr. Smith's "Arrangement of the Genera 
of Ferns." 

April 21. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair, 

Read, a paper by John Blackwall, Esq., F.L.S., entitled " The 
Difference in the Number of Eyes with which Spiders are provided. 


66 Linnean Society. [May 25 

proposed as the Basis of their distribution into Tribes ; with the 
characters of a new Family and three new Genera of Spiders." 

Mr. Blackwall begins by stating his objections to the bases of ar- 
rangement adopted by MM. Walckenaer and Dufour in the subdi- 
vision of the order Araneidea, and proceeds to give his reasons for 
preferring a division founded on the number of eyes ; in conformity 
with which he proposes three tribes, viz. 1. Octonoculata; 2. Senocu- 
lina ; 3. Binoculina. 

In the first tribe he proposes three new genera, two of them be- 
longing to a family which he characterizes under the name of Cini- 
floridce : t?iese genera he also characterizes under the names of Ciniflo, 
founded on the Clubiona atrox of Latreille, and Operaria, compri- 
sing the Theridion benig?ium, Walck., Drassus exiguus, Blackw., and 
Drassus viridissimus, Walck. The third genus characterized by Mr. 
Blackwall, is referred by him to the family of Agelenid<e, under the 
name of Cavator : it is founded on the Clubiona saxatilis, Blackw. 

May 5. 
The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Read, " Additional Observations on some Plants allied to the 
natural order Burmanniaceae." By John Miers, Esq., F.L.S. 

These observations have reference chiefly to the relative position 
of the parts of the flower in the tribe of plants above-mentioned. 
The author remarks, that the stamina, placentae, and stigmata in 
these plants, are disposed in the same line, and opposite the inner 
series of the perianthium. The placentae are always invariably 
double; and the stigmata in such cases as the present are to be re- 
garded as being made up of the confluent margins of the two ad- 
joining carpel-leaves, as suggested by Mr. Brown in his learned 
Memoir on Cyrtandrece lately published. 

May 25. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

This day, the Anniversary of the birth-day of Linnaeus, and that 
appointed in the Charter for the election of Council and Officers ; 

1840.] Linnean Society. ^7 

the President opened the business of the meeting, and in stating the 
number of Members whom the Society had lost during the past 
year, gave the following notices of some of them : — 

George, Duke of Marlborough, one of the Honorary Members, was 
distinguished for his botanical taste, and for his zeal in the cultiva- 
tion of exotic plants ; and the magnificent collection formed by him 
at White Knights was long one of the finest in this country, both in 
regard to its extent, and the rarity and beauty of the specimens. 
His taste for Botany continued unabated to the last, and the col- 
lection established afterwards at Blenheim was chiefly cultivated 
under his own immediate superintendence. 

John Bart let, Esq. 

John, Duke of Bedford, K.G. — This amiable and accomplished 
nobleman was a most munificent patron of the arts and sciences in 
general, and especially of Botany, in the cultivation of which he 
took great delight. We are indebted to him for several splendidly 
illustrated works, abounding in valuable practical remarks, on par- 
ticular tribes of plants, of which he had formed extensive collections 
at his magnificent seat of Woburn Abbey. 
William Beet ham, Esq. 

William Christy, Jun., Esq. — Few persons cultivated Botany and 
Entomology with more ardour than Mr. Christy, who, to the regret 
of his friends, and to the loss of science, was cut off at an early age. 
His zeal and success in the pursuit of science were only equalled by 
his readiness and liberality to impart to others a portion of the 
stores which he had collected. He had formed an extensive Her- 
barium of British and Foreign Plants, and for that purpose had 
made several extensive tours in the British Isles, and had also vi- 
sited Madeira and Norway. His collection of dried plants, and 
books on Botany, he gave to the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 
of which he was one of the insti tutors. 

Lord Charles Spencer Churchill. 

Richard Cotton, Esq. 

Allan Cunningham, Esq. — This eminent botanist and traveller was 
born in the beginning of the year 1791, at Wimbledon, where his 
father (who was a native of Ayrshire) held the situation of gardener. 
His father took great pains with his education, and placed him, 
along with his younger brother, Richard, at an excellent academy at 
Putney, then conducted by the Rev. Mr. Adams. About the year 
1808 both brothers were engaged in the office of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens at Kew, at the period when the second edition of the 'Hor- 
tus Keivensis ' was passing through the press. In the autumn of 

68 Linnean Society. [May 25, 

1814, having been appointed a Botanical Collector for the Royal 
Gardens, he left England, in company with Mr. James Bowie (who 
had also received a similar appointment), for the Brazils, where they 
remained two years, and among many other plants transmitted by 
them, were Gloxinia speciosa, Cereus speciosissimus, Jacaranda mi- 
mosifolia, and Calathea zebrina, then new to the Gardens. The two 
companions now separated, Mr. Bowie having received instructions 
to proceed to the Cape of Good Hope, and Mr. Cunningham to 
New South Wales, where he arrived in 1817, and shortly after 
joined the expedition into the interior of that colony, under Mr. 
Oxley, the Surveyor-General. On his return to Sydney he em- 
barked as botanist in the voyage of survey under the command of 
Lieutenant, now Captain Philip Parker King, of the Royal Navy. 
The survey continued four years, and during that period they cir- 
cumnavigated Australia several times, and visited Van Diemen's 
Land, Timor, and the Mauritius, at all of which places Mr. Cun- 
ningham formed extensive collections. After the conclusion of these 
voyages, Mr. Cunningham made several journeys into the interior 
of New South Wales, and subsequently visited Norfolk Island and 
New Zealand, where he remained several months. The fruits of 
his researches in the latter country are given in the ' Companion to 
the Botanical Magazine,' and ' Annals of Natural History.' After 
an absence of seventeen years, Mr. Cunningham returned to his 
native country, and continued to reside in the vicinity of Kew, until 
the melancholy tidings arrived of the death of his brother Richard, 
whom he was appointed to succeed in the quality of Colonial 
Botanist in New South Wales, where he again arrived in February 
1837. In the following year he revisited New Zealand, and re- 
mained there during the whole of the rainy season, which produced 
serious effects upon a constitution already greatly debilitated, and 
on his return to Sydney his health visibl)' declined until the period 
of his death, which took place on the 27th of June last, at the age 
of 48. He was distinguished for his moral worth, singleness of 
heart, and enthusiastic zeal in the pursuit of science. 

Davies Gilbert, Esq., F.R.S. — Mr. Davies Gilbert was distin- 
guished by his high attainments in science and literature, his simple 
and gentle manners, and his amiable purity of heart. He was the 
son of the Rev. Edward Giddy, and was born on the 6th of March, 
1767, at St.Erth, in Cornwall. 

Davies Giddy was a child of early intellectual promise, but his 
health was feeble, and he received not only the rudiments, but al- 
most the vdiole of his education under the paternal roof, guided and 

1840.] Linnean Society. 69 

assisted by a father whose classical learning was of a high order. 
For about a twelvemonth he was placed under the tuition of the Rev. 
James Parken, Master of the Grammar School at Penzance, to which 
town his family removed for that purpose ; but he soon returned 
to Tredrea, which was long afterwards his favourite abode, to pursue 
his studies in a manner more congenial to his feelings. He had by 
this time formed a taste for mathematical investigations, in which 
he was aided by the knowledge, freely and kindly imparted, of the 
Rev. Malachi Hitchins of St. Hilary, a man whose name is well 
known and respected by practical astronomers. In the year 1782 
he removed with his family to Bristol, and continued to cultivate the 
severer sciences with undiminished ardour. On the 12th of April, 
1785, he entered as a Gentleman Commoner of Pembroke College 
in the University of Oxford, and soon attracted the notice of many 
of its Professors and Senior Residents. He resided pretty constantly 
there from his matriculation, except during the long vacations, till 
the year 1789, when he became an Honorary Master of Arts, but still 
continued to make long visits to his old College. 

In November, 1791, he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and formed a connexion with Dr. Maskelyne, Sir Joseph Banks, 
Mr. Cavendish, and other eminent members of that body, which 
terminated only with their lives. Though the sciences dependent 
on and connected with mathematics were the chief objects of his 
early studies, he was far from inattentive to the claims of Natural 
History on a portion of his leisure. He cultivated chiefly that 
branch of it which embraces the vegetable kingdom ; and an ac- 
quaintance formed in Cornwall with Dr. Withering, as well as his 
friendship with Dr. Beddoes and Dr. Sibthorp at Oxford, contri- 
buted to the same end. He became a Fellow of the Linnsean So- 
ciety in 1792, in which year he also served the office of Sheriff for 
his native county. In the year 1804 he was chosen one of the re- 
presentatives of the borough of Helston, and in 1806 was returned 
in a new Parliament for that of Bodmin. In this seat he continued 
till the year 1832, when he ceased to be a member of the legislature. 
During the whole time of his continuance in Parliament, he was the 
encourager and indefatigable supporter of every measure connected 
with the advancement of science ; and by his representations and 
exertions many services were rendered to various scientific societies 
and institutions, in promoting whose prosperity and usefulness he 
was incessantly and zealously occupied. He took a prominent part 
in the inquiry relating to the currency, and published in 1811 a 
plain statement of the bullion question ; and he was also very 

70 Linnean Society. [May 25, 

active both in the House of Commons and out of it in the arrange- 
ment of the standard of weights and measures. 

In 1806 he married Mary Anne Gilbert, and in 1817 he assumed 
the name of her family, in pursuance of the injunction contained in 
a wUI of her uncle, Charles Gilbert, Esq., of Eastbourne, in Sussex. 
By this marriage he had seven children, of whom only four sur- 
vived him ; John Davies Gilbert, Esq., the present Sheriff of Sussex, 
and three daughters. 

He became a Fellow of the Societ)'^ of Antiquaries in 1820, and 
was likewise Fellow of the Astronomical and Geological Societies. 
He continued to perform the office of Treasurer of the Royal So- 
ciety, till in 1827 he became President of that distinguished body. 
In the year 1831 he retired from the chair, and was succeeded by His 
Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex. In 1832 he received from the 
University of Oxford the Degree of Doctor of Laws, by Diploma. 

His last visit to his native county took place in 1839. On lea- 
ving Cornwall he came through Exeter and Oxford to London, and 
returned after a few days to Oxford. This last journey, which was 
attended by some untoward circumstances, was too much for his 
sinking strength. On his return to London he fell into a state of 
lethargy, from which, though he was enabled to reach his home, he 
never fully recovered, but after lingering in this state for some time, 
he expired, on the 24th of December, 1839, and in the 73rd year 
of his age. 

The Rev. Joseph Goodall, D.D., Provost of Eton College. — Dr. 
Goodall was ardently devoted to the study of Natural History, but 
more especially to Conchology, with which science he was tho- 
roughly acquainted, and his collection in that department was re- 
garded as one of the most valuable in this country. He ever a 
warm and zealous friend of this Society. 

The Reverend Patrick Keith. — Mr. Keith long and successfully 
cultivated the interesting department of Vegetable Physiology, 
to which he published an Introduction in 1816, under the title of 
* System of Physiological Botany,' in two volumes, 8vo. The 
work contained the fullest and best account of the subject at that 
time in the English language, and was, moreover, enriched by nu- 
merous original remarks. Mr. Keith was hkewise the author of a 
Botanical Lexicon, published in 1837, and three separate Memoirs, 
printed in the 11th, 12th and 16th volumes of the Society's Trans- 
actions ; the first on the Formation of the Vegetable Epidermis, the 
second on the Development of the Seminal Germ, and the third 
on the Origin of Buds. Several jmpers on botanical subjects, from 

1840.] Linnean Society. 71 

the pen of Mr. Keith, occur also in the Philosophical Magazine and 
Annals of Natural History. 

Mr. Keith had long been suffering from severe illness, which ter- 
minated in his death on the 25th of January last, at the age of 71, 
at the parsonage of Stalisfield, in Kent, of which parish he had been 
for many years vicar. He was a native of Scotland, and received 
his education at the University of Glasgow. 

Ml.lliam Kent, Esq. — Mr. Kent was a zealous botanist and hor- 
ticulturist, and formerly possessed an extensive garden at Clapton, 
where, among many other choice plants, he successfully cultivated 
the beautiful Nelumbhim speciosum, and other tender aquatics, of 
which he was a liberal distributor to his friends. His health obli- 
ging him to retire to Bath, he lost the means of indulging his inclina- 
tion to horticulture on so large a scale ; but of his garden on Bath- 
wick HUl, it might truly be said that there never perhaps were so 
many rare plants cultivated together in so small a space. Notwith- 
standing he laboured under a painful complaint, he was also happily 
able to amuse himself by landscape painting ; and at the same time 
he was ever active in promoting useful institutions, moral, scientific 
or literary. 

Do)i Mariano Lagasca, Professor of Botany, and Director of the 
Royal Botanic Garden at Madrid, was a native of the province of 
Arragon, where his father followed the occupation of a farmer. He 
was sent at an early age to the Gj'mnasium of Tarragona, and after 
pursuing the course of study prescribed at that institution, he re- 
paired to Madrid to complete himself for the medical profession, for 
which he had e^inced a predilection. At Madrid he had the good 
fortime to attend the lectures, and to acquire the friendship, of the 
celebrated Cavanilles, at that time Professor of Botany in the 
Spanish capital, and these circumstances laid the foundation of 
the eminence to which he afterwards attained. In 1822, on the 
assembling of the Cortes, he was returned Deputy for his native 
province, and on the overthrow of the constitutional form of go- 
vernment in, November of the following year, he was obliged to 
consult his safety by flight, first to Gibraltar, and afterwards to 
this country, v/here his high moral character, amiable disposition, 
and eminent talents, gained him universal esteem and respect. 

Spain, long famed as the granary of ancient Rome, is known to 
surpass all other countries in the great variety of those grasses 
which are cultivated for human food, such as wheat, barley, rye and 
oats : and many of those whom I am now addressing may remem- 
ber the extensive and interesting collection of Spanish Cerealia cul- 

72 Linnean Society. [May 25, 

tivated by Professor Lagasca in tlie garden belonging to the Society 
of Apothecaries at Chelsea. The publication of a ' Ceres and Flora 
Hispanica ' had long been a favourite object with him, but which he 
did not live to accomplish. He departed this life in the 58th year 
of his age, on the 23rd of June last, at the palace of his early friend 
and school associate, the present Bishop of Barcelona, who hearing 
of his infirm state of health, had invited him to partake of his 
hospitality and kindness, in the hope that the milder air of Cata- 
lonia might be the means of restoring him. His remains were ho- 
noured with a public funeral, and an oration was pronounced over 
him by his friend Don Augustin Yanez, Professor of Natural History 
at Barcelona. 

It was in Systematic Botany that Professor Lagasca had more 
particularly distinguished himself, and he has added greatly to our 
knowledge of various families of plants, such as UmhellifenB, Dip- 
sacea and Compositce, of one of the groups of which, the Labiatijforce, 
he may be regarded as the founder. 

James Dottin Maycock, M.D. — Dr. Maycock is deserving of no- 
tice as the author of a Flora of Barbadoes, in which island he had 
long resided. The work forms a catalogue of the indigenous as well 
as cultivated plants of that island, and contains besides a number 
of interesting notices on their ceconoraical uses. The author has fully 
established the identity of the species which affords the Barbadoes 
aloes, with the Aloe vulgaris, accurately figured in the ' Flora Grseca.' 

William Mills, JEsq. 

Sir John St. Auhyn, Bart., F.R.S. — A distinguished cultivator of 
the science of Mineralogy, and who possessed one of the most ex- 
tensive and valuable collections in that department of Natural His- 
tory ever formed in this country. 

James Sharpe, Esq. 

The Rev. Thomas, Lord Walsingham. 

Amongst the Foreign Members occur — 

John Frederick Blumenhach, M.D., Professor of Medicine in the 
University of Gottingen, Foreign Member of the Royal Society of 
London, and Associate of the Royal Academy of Sciences of the 
French Institute, was pre-eminently distinguished by his important 
researches in General Anatomy and Physiology, which he continued 
to prosecute during a long life ardently devoted to the advancement of 
science. He was equally remarkable for the extent and variety of his 
knowledge and the philosophical sagacity of his views. Professor 
Blumenbach died on the 22nd of January last, at the advanced age 
of 88. 

1840.] Linnean Society. lo 

Joseph Francis, Baron Jacquin, Professor of Botany and Che- 
mistry, and Director of the Imperial Botanic Garden at Vienna, to 
which appointments he succeeded on the resignation of his father, 
the celebrated traveller and botanist. He was author of Ecloga 
Plantarum, a folio work, containing descriptions and coloured figures 
of the new and rare plants which flowered in the gardens under 
his care, and also of a valuable work on birds. 

Baron Jacquin was distinguished for his urbanity and kindness, 
especially to strangers ; and few cultivators of science visited the 
Austrian capital without partaking of his good offices and hospita- 
lity. He died at Vienna, on the 10th of December, in the 74th year 
of his age. 

The President also announced that seventeen Fellows and four 
Associates had been elected since the last Anniversary. 

It was then moved by the President, and unanimously agreed to 
by the meeting ; " That the cordial thanks of the Society be given to 
Dr. Boott on his retirement from the office of Secretarj'-, for the in- 
cessant attention which he has shown to the duties of that office, and 
for the ability, zeal, and urbanity with which he has discharged those 

At the election, which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop 
of Norwich was elected President; Edward Forster, Esq., Trea- 
surer ; John Joseph Bennett, Esq., Secretary ; and Richard Taylor, 
Esq., Under-Secretary. The following five Fellows were elected 
into the Council in the room of others going out; viz. Thomas Bell, 
Esq., George Loddiges, Esq., Gideon Mantell, Esq., LL.D., Richard 
Horsman Solly, Esq., and Sir George Thomas Staunton, Bart. 

June 2. 
Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

William Felkin, Esq., of Nottingham, was elected a Fellow of 
the Society. 

Mr. George Francis, F.L.S., exhibited a portion of the trunk of 
the Lepurandra saccidora (Graham, Cat. Bomb. PI. p. 193.), from 
Western India, of the bark of which sacks and bags are made. 

Mr. Ranch exhibited a specimen of the fruit of Salisburia adianti- 
folia, which was grown last year in the Imperial Botanic Garden at 

No. IX. — Proceedings of the Linnean Societt. 

74 Linnean Society. [June 16, 

Read, " On the reproductive Organs of Equisetum." By Mr. 
Joseph Henderson, Gardener to Earl Fitzwilliam, at Milton Park, 
communicated by the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

Mr. Henderson's observations were made on Equisetum hyemale 
and other species, and embrace the entire period of development of 
the sporse and of the thecae containing them. Tlie theca is in the first 
instance filled with cells of extreme tenuity, in the interior of which 
the sporae afterwards take their origin. After the appearance of the 
sporse the containing cells gradually become thickened, and sepa- 
rate from each other; and at a still later period their walls are 
marked by spiral sutures, by means of which they are subdivided 
into two narrow bands with broad and rounded ends. As the sporae 
approach maturity these bands separate at the sutures, and the con- 
taining cell is thus resolved into its component parts, the supposed 
filaments and antherse of lledwig. The sporae, when ripe, have a 
double membrane, which is rendered evident by the addition of 
tincture of iodine. In the immature state of the thecse, up to the 
time when the spiral lines become distinctly marked on the integu- 
ment of the sporse, they form transparent membranous reticulated 
bags, the meshes of which have diiFerent directions in difierent 
parts. When the sporae have attained their full size, a new deposit 
of vegetable matter is added, and spiral vessels are formed within 
the flattened cells of which the membrane is comi^osed, and the 
outlines of which are indicated by the meshes on the surface. In 
some situations these vessels are true spirals, in others they partake 
more of the character of the annular. 

While making these observations, Mr. Henderson was not aware 
that he had been in part anticipated by Treviranus, BischofF, Meyen 
and Mohl. They difi^er, however, in some particulars from the ob- 
servations of those physiologists, who also differ from each other. 

June 16. 
The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Thomas Harris, Esq., of Kingsbury, was elected a Fellow of the 


The President nominated the four following Members of the 
Council to be Vice-Presidents for the year commencing on the 

1840.] Linnean Society. 'J 5 

25th of May last, viz. Robert Brown, Esq., Edward Forster, Esq., 
Thomas Horsfield, M.D., and Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq. 

Read, "Descriptions of some new species of the Coleopterous 
genus Cerapterus." By J. O. Westwood, Esq., F.L.S. 

In the present paper the author enumerates eight species of this 
interesting genus of the family of Paussidcs, which he distributes 
into six subgenera. The following are the characters of the new 
species : — 

1. C. Hoi-sfieldli, -piceus ; thorace antice emarginato, elytris maciiht apicali 

flavescente hand rotundata hteram y quodammodo simulante, palpo- 
rum labiahum articulo uUimo securiformi. 

2. C. quadrinotatus, piceo-niger, nitidissimus ; thorace (antice viso) sub- 

emarginato, maculis duabus mngnis ovaHbiis prope scutcllum, alterisque 
duabus apicem versus majoribus anticfe et postice lobatis rufo-fulvis. 
Long. Corp. Hn., lat. hn. 

3. C. piceus, nitidus; autennis pedibusque rufo-piceis, punctis irregula- 

ribus minutissimis. 

4. C. hrasllieiisis, fulvo-rufescens ; ocuHs albidis tenuissime punctatis, ver- 

tice depresso, tliorace intra angulos posticos utrinque foveolato. 
Long. Corp. lln., lat. lin. 

This remarkable species was discovered by Mr. Miers in the vi- 
cinity of Rio de Janeiro, and a drawing of the insect accompanies 
the present paper. Mr. Westwood regards it as the type of a new 
subgenus, which he names Homoptcrus. 

5. C. Westermanni, rufo-piceus, baud nitidus ; elytris nigris postice cruce 

rufescente notatis basi bicostatis discoque lotigitudinaliter subimpressis, 
apice rufescente. 
Long. corp. lin., lat. lin. 

Read also the conclusion of a paper, entitled " Arrangement and 
Definition of the Genera of Ferns, founded upon their venation, 
with examples of the species, and observations on the affinities of 
each genus." By Mr. John Smith, A.L.S. 

The principles of the author's arrangement are similar to those 
proposed by Presl in his Tentamen Pteridogrcqjhiee, published at 
Prague in 1836, in which the venation of the frond (a character, the 
importance of which, combined with the relation of the sori to the 
veins, was first pointed out by Mr. Brown) is adopted as the basis of 
generic division. Mr. Smith states that his arrangement was com- 
pleted before the work of Professor Presl had reached this country, 
and thinks that the coincidence of their views affords presumptive 
evidence in favour of the accuracy of the principles upon which 
their distribution of the species is founded. This extensive family. 

76 Linnean Society. [Nov. 3, 

or rather class, was divided by Mr. Brown into four very natural 
subfamilies. It is only with the first of these {Polypodiacece) that 
Mr. Smith has more particularly occupied himself in the present 
paper. The following are the names and characters of the tribes 
into which he has distributed the Polypodiacece. 

Subfam. I. POLYPODIACE^, R. Br. 

Sporangia globose, or oval, transparent, unilocular, pedicellate, or rarely 
sessile, opening transversely by the elastic property of a vertical, rarely 
oblique, articulated ring. 
Tribe I. Polypodies. Sori punctiform or elongated, destitute of a spe- 
cial indusium. 
Examples. — Pol)'podium, Sw. Grammitis, Sw, Hemionitis, L. 
Tribe II. Acrostichies. Sori amorphous, destitute of a special indusium. 

Example. — Acrostichum, L. 
Tribe III. Pterides. Sori punctiform, or elongated transversely. In- 
dusium lateral, attached exteriorly. 
Examples. — Pteris, L. Adiantum, L. 
Tribe IV. Asplenies. Sori elongated, oblique. Indusium lateral, linear. 

Examples. — Asplenium, L. Diplazium, Sw. 
Tribe V. Aspidie^. Sori punctiform, intramarginal. Indusium orbicu- 
lar and central, or reniform and lateral, and attached interiorly. 
Examples. — Aspidium, Sw. Nephrodium, Mich., R. Br. 
Tribe VI. Dicksonie-e. Sori marginal. Indusium lateral, attached in- 
teriorly, its free margin conniving with the indusiform margin of the 
frond, forming a calyciform bilabiate cyst. 
Examples. — Lindsaea, Dry. DavalUa, Sfn. Dicksonia, L'Herit. Tricho- 
manes, L. Hymenophyllum, Sm. 

Tribe VII. CyATHEiE. Sori punctiform, intramarginal. Indusiiun caly- 
ciform, or wanting. Receptacle elevated. 
Examples. — Cyatbea, Sm. Hemitelia, R. Br. Alsopbila, R. Br. 
These tribes are again subdivided into minor groups, founded upon cha- 
racters derived from the venation of the frond, the position of the sori, and 
the form of the indusium. Notholama and Ceratojiteris are referred to 
the first, Ceterach to the fourth, and Onoclea to the fifth tribes. 

Nov. 3. 
Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair, 

George Stejjhens Gough, Esq., of Rathronan House, near Clou- 
mel, and Captain D. McAdam, of the Royal Marines, were elected 
Fellows of the Society. 

1840*.] Linnean Society. 77 

Mr. William Taylor, F.L.S., exhibited a sample of the oil obtained 
from the fruit of Madia saliva, grown at Aspall Stoneham, near 

Read, " A Note on the Bokhara Clover." By William Taylor, 
Esq., F.L.S. 

Mr. Taylor obtained from Mr. Loudon a small parcel of seeds of the 
Bokhara Clover (Melilotus arborea), which was sown early in April, 
1839. The plant proved to be biennial, and stood the winter well. 
On the 28th of April following, a part of the crop was cut down, the 
stems measuring 15 inches in height ; and on the 28th of May, from 
the same piece of ground, a second crop was obtained, which had 
reached the height of 16 inches; a third on the 2Sth of June, 17 
inches ; a fourth in July, 16 inches ; a fifth in August, 15 inches ; 
and a sixth in September, measuring 14 inches. According to Mr. 
Taylor's calculation, the Bokhara Clover would yield from 20 to 30 
tons of green herbage per acre, and from 2 to 3 tons of strong fibre 
which appears capable of being manufactured into cordage. 

The flowers are white and very fragrant, and the plant does not 
appear to diiFer specifically from the Melilotus leucantha, although 
regarded by DeCandolle as a distinct species. 

There were also read, " Descriptions of some new Insects collected 
in Assam, by William Griffith, Esq., Assistant Surgeon on the Madras 
Medical Establishment." By the Rev. F. W. Hope, M. A., F.R.S., 
and L.S. 

This paper contains a further selection of new insects from Mr. 
Griffith's Assam collection in the possession of Mr. Solly, an account 
of part of which has been already noticed at p. 42, and has since 
appeared in the Society's Transactions. The descriptions are ac- 
companied by coloured figures. The species described belong chiefly 
to the group of Lucanida, and are as follows : — 


1. L. Forsteri. 

Long. unc. 2, lin. 11 ; lat. elytr. lin. 10. 

Nigro-piceiis ; mandibulis valde exsertis interne multidentatis ad basin 
dente valido supra et infra armatis, apicibus ftircatis. 

This species has been named in compliment to Edward Forster, 
Esq., Treas. and V.P.L.S. 

2, L. Rafflesii. 

Long. unc. 2, lin. 6 ; lat. lin. 8. 

78 Linnean Society. [Nov. 3, 

Niger, nitidus ; mandibulis valde exsertis ante apicem unidentatis, apici- 
bus obtusis et oblique truncatis. 

This species is nearly related to L. nepalensis, but is of larger di- 
mensions, and is extensively diffused over the eastern part of the 
Indian continent, occurring in Nepal, Bengal, and Assam. 

3. L. Spencei. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 9 ; lat. lin. 6. 

Ater; mandibulis exsertis basi robustis et unidentatis, apicibus furcatis. 

4. L. ciirvidens. 

Long. unc. I, lin. 9 ; lat, lin. 6^. 

Niger ; mandibulis exsertis intus dente curvato valido fere ad basin po- 

5. L. bidbosus. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 6; lat. lin. 6. 

Nigvo-castaneus ; mandibulis exsertis dentibus bulbosis armatis, apicibus 

6. L. astacoides. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 3; lat. lin. 4. 

Castaneus ; mandibulis exsertis intiis ad basin denticulatis denticulis ni- 
gricantibus, apicibus acutis. 

7. L.foveatus. 

Long. unc. 2 ; lat. lin. 6. 

Castaneus; mandibulis valdfe exsertis, apicibus acutis, dente fere medio 
fortiori, aliisque 4 aequalibus ante apicem positis. 

8. L. omissus. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 9; lat. lin. 6, 

Castaneus ; mandibulis valde exsertis, apicibus acutis, dentibus 2 nigris 
subbasalibus, aliisque 4 subapicalibus. 

9. L. serricoUis. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 3 ; lat. lin. 6. 

Ater, politus ; mandibulis parum exsertis sinuatis et punctatis. 

10. L. punctiger. 

Long. lin. 9J ; lat. lin. 4. 

Ater ; corpore punctate nitido, thoracis marginibus externis serratis, 
elytris sutura pariim elevata glabra insignitis, tibiis 4 posticis uniden- 


Corpws oblongo-ovatum, crassum. AntenncB \0-3.r\.\c\Aa.i2s. Thorax ely- 
tris antice angustior, lateribus subrotundis, valde serrulatis. Elytra 
thorace latiora. Pedes robusti, armati, antice longiores ; tibiis externa 
irregulariter dentatis : tarsis elongatis, articulis apice spina brevi ar- 
matis, unguibus bidentatis. Tihiw 4 posticce seriebus spinarum irre- 
gularibus armats. 

1. C. MacLeayii. 

Long. lin. 23 ; lat. lin. 13. 


1840.] Linnean Society. 79 

iEneo-viridis ; thorace lateribus externe serrulatis et varioloso-punctatis, 
sulco longitudinal! in medio dorso fortiter impresso, elytris nigro-seneis 
maculisque croceis insignitis. 
The insect which forms the tj'pe of the above new genus, has 
been named in compliment to Mr. W. S. MacLeay. It forms, 
along with Eucheirus of Kirby, and Protomacrus of Newman, a 
small natural famUy, which has been termed by the author Euchei- 
rida, and is regarded by him as related to the Dynastidce, and con- 
stituting a link of connexion with the Goliathida. 

1. Z. Swainsoni. 

Long. uuc. 1 , lin. 4 ; lat. Hn. 6. 

Brunnea; thorace utrinque spinoso, dorso convexo in medio bulboso, 
elytris concoloribus albo-variegatis et ad basin nigro-tuberculatis. 

This species, which has been named after Mr. Swainson, appears 
to constitute a subgenus related to EuopUa, described in the first 
part of the account of Assam Insects at p. 42. 

1. M. heryUinus. 

Long. lin. 8 ; lat. Im. 3. 

Cceiuleo-beryllinus ; antennis griseis, thorace utrinque spinoso elytrisque 

Corpus Saperdreforme, crassum, robustiim. Caput latum, antice fer^ 
quadratum, postice convexum. AntenncB cor^ove breviores, 11-articu- 
latas. Thorax robustus, nodosus, inermis. Elytra lata, thorace vix 
triple longiora, apicibus abmpte truncatis, lateribus elevatis. Pedes 
femoribus incrassatis, tibiis robustis. 

1. S. teiraspllota. 

Long. lin. 10; lat. lin. 3^. 

Aurantio-rubra ; antennis oculisque nigris, thorace nodoso, elytris conco- 
loribus, macula magna ovali nigra ad Immeros posita, apicibus nigris. 

2. S. trilineata. 

Long. lin. 9 ; lat. lin. 3. 

Pallide castanea ; antennis albo-cinctis, thorace nodoso utrinque denticu- 
lato, elytris lineis 3 nigris insignitis, sutura latiori, lateribus punctatis, 
punctis duplici serie ad disci medium fortissimfe insculptis. 

A new genus belonging to the SaperdidiE, to which family the 
Lamia nigricornis is also refenible, besides several other tj-pes of 
undescribed genera. 

80 Linnean Society. [Nov. 17^ 

November 17. 

Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Janson, F.L.S., exhibited specimens of the Neottia tEstivalis, 
discovered in August last by liimself and Mr. Branch, near Lynd- 
hurst, Hampshire, being the first time it had been observed in 

Mr. Ogilby, F.L.S., exhibited a specimen in flower of a new 
species of clover recently introduced from Cabul, remarkable for the 
quantity of herbage which it yields. The species is very nearly re- 
lated to Trifolium resupinatum. 

Read, " Description of Aucklandia, a new genus of Compositce, 
supposed to be the Costus of Dioscorides." By Hugh Falconer, 
M.D., Superintendent of the Honourable East India Company's 
Botanic Garden at Saharunpore. Communicated by Dr. Royle, 
F.R.S. & L.S. 

This interesting plant, the root of which, under the name of koot, 
forms an important article of Cashmeer commerce, is considered by 
Dr. Falconer as identical with the long-disputed Costus of the an- 
cients, and his opinion appears to be borne out by the accordance 
of the root with the description given by Dioscorides, by the striking 
analogy of the Arabian synonym koost to its Greek and Cashmeer 
appellations, and also by the commercial history of the drug. 

The roots, which are possessed of a strong aromatic and pun- 
gent odour, are collected in large quantities, principtdly for export- 
ation to China, where they are held in high repute, as an aphrodisiac, 
and are also burnt as incense in the temples. The quantity annu- 
ally collected varies from 10,000 to 12,000 khurwars (of 96 seers, 
or 192 lbs.,) or about 2,000,000 lbs. weight. At Canton the price 
per cwt. is 21. 7s. 5d., while the cost at the depot in Cashmeer is 
only 25. 4:d. 

The plant is not held in much repute as a medicine by the Cash- 
meerians, who are only astonished at the estimation in which it is 
held in other countries ; nor do they apply it to any other use than 
that of protecting bales of shawls from the attacks of moths : por- 
tions of the stem are, however, suspended from the necks of children 
to avert the " evil eye," and to expel worms. 

The plant is regarded by Dr. Falconer as constituting the type of 
a new genus of Cynarece, which he has named in compliment to the 
present Governor- General of India; and as it was discovered during 

1S40.] Linnean Society. 81 

a journey in Cashmeer, commenced under Lord Auckland's auspices, 
and yields a valuable product, he regards the name as peculiarly 
appropriate. The Aucklandin is a gregarious plant, growing in great 
abundance on the moist open slopes of the mountains which sur- 
round the valley of Cashmeer, at an elevation of from 8000 to 9000 
feet above the level of the sea, but like some other plants of that re- 
gion, it is extremely local, being confined to the immediate vicinity 
of the valley. The genus is nearly related to Saussurea, and is stated 
to be chiefly distinguished by the rays of its feathery pappus being 
disposed in two rows, and cohering by twos or threes at the base. 
The following is the author's character of the genus: 


Capitulum homogamum. Antherarum caudee lanato-plumosEe. Pappi 
setacei lamellce biseriales, plumosas, basi ternatiiu quaternatimve co- 
haerentes, in annulum deciduum concretse. Achenium glabrum, 

Herba orgyaUs, radice perenni ramosd crassd, caule erecto simplici 
sulcata glabro foUoso, foliis suhlyratis margine setaceo-dentatis supra 
glahris atrovirentibus suhtus glaucescentibus venis pubertdis, cap'ituUs 
numeros'is terminalibus aggregatis, jloribus atropurpureis. 

Sp. A. Costus. 

December I. 
Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Gould, F.L.S., exhibited a specimen of a nondescript Lizard 
from New Holland, remarkable for the extreme aculeation of its 

Mr. William Cumming presented specimens of Lagurus ovatus, 
Briza maxima, and Mentha crispa, which he stated that he had 
gathered in the vicinity of Saffron Walden, Essex, 

Read, " On a White Incrustation on Stones, from the bed of the 
river Annan." By Edwin Lanlvester, M.D., F.L.S, 

During a short stay which the author made last summer on the 
banks of the Annan, in Dumfries-shire, his attention was arrested by 
the appearance of the stones on the banks of the river. Wherever 
a mass of gravel was exposed to the air, the surface of the stones 
appeared covered with a white incrustation, as if they had been 
white-Avashed. This appearance was more or less general on all 

No. X. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

82 Linnean Society. [Dec. 1, 

the exposed banks, but was most evident on the stones nearest the 
water's edge. On examimng the stones with a pocket-lens, their 
surface appeared covered with acicular crystals, and hence it was 
at first concluded that the incrustation arose from the crystalliza- 
tion of some salt abounding in the waters. On procuring, however, 
some stones from the water itself, they presented on their surfaces 
the filaments of a minute conferva, which appeared to be the source 
of the white crust ; but as the existence of the conferva would not 
explain the crystalline appearance, it was examined under the micro- 
scope, and was found to proceed from minute acicular bodies about 
jJ,^) th of an inch long and g-oV o*-^ °^ ^^ ^"^^^ broad, which were most 
of them arranged in a stellate form, although many were scattered 
in all directions. Running under the whole were the filaments of a 
minute conferva, on which the acicular bodies rested. 

In Greville's Scottish Cryptogamic Flora, similar bodies are re- 
ferred to the genus Exilai'ia, but Dr. Lankester describes the stellate 
arrangement of the aciculse as giving to those examined by him a 
different character from E. fasciculata. Hooker, in his continuation 
of Smith's 'English Flora,' has placed Greville's name as a synonym 
of Diatoma truncatum, from which D. fasciculatiim is believed not to 
be distinct. 

In Ehrenberg's work on the Infusoria, these bodies are figured 
and described (p. 11. tab. xvii.) as Polygastric animalcules of the 
family Bacillaria. The genus to which they belong is Synedra, and 
the Bpecies which they most closely resemble is the Synedra Ulna, 
which is characterized by being striated, with linear corpuscles, 
straight, truncated at the sides, flat on the back and belly, with the 
apex a little dilated as the individuals become aged. The bodies 
from the Annan are not striated, nor are their ends dilated, although 
they appear to be fuU-grown. The siliceous skeletons in which these 
little animals are invested account for their white appearance. Al- 
though similar bodies have been often described both as plants and 
animals, the author believes that no notice has been taken of their 
producing the phsenomenon here described. 

Read also, " Observations on the Genus Derbe of Fabricius." 
By John O. Westwood, Esq., F.L.S. 

After noticing the recent memoirs by Messrs. Percheron and 
Boheman on this little-known Fabrician genus, and its very close 
relationship to Otiocerus and Anotia of Kirby, the author states that 
the Fabrician type of the genus, D. hcemorrhoidalis, is quite distinct 
from the group described as such by the two first-mentioned authors. 

1840.] L'iiineua Society. 83 

He accordingly restricts the generic name Derbe to the typical spe- 
cies, with the following characters : 

Derbe. Rostrum ad medium abdominis extensum, aiticulo apicali minute. 
Antennas breviores. Oculi subrotundati. Alse longiores, angustiores, 
costa anticarum ante apicem incisa, venis numerosis, longitudinalibus, 
in medio venis transversis conjunctis, mediana ramos lOlongitudinales 
emittente ; alae posticas vena postcostali 4-fida. 

In addition to the typical species and D. nervosa, Klug, Burm., 
the author adds the two following species to the typical group : 

1. D. semistriaia, luteo-fulva ; alis paUidis costa magis fidvescenti venis 
nigricantibus strigisque tenuibus fuscis inter venas (nisi in cellulis api- 
calibus) dispositis. Expans. alar. lin. 16J. Brasilia. Mus. Westw. 

2. Z). strigipetmis, pallide fusco-lutea ; thoracis dorso carinaque faciei 
sanguineis, alarum venis fuscis, strigls tenuibus fuscescentibus inter 
venas omnes ad apicem alarum carentibus, pedibus albidis. Expans. 
alar. lin. 14. Brasilia. Mus. Westw. 

Mysidia. Rostrum ultra pedes posticos baud extensum. Antennae me- 
diocres. Oculi rotundati. Alae breviores, latiores, pulverosae ; anticEe 
integrae, venis paucioribus, vena mediana ramos tres emittente, ramo 
medio bifido ; posticae vena postcostali bifida aut trifida. 

The variation in the position and number of the veins of the 
wings affording a character of primary importance for distinguish- 
ing the preceding groups, the author has at some length entered 
into an examination of their normal state and direction, and the 
manner in which they become modified. The following species are 
referred to this subgenus : Derbe pallida. Fab., (described and 
figured by Percheron from the Copenhagen Cabinet as the type of 
the genus,) D. squamigera, Fab., D. costalis. Fab., and probabl)'' 
D. punctum. Fab., D. testacea, Fab., and D. nivea. Fab., as well as 
the following new species : 

M. albipennis, parva, tenera ; alis albis, anlicis puncto parvo ante me- 
dium costae punctis nonnullis ad marginem internum venis trans- 
versis punctoque ante apicem nigris, lunulis parvis marginalibus fuscis. 
Expans. alar. lin. 8. Vera Cruz. Mus. Westw. 

M. lactifora, luteo-albida ; vertice coUarisque margine antico parum 
sanguineis, hujus margine postico margineque postico tegularum albis, 
alis albis margine antico lutescente versus basin macuUs tribus parvis 
maculaque majori ante apicem nigris. Expans. alar. lin. 12^. Brasilia. 
Mus. Westw. 

M. suhfasciata, alba ; alis fusco transverse nebulosis puncto ante apicem 
nigro ad basin areae parvae triangularis subapicalis, venis 4 transversis 
obscuris. Brasilia. Mus. D. Burchell, et Soc. Zool. Lond. 

84 Linnean Society. [Dec. 1, 

Lydda. Rostnun brevius. Antennse breves. Aire anticse valde elongatce, 
apice rotundatEB, directione venarum anomala ; vegioiie veiice mediance 
minima, aut potius ejus rami in ven^ postcostalis ramos transibrmati. 

The type of this subgenus is Derbe elongata, Fab., from New 
Holland, in the cabinet of the Linnean Society. 

Zeugma. Rostrum ultra basin pedum posticonim extensum. Antennas 
rotundatae. Ocelli obsoleti ? Prothorax lateribus pro antennarum re- 
ceptions concavo-dilatatis. AltB anticse oblongo-ovatce, apice subtrun- 
catae, venis numerous longitudinalibus; vena postcostali ramos 8 postice, 
mediana tantum tres emittente. 

This subgenus is stated to be intermediate between Derbe and 
Thracia on the one hand, and Mysidia on the other. The only spe- 
cies is 
Z. vittata, fulva ; alls anticis flavidis vitta lata media apicem versus 
deflexa alteraque postica parallela apice vitta abbreviata fasciaque 
tenui transversa fuscis. In Mus. Soc. Linn. 

Thracia. Rostrum pectore longius. Antennse capite fere duplo longi- 
ores. Oculi orbiculati. Ocelli nuUi ? AXse anticse longissimae, angusta;, 
apice truncatse, venis 12 longitudinalibus inter angulum apicalem et 
regionem analem. 

This subgenus is proposed for the two African species, D. sinuosa 
and D. nervosa, described by Boheman, and considered by him as 
constituting the first section of the genus. Notwithstanding the 
difference of its geographical range, the author adds the following 
species from Java, which agrees with the other two in all the sub- 
generic characters : 

T. javanica, fulva ; abdomine obscuriore vitta central! pallidiori, alis 
pallide hyalinis anticis fascia lata costali fusca. Java. D. Horsfield. 
In Mus. Soc. Mercat. Ind. 

Phenice. Rostrum pectore vix longius. Antennae capite manifeste bre- 
viores. Oculi oblongi, vel obovati, distincte emarginati. Ocelli di- 
stinct!. Alse anticEe quara in Thracia breviores, apice subrotundatse, 
venis fere ut in Mysidia dispositis, 12 longitudinalibus inter angulum 
apicalem et regionem analem. 

This subgenus is proposed for the three African species, D. fritil- 
larisyfasciolata, and stellulata, described by Boheman, and forming 
his second section of Derbe. 

After reviewing the characters of the preceding subgenera, the 
author expresses the opinion that Otiocerus (including Hypnis, 
Burm,) and Anotia of Kirby, must also be considered as subgenera 
of equal rank with the preceding ; that Anotia coccinea, Guer. Icon. 

1840.] Linncan Sociel?/, 85 

R. An. MS. pi. 58, f. 3, forms another subgenus ; and that the two 
following groups also constitute two other subgenera of Derbe : 

Patara. Rostrum ad basin pedum posticorum extensum. Oculi maximi, 
subtiis emarginati. Ocelli obsoleti. Antenna5 maximas, compressse, 
verrucosse, apice subtruncato et setigero. Alse anticas longitudine 
mediocres, apice rotundat^, venis paucis cellulisque tribus discoidali- 
P. guttata, capite thoraceque fulvis, alis anticis griseo-fuscis margine albo- 

guttatis. Insula S^' Vincentii. D. Guilding. Mus. D. Hope. 
P. alhida, luteo-albida; antennis nigricantibus, alis anticis albis farinosis 
apicem versus fuscescenti-tinctis, guttis albis sanguineisque ornatis. 
Insula S'" Vincentii. D. Guilding. Mus. D. Hope. 

Cenchrea. Frons pariim producta. Oculi magnl, emarginati. Ocelli 2. 
Antennae minute, articulo 2do brevi subrotundato. Protborax latus, 
lateribus pro veceptione antennarum concavo-dilatatis. Alis anticre 
elongatee, angulo antico apicali valde obtuso, venis perpaucis longi- 
C. dorsalis, pallide testaceo-fulva ; alis anticis flaveseentibus margine 
interno fuscis apice punctis duobus purpureis. Insula S*' Vincentii. 
D. Guilding. Mus. D. Hope. 

The species above described, together with their structural cha- 
racters, and especially the variations in the direction of the veins of 
the wings, were illustrated by numerous magnified figures- 

December 15. 
Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

The Rev. William Cuthbert, D.D., and WilUam Griffith, Esq., 
of the Hon. East India Company's Medical Service, were elected 

Read, an " Account of two new Genera of Plants, allied to Ola- 
cineee." By George Bentham, Esq., F.L.S. 

The two new genera on which this paper is founded are Pogope- 
talum, Benth., collected by Mr. Schomburgk in British Guiana ; and 
Apodytes, named but not described by Prof. Ernst Meyer, among 
the South African plants collected byDrege. A third genus, Lere- 
tia of Vellozo, figured in the ' Flora Fluminensis,' is also character- 
ized for the first time. 

After noticing the opinions of various authors as to the affinities 

86 Linnean Society. [Dec. 15, 

of Olacinea, and enumerating the genera hitherto referred to that 
family, Mr. Bentham enters into a detailed examination of its cha- 
racters and of their modifications in the different genera, the most 
important of which he condenses into the following character of the 


Calyx parvus, liber v. basi adnatus, truncatus v. denticulatus, fructifer 
persistens immutatus v. auctus. CoroUts petala 4, 5, v. 6 hypogyna v. 
subperigyna, subcoriacea, asstivatione valvata, libera v. per paria con- 
nexa v. basi in tubum coalita. Sfamma definite, cum petalis inserta, 
iis coalita v. libera, numero petalovum dupla v. aequalia fertilia rarius 
asymmetrica, alterna saepe sterilia difformia. Antherae intrors^, bilo- 
culares, loculis rima longitudinal! dehiscentibus. Ovarium toro nunc 
parvo, nunc incrassato et interdum cum calyce concrete insidens, l-lo- 
culare (nunc spurie et incomplete 3 — 4-loculare) v. rarius excentrice 3- 
loculare. Ovula in loculo 2, 3 v. 4 coUateralia, rarius solitaria, ab apice 
placentae liberse v. ovario v. dissepimentis spuriis connatae pendula, ana- 
tropa. Stylus erectus, simplex, stigmate nunc truncate tenui, nunc 
incrassato 2 — 3 — 4-lobo. Drupa calyce immutato stipata v. ampliato 
cincta, velata v. adnata, pericarpio tenui carnoso v. exsucco, putamine 
crustaceo v. osseo, abortu 1-spermo, rariiis 2 — 3-spermo. Semen in- 
versum, v. saepius placenta cum illo a basi concreta spuria erectum, 
umbilico lato basilari affixum. Embryo in axi albuminis copiosi carnosi, 
rectus, apici fructus proximus, nunc brevissimus, rarius dimidio albu- 
minis longior. radicula apicem fructus spectante brevissima, cotyledo- 
nibus semiteretibus, plumula inconspicua. Arhores v. frutices erecti 
V. interdum scandentes, inermes v. ramis axillaribus spinescentibus ar- 
mati, glabi'iv. parce pubescentes. i^oZia alterna, simplicia, integeiTima, 
exstipulata, glandulosa. Flores hermaphroditi, v. abortu polygami, 
nunc axillares distincte v. irregulariter racemosi, spicati v. cymosi, nunc 
terminales cymoso-paniculati, rariiis solitarii laterales v. axillares. Brac- 
tece squamaeformes, seepius minutse, rariiis juniores imbricatae. Brac- 
teolce parvae in cupulam connatae v. nullse. 

Mr. Bentham distinguishes three tribes characterized as follows : 
Trib. I. OLACEiE. Ovarium basi dissepimentis spuriis (rarius evanidis) 
3 — 4-loculare, apice 1-loculare, placenta centrali dissepimentis spuriis 
basi adhaerente superne libera. Ovula tot quot loculi spurii ex apice 
placentas pendula. Semen erectum. Injlorescent'm axillaris, racemosa, 
racemis rarius ad florem unicum reductis . 

Trib. II. OpiLiEiE. Ovarium a basi 1-loculare. Ovulum (saltem per an- 
thesin) unicum, minimum, ab apice placentae liberae centralis pendu- 
lum. Stylus centricus. Semen erectun\. Injlorescentia axillaris, ra- 

Trib. III. IcAciNE.E. Ovarium a basi 1-loculare, v. excentrice et complete 

1840.] Linnean Society. 87 

3-locnlare. Ovula in quoqiie loculo duo, ab apice placentje hinc ovario 
adnatte collateraliter affixa, pendula, in loculo superposita, placenta al- 
tera elongata. Stylus excentricus. Semen pendulum. Injlorescentia 
cymosa, axillaris v. terminalis. 

To the first tribe Mr. Bentham refers Heisteria, L., Ximenia, L., 
Ohix, L. (including Spermaxyrum, LabilL, and Fissilia, Comm.),* and 
Schcepjia, L. ; to the second, Opilia, Roxb. (including Groutia, Guill.), 
and Cansjera, Lam. ; and to the third, Gomphandra, Wall., Icacina, 
A. Juss., Apodytes, Leretia and Pogopetalum. 

He considers Schcepfia to be far removed from Loranthacete by the 
structure of its ovary, while it differs from Symplocos in the aestiva- 
tion of its corolla and the incomplete division of its ovary, — two 
points in which it agrees remarkably with Olax and Ximenia. He 
describes the greater part of its ovary as well as the margin of its 
calyx as free, and states that an adherence almost as complete exists 
in some species of Olax. The gamopetalous corolla he regards as a 
character of little consequence in orders where the aestivation is val- 
vate, and as existing to a considerable degree in Olax itself. In 
Schapfia the stamens are more closely adherent to the corolla, but 
the filaments are filiform and prominent from the base of the latter, 
and are not confounded with its substance. 

He states Cansjera to differ from Thymelea, to which it is usually 
referred, in the nature of the floral envelopes, in the position of the 
stamens, and in the structure of the ovary and of the fruit ; and adds, 
that in all these points it agrees with Opilia, from which it differs 
onh" in the adherence of its petals. 

The genera Apodytes, Leretia and Pogopetalum are characterized 

as follows : 


Flores hermaphroditi. Calyx parvus, immutatus. Petala 4, 5. Stamina 
totidem, iis alterna, sterilia nulla. Ovarium 1-loculare. Fructns ovato- 
reniformis, subcompressus, hinc appendice carnosa auctus. Infiores- 
centia terminalis. 


Flores hermaphroditi, v. abortu masculi. Calyx parvus, immutatus. Pe- 
tala 0, intus villosa. Stamina totidem, iis alterna, sterilia nulla. Ova- 
rium 1-loculare. Fructus(ex icone Fl. Flum.) depresso-globosus. InJlo~ 
rescentia axillaris, laxa. 


Flores hermaphroditi. Calyx parvus (fructifer parum auctus ?). Pelala 
4, 5, intus villosa. Stamina totidem, iis alterna, sterilia nulla. Ova- 
rium 3-loculare. Fructus depresso-globosus ? Injlorescentia axillaris, 

88 Linnean Society. [Dec. 15, 

Of the latter genus two species are characterized : 
P. orbiculatum, foliis ovato-orbiculatis obtusissimis subtus ramulisque in- 
canis, ovario bispido. — A tshrub ten or twelve feet in height, found in 
dry Savannahs on the Padawire River, Scliomhurgk. 

P. acuminatum, foliis ovatis oblongisve acuminatis subtus vix pallidioribus, 
ovario glabro. — A tree of about thirty feet high, growing on the high 
banks of the Rio Negro, Schomhurgk, n, 970. 

Mr. Bentham suggests that the three tribes above characterized 
may perhaps, when better known, be considered as distinct orders. 
He thinks, however, that the species of Olax in v/hich the dissepi- 
ments of the ovary are almost entirely obliterated form a transition 
to Opiliea: ; that Gomphandra connects Opiliece with Icacinece ; and 
that Pogopetalum is in many respects equally allied to Olacea and to 
Icacinece. He states that Olacecs approach most nearly to the poly- 
petalous orders with which Olacinea have been compared ; but he 
cannot admit of the supposed affinity between them and Aurantiacece. 
Humiriacece are, he thinks, among Dichlamydeous plants, those which 
come nearest to Olacinea ; and he considers Styraceee (including 
SymplocecB and Halesiaceee of Don) to be very near both to Humi- 
riace(B and Olacineee. Cornece and some other albuminous orders 
have also, in his opinion, some relation to them, but much more 

He considers the nearest approach to Santalacece to occur in the 
tribe Opiliece, where the caljrx is reduced to little more than a dila- 
tation of the torus ; and if it be admitted that there are true Santa- 
laceous genera with a superior ovary, and if he is right in supposing 
that, in the young buds of Opilia and Cansje?-a, there is more than one 
ovule, these two genera become so nearly intermediate, in his opi- 
nion, between Olacea and Santalacece, as to have nearly as much 
claim to be associated with the latter as with the former. 

Lastly, he states that Icacinea; recede from the two other tribes in 
the adherence of the placenta to one angle of the ovarium, and in 
the seed being consequently pendulous and not erect; a circumstance 
which would have led him to propose it as a distinct order, were it 
not for the remarkable resemblance in the floral parts to some true 
Olacineous genera, and the absence of any other distinctive character 
of importance. 

In the notes to the paper Mr, Bentham characterizes several un- 
described species of Olax in the following terms : 

0. nana (Wall. Cat. Herb. Ind. n. 678-1.) suffruticosa ? glabriuscula, ra- 
mis erectis parce ramosis, foliis subsessilibus oblongis lanceolatisve ob- 

1840.] Linnean Society. 89 

tusis vix mucronulatis, pedicellis axillaribus solitariis 1-floris, calyce 
libero, staminibus sterilibus bifidis. — Napalia ? Wallich. 

O. acuminata (Wall. I. c. n. 67S1.), fruticosa scandens ? glabra, ramis an- 
gulatis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis, racemis brevibus distichis 
paucifloris, calyce toro incrassato basi breviter adnato, staminibiis ste- 
rilibus bifidis. — Sillet, Wallich. 

O. macrophylla, glaberrima, foliis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis insequila- 
teris, racemis axillaribus brevibus disticbis, calycibus glabris ovarii 
basi adnatis : margine libero truncate, staminibus sterilibus integris v. 
vix emarginatis, ovario glabro. — In Monte Padawan Guianae Anglicse, 

O. paucijfora, foliis ovatis junioribus ramulis pedicellisque puberulis, pe- 
dunculis axillaribus 1 — 3-floris, calycibus molliter pubescentibus ovarii 
basi adnatis : margine libero brevissimo truncato, staminibus sterilibus 
longe bifidis, ovario villoso. — Serra Acurua Provincire Bahiensis Bra- 
siliae ; Blanchet, n. 2795. — An hue Dulacia singularis, Veil. Fl. Flum. ? 

January 19, 1841. 

Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

John MacClelland, Esq., of the Hon. East India Company's Me- 
dical Service, was elected a Fellow ; and Mr. F. Westcott, of Bir- 
mingham, an Associate of the Society. 

Mr, Mann, F.L.S., exhibited a specimen of Sedum Telephium, 
which had been preserved for two years in his Herbarium, and still 
continued to send forth buds. 

Mr. Babington, F.L.S., exhibited some Fir-cones taken from be- 
neath about ten feet of solid peat at Burrishoole, near Newport, co. 
Mayo, where they were accompanied by nuts of Corylus Avellana. 
He stated that the trees in that part of Ireland had all been de- 
stroyed for about 200 years, and that no individuals of either species 
now occur within very many miles, except a few planted of late 
years and far from this locahty. Professor Don remarked, that the 
Cones diifered from either of the varieties of Pinus sylvestris at pre- 
sent found in Scotland ; and that they so entirely resembled those of 
the alpine form of that species, figured by Jacquin under the name of 
Pinus Miighus, as to leave but httle doubt of their identity. He 
added, that he regarded Pinus Pumilio as only another form of the 
same species. 

No. XI. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

90 Linnean Society. [Jan. 19, 

Read, " A Description of a new genus of Linece." By Charles 
Cardale Babington, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

This genus, which Mr. Babington regards as assisting to establish 
more fully the relationship of LinetE to Malvacece, is stated to differ 
from the usual structure of Line^ by its imbricated and not contorted 
petals, which are also not unguiculate, although slightly attenuated 
below, and by the remarkably thick coats of its one-seeded, perfectly 
closed carpels. Its essential character is given as follows : 


Sepala 5, integra. Petala 5, in sestivatione imbricata. Stamina 5. Cap- 
sula lO-locularis; loculis clausis indehiscentibus. 

The plant on which the genus is founded was raised in the Cam- 
bridge Botanic Garden from seeds gathered in the interior of New 
South Wales by Mr. Melluish, and has flowered there during three 
successive years. 

Read also, " Extracts of Letters from Wm. Griffith, Esq., F.L.S., 
to R. H. Solly, Esq., F.L.S." 

In the first of these letters, dated from Olipore, April 8th, 1840, 
Mr. Griffith states that he had recently examined two species of 
Ephedra, and had no doubt that the ovulum is, as described by 
Mr. Brown, naked. The first of these species has a very siliceous 
stem,* without stomata, unless certain discs blocked up with some 
hard matter (silex }) are to be so considered ; which he believes to 
be the correct view, inasmuch as the other species, which has no 
siliceous deposit, has stomata of the ordinary structure arranged in 
a similar manner. 

He had also examined the ovaria of some Orchideous plants, in 
which he found, in conformity with Mr. Brown's observations, that 
the cords sent down to the placentae and subdividing into branches, 
one of which passes on each side of each placenta, do not exist before 
impregnation. He adds, that the size of the cords is certainly in 
proportion to the degree of solution of the pollinia by the stigmatic 

In another letter, dated April 23rd, Mr. Griffith describes the 
ovule of the outer cell of Callipeltis } (that of the inner being always 
abortive) as deriving its membranous covering from the inner layer 
of the ovarium. The ovulum itself he states to be reduced to its 
nucleus, but otherwise exactly to resemble those ovula which have 
their foramen near the hilura. The same structure, he adds, exists in 
the two species of Galium found in the neighbourhood ; the seed 

1841.] lAnnean Society. 91 

having no proper covering except the albumen and embryonary sac, 
its proper coat adhering intimately with the free inner layer of the 
ovary, and this again adhering slightly with the calycine layer of that 

In another letter, dated from Cabul, July 23rd, 1840, Mr. Griffith 
alludes to the mode of attachment of Cuscuta and Orobanche. Cuscuta, 
he says, differs in this respect but little from Loranthus : the suckers 
stop at the first completely-formed wood, and never penetrate 
further, and both the cortical and ligneous systems pass into the 
stock. In Orobanche, which, however, he has only slightly examined, 
the attachment seems to him to be made only by a bundle of ducts 
derived from the outer part of the central system, which spread out 
into a disc over the surface of the first completely-formed wood they 
meet. He states the Cuscuta examined to be a gigantic species in 
extent, infesting willows, poplars, a species of Eleeagnus and the 
Alhagi Maurorum. It also preys, he says, extensively on itself; and 
one of its intricate masses, half covering a willow-tree twenty or 
thirty feet high, presents a remarkable spectacle. 

February 2. 

Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Addresses of Congratulation to Her Majesty and to His Royal 
Highness Prince Albert, on Her Majesty's safe delivery of a Princess, 
were read and agreed to. 

Read a paper " On a peculiar kind of Organs existing in the 
Pitcher of Nepenthes distillatoria." By Prof. Don, Libr. L.S. 

These organs, named by Prof. Don ' clathrophores,' occupy the 
lower half of the inside of the pitcher, and have been described by 
Treviranus, Meyen and Korthals. Doubts stUl exist as to their 
precise function ; but it appears to him probable either that they are 
the mouths by which the fluid is poured out into the pitcher, or that 
they are connected with the function of respiration. 

He thinks with M. Morren that the pitcher originates from the 
lamina of the leaf, the margins of which become united at an early 
period ; while he regards the operculum as formed upon the plan of 
the cucuUate sepal and petals of Aconitum, and derived from the apex 

92 Linnean Society. [Feb. 2, 

of the leaf. He regards the pitchers of Sarracenia as formed upon 
the same principle ; but compares those of Cephalotus to the labellum 
of Cypripedium, the modified leaf being produced anteriorly into a 
pouch, and the operculum being posterior, and riot anterior, as in 

The cuticle of the upper surface of the expanded part of the pe- 
tiole of Nepenthes distillatoria is described as destitute of stomata; 
that of the under surface as being furnished with numerous oval, or 
nearly orbicular stomata, composed of two semicircular cellules with 
rectilinear faces. That of the outer surface of the pitcher is also 
without stomata, but covered, especially in the young state, with 
long subulate hairs, frequently dichotomous, or furnished with a spur- 
like process at their base. The outer surface of the operculum is 
sparingly furnished with stomata, and clothed with hairs which are 
frequently branched and fasciculate ; the inner has no stomata, but 
is furnished with clathrophores and clothed with hairs, which are 
often fasciculate, but mostly simple. 

In Sarracenia purpurea the cuticle of the pitchers is described as 
consisting of sinuously-lobed and somewhat stelliform cellules, with 
numerous small, oval, closed stomata. The fibrous bundles are 
stated to be composed entirely of long pleurenchyma, the paren- 
chyma adjacent to which consists of beautiful spiral cellules. The 
hairs of the inner surface of the operculum are simple, hollow, re- 
flexed, subulate, and marked with numerous longitudinal parallel 
lines or striae ; they proceed from a somewhat elevated base. In the 
pitchers of Cephalotus the stomata are large, oval and closed ; the 
spiral vessels smaller than in Nepenthes, and containing only a single 
fibre ; and the hairs which form the fringed border are simple, ob- 
tuse and transparent. 

Read also " A Descriptive Catalogue of the Graminece and Cype- 
racea: contained in the Indian Herbarium of Dr. Royle." By C. G. 
Nees von Esenbeck, F.M.L.S., President of the Imperial Leopoldino- 
Caroline Academy Naturae Curiosorum. 

The following are the characters of the new genera described in 
this paper. 


Leptathekum, Nees. 

' Spiculce in rachi ad articulos baiba cincta geminse, liomogamae, hemio- 

logamse, altera sessili, altera pedicellata, utraque setigera. Glumes duae, 

herbaceo-membranaceEe, acutte ; inferior dorso canaliculata, quadri- 

nervis ; superior carinata trinervis. Flosculi univalves membranacei ; 

1841.] Linnean Society. 93 

inferior neiiter, muticus ; superior linearis, canaliculatus, apice trans- 
iens in setam longam capillarem apice subcirrhosam non genuflexam. 
LodieulcB 2, obconicae, plicatae, truncatse, ovario breviores, membra- 
naceae. Stamina 3, filamentis capillaribus. Styli basi conjunct!, gra- 
ciles ; stigmata villosa. Caryopsis libera, lanceolata, acuta. Inflores- 
centia : Spicce, rachi continua, triangulari, glabra, solis spicularum in- 
sertionibus barbulatis, fasciculatee, laxas. — Herba, liabitu Panici Sec- 
tionis Digitariarum. Culmus racemosus, adscendens. Vagince long£B. 
Folia lanceolata, acuta, plana, laet^ viridia, nervo albo. Ligula nulla. 
L. Royleanum, Nees. 

Batratherum, Nees. 

Spicules in racbi articulata geminatae, heterogamae, alterS sessili hemi- 
gama, altera pedicellata neutra. Gluma spiculcB perfectae 2, subaequales, 
herbaceo-chartaceae, acutas, apiceve acute bidentatae, in aliis superior 
apice setacea ; inferior plana, 2 — 6-nervis ; superior carinata, compli- 
cata, 1 — 3-nervis, a dorso plicata, canalem struens, in quo seta flosculi 
continetur, margine tenui simpliciter connivente. Flosculi membra- 
nacei, glumis breviores, nunquam saltern longiores ; inferior neuter, 
1-valvis, muticus; superior bivalvis: valvula inferiori acuminata apice 
minute bidentata prope a basi emittente setam in medio geniculatam 
infernfe tortam ; superiori exigua lineari-subulata bidentata quandoque 
nulla. LodiculcE lat«, raembranacese, truncatse, dentataj, plicatae, in 
semicirculo singulae singulum floris latus ambientes. Stamina 3. Stig- 
mata villosa, Styli discreti. Spicula pedicellata angustior, subuniglu- 
mis. Gluma plana acuta nervosa, margine subtilius serrulata ; superior 
gluma et flosculi rudimentum minuta, rotundata, squamiformia. Injlo- 
rescentia : Spica parce dichotoma, ad genicula magis minusve barbata. 
Pedicelli spicularum sterilium ciliati. — Gramina repentia, ramosa, foliis 
brevibus amplexicaulibus. Stipules membranaceae, exsertae. 

B. micans, Nees. 


Spicules in racbi angusta barbulata subgeminae muticEe, altera rudimen- 
tali pedicellari, altera polygama sessili. Glumes truncatas ; inferior 
lata, plana, obovato-conica, coriaceo-chartacea, 8 — 9-nervis, laevis, apice 
minute bidentata et inter denticulos subciliolata, basin versus firmior 
et colorata ; superior ovata, apice angustior denticulataque, chartacea, 
marginibus inflexa, Isevis, quinquenervis. Flosculi 2, membranacei, 
bivalves, mutici ; inferior masculus valvulis ^qualibus, apice truncatis 
denticulatis, dentibus aliquot magis distantibus. Stamina 3, antheris 
angustis, fulvis. Lodiculee exilissimae, quandoque omnino nullae quan- 
doque denticuliformes acutae. Flosculus superior hermaphroditus, vel 
potius bermaphrodito-femineus. Valvula inferior paulo firmior reliquis 
et colorata, apice truncato-bi-tri-denticulato ; superior brevior, latins 
truncata, ciliolato-denticulata. Lodiculee nullae, aut forsan, ut in mas- 
culo, exilissimae. Stamina 3, eo tempore quo flosculi masculi stamina 

i Linnean Society. [Feb. 2, 

antheris perfectissimis filamentisque nondum elongatis intra valvulas 
adhuc latent, jam maxime extenuatis filamentis antheris autem nuUis 
residuis extra valvulas prominentibus, conspicua. Ovarium lanceola- 
tum, in stylum simplicem, mox bifidum, transiens. Stigmata longa, 
linearia, brevi-villosa. Spicules neutrius vestigia produntur pedicello, 
spiculse fertili adjecto, ciliato, mutilo. Inflorescentia : Spiea bifida aut 
geminata ; articulis trigonis ciliato-hirsutis ad genicula longiiis barbu- 
latis. — Gramen tenerum, gracile, ramosum. Nodi glabri. VagituB 
arctse. Folia plana, lineari-acuta. 

A. Boyleanus, Nees. 

Trib. STIPEiE. 
Orthoraphium, Nees. 

Spicules uniflorse. Glumes diise convexse, chartaceo-membranaceae, plu- 
rinerves. Flosculus coUo barbato hinc depresso-plano insertus, bival- 
vis, chartaceus. Valvula inferior plurinervis, convoluta, apice attenuata 
in subulam continuam non articulatam neque contortam ; superior 
brevior, binervis, dorso convexa. Lodiculee 3, membranacese ; duae 
anteriores lanceolatas, ovarium aequantes, basi callo insertae ; posterior 
lanceolato -linearis, ovario duplo longior. Stamina 3, antherae flavae, 
apice barbatse aut nudae. Ovarium sessile, apice calloso-incrassatum. 
Styli breves, basi contigui. Stigmata plumosa. Caryopsis libera. Tn- 
Jlorescentia : Paiiicula angusta, ramis paucifioris. — Gramina foliis an- 
gustis rigidis, cauda aristaeformi spicularum mediocri rigidula scabrd. 

0. Roylei, Nees. 


Melanocenchris, Nees. 
Spiculce sesquiflorae aut subtrifloras, flosculo extremo rudimentall, in 
rachi propria brevi alternas quidera, sed adeo approximatae ut capitu- 
lum involucratum exhibeant ; superiores rachillae imperfectae. Glumes 
in infimis duae, asquales, in superioribus quandoque in omnibus una 
(supera), bracteaeformes, subulatee, rigidas, hirsutae, flosculis longiores, 
basi membranaceo-marginatse. Flosculi perfecti duo, ubi gluma sin- 
gula residet quasi axillares in angulo glumse et rachillae ; quorum alter 
rachillffi propior, herraaphroditus, perfectus, sessilis ; alter masculus vel 
neuter pedicellatus ; tertius, ubi adest, rudimentalis, clavatus, nudo 
pedicello seu rachillae apice indicatus. Falvulee duae, membranaceo- 
herbaceae ; inferior trinervis, apice bifida, laciniis aequalibus lineari-subu- 
latis, vel bifida cum seta interjecta ; superior aequ^ longa, plana, biner- 
vis, apice bifida. Flosculus superior conformis, sed minor. Lodicules 
breves, subquadratse, bidentatae, glabrae. Stamina 3. Antheree luteae. 
Ovarium oblongum, compressum, Iseve, truncatulum. Styli longi, late 
discreti, filiformes. Stigmata angusta, dissite brevi-puberula. Caryop- 
sis libera. Injlorescentia : Spicee partiales, forma involucrorum Cen- 
chri aut Penniseti, in rachi communi flexuosa alternae, secundee, paucae, 
nutantes racemulum exhibent. — Gramina perennia, parva, polyphylla, 

1841.] lAnnean Society. 95 

ramosa. Folia brevia, rigidula. Ligula nulla. Racemus exsertus, 
gracilis, secundus, laxus. Setm flosculorum coloratee. 

1. M. Royleana, Nees. 

2. M. Rothiana, Nees. 
Pomereulla monoica, Roth. 



Spicula multiflora. Glumes duse, spicula breviores ; inferior minor am- 
plectens, oblique acutata, altero latere subpraemorsa ; superior biden- 
tata, et inter dentes brevi-subulata, subula denies aequante, e nervi 
dorsalis geminati apice unito orta. Flosculi in axi gracili ad genicula 
barbulata imbricati, bivalves. Valvula inferior ovata, lateribus incur- 
va, herbacea, trinervis, apice bilaciniata laciniis muticis, setis tribus 
strictis, e nervo medio duobusque lateralibus proficiscentibus interjectis ; 
superior oblonga, magis membranacea, sursum plana, in apice obtusi- 
usculo bifida, inferius convoluta, referens flosculum ligulatum Sjoian- 
therese, subquadrinervis, nervis duobus marginibus proximis distinctis, 
mediis obsoletis. Lodiculce 2, coloratae, conicae, truncatae, glabrae, 
angust^. Stamina 2 (?). Filamenta capillaria. Ovarium cylindricum, 
glabrum. Styli filiformes, distantes. Stigmata laxe villosa. Caryopsis 
elongato-cylindrica, compressiuscula, truncato-bidenticulata. Inflo- 
rescentia : Spica simplex, disticho-subsecunda. — Gramina erecta, foliis 
angustis, ligula brevi. 

1. P. calycinum, Nees. 
Dineba calycina, Hh. Wight. 

2. P.jiliforme, Nees. 

3. P. unidentatum, Nees. 

Many new species belonging to genera previously established are 
also characterized and described. 

February 16. 

The Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

The Most Hon. Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Marquis of Northamp- 
ton, President of the Royal Society, was elected a Fellow ; and Mr. 
George Gordon an Associate. 

Read " Observations on some new or little - known species of 
Polyparia, found in the supercretaceous strata of Italy." By Signor 
Giovanni Michelotti of Turin, 

96 Limiean Society. [March 2, 

March 2. 

Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Read a " Description of a new genus of Plants from Brazil." By 
John Miers, Esq., F.L.S. 

The following are the characters of the new genus described : — 


Flores dioici. Periantliii foliola 3, obovata, infra apicem processu longo 
instructa. <J AnthercB 3? sessiles, loculis disjunctis, imo androphoro 
raagno carnoso centrali insertae. $ Pistilla numerosissima, aggregata, 
supera. Styli simplices, subulati. Fructus ignotus. — Planta pusilla 
hyalina, foliis paucis bracteiformibus. 

T. hyalina. 

Hob. in humidis Serra dos Orgaos Provincise Rio de Janeiro. 

Mr. Miers observed this minute plant only in a single locality, and 
was unable to find ripe fruit. He perceived, however, in each pistil- 
lum what appeared to him to be a solitary ovule, but so minute and 
indistinct as to be evident only by the aj^pearance of a darker oval 
form in the centre. He has consequently no positive evidence 
whether it is Monocotyledonous or Dicotyledonous ; but is induced 
by various considerations to refer it to the former class. He notices 
the points in which it appears to him to bear some resemblance to 
different Monocotyledonous families, and suggests that, as it cannot 
be distinctly referred to any of them, it may probably be taken as 
the type of a distinct order, holding a place between BurmanniacecB 
and Fluviales. 

The processes which are noticed in the character as arising from 
below the apices of the divisions of the perianthium, are described 
as capUlary tubes three times as long as the segments, within which 
they are coiled up during aestivation, their apices exhibiting at the 
apex of the bud three minute pore-like apertures open externally. 

Read also a " Note on the Preservation of Specimens of Natural 
History." By Hyde Clarke, Esq., F.L.S. 

Mr. Clarke suggests the apphcation of Payne's apparatus for the 
preservation of animal substances for domestic purposes, to the pre- 
servation of objects of Natural History. The apparatus consists of 
an iron cylinder, in which the subject for preparation is placed, and 
the air-tight cover screwed down. The air is then exhausted by 
means of an air-pump, and when a sufficient exhaustion has been 
effected, a cock is opened communicating with a vessel containing 

1841.] Linnean Society. 97 

the antiseptic fluid, which, on being admitted, thoroughly pene- 
trates the object to be preserved, impregnating even the marrow of 
the bones. He adds, that the process is useful not only for the 
prevention of putrefaction, but also in arresting its progress, the 
gases generated during putrefaction being expelled from the re- 
ceiver along with the air, and their place supplied by the antiseptic. 

March 16. 
Mr. Brown, V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. William Kay was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

Read " On an edible Fungus from Tierra del Fuego, and an allied 
Chilian species." By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., F.L.S. 

Mr. Berkeley describes these two species as constituting a new 
genus, which he characterizes as follows : — 


.Receptacula carnoso-gelatinosa in stroma commune subglobosum, epider- 
mide crassiuscula vestitum, aggregata ; basi stipitiformi granulata. 
Cupula peripherica, primo clausa, gelatina distenta, demum epidermide 
rupta aperta. Hymenium, margine excepto, separabile. Asci ampli, 
demum libcri, paraphysibus immixtis. Velum persistens, demum 
ruptum, margine plus minus reflexo. ijporjWia pallida. 

Genus Bulgarice affine, sad stromate pulvinato ex variis individuis com- 
posite SphcBriam concentricam quodammodo referens, et hymenio sepa- 
rabili valde diversum. Certe ad seriem Pezizarum pertinet, perithecio 
spurio non obstante. Confer Sphceriam monocarpam, Sebum. adPezi- 
zam rkizopodam a clar. Friesio ascriptam. Nomen dedi a xvrrx^os, 
ob superficiem fungi alveolatam. 

1. C. Darwinii, vitelliua globoso-depressa, cupulis parvis ore irregular] de- 
mum apertis. 

Hub. in Fagum betuloidem in Tierra del Fuego, Dec.-Jun. 

2. C. Berteroi, pallidior irregularis, basi subelongata, cupulis majoribus ; 
, ore pentagono ; margine fisso reflexo. 

Hab. in Chili in Fagum obliquam, vere et a2state. 

The first species is noticed by Mr. Darwin (from whom Mr. 
Berkeley obtained his specimens of both) at p. '298 of his ' Journal 
and Remarks,' forming the third vol. of the ' Narrative of the 
Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle' ; and Mr. Berkeley gives from 
Mr. Darwin's MS. notes a more detailed account of his observations 
made upon the spot. The second species is referred to in a post- 
No. XII. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

98 Linnean Society. [March 16, 

humous list of the plants collected by Bertero (originally published 
in the ' Mercurio Chileno,' and translated in Silliman's ' North 
American Journal/ vol. xxili. p. 78), as forming, perhaps, " a new 
genus approximating to the SpharicB." A further account of this 
species also is extracted from Mr, Darwin's notes : it seems to be 
less eatable, and less frequently eaten than the first, which Mr, 
Darwin describes as forming a very essential article of food for the 

Read also a " Letter from Joseph Woods, Esq., F.L.S,, to Mr. 
Kippist, on Crepis biennis and Barkhausia taraxacifolia." 

Mr. Woods is of opinion that the plant described by Sir James 
Smith in the ' English Flora' and ' English Botany,' by Sir W, J. 
Hooker in the ' British Flora,' by Mr. Babington in the Society's 
' Transactions,' vol. xvii. p, 456, and by Mr. Mackay in his ' Irish 
Flora,' as Crepis biennis, is in reality Barkhausia taraxacifolia, di- 
stinguished especially by the long beak of its achenia, while those of 
Crepis biennis are, in the words of Gaudin, " neutiquam attenuata." 
The stem of Crepis biennis is also less branched and more leafy than 
that of Barkhausia taraxacifolia, the latter rarely producing a leaf 
except where there is a branch. Mr. Woods adds, that it is almost 
certain that we have the two species in England, though the dif- 
ference has not been noticed. Crepis biennis grows in Kent and 

In a "Note" appended to Mr. Woods's letter, Mr. Kippist 
states that the authentic Linnean specimens of Crepis biennis from 
Scania, although too young to have ripe seeds, appear to confirm 
Mr. Woods's idea, the pappus being quite sessile even in those 
most advanced, and the stem moderately branched in the upper 
part, and very leafy below. I'he two specimens in the Smithian 
Herbarium, one from Mr. Crowe's garden and the other from Mr. 
Rose's Herbarium, have the stem much branched, and the pappus 
apparently sessile, but the achenia are immature. 

The only developed specimen in Mr, Winch's herbarium is from 
Dartford in Kent, and has the pappus very decidedly stalked, the 
stem much branched in the upper part, and only a few scattered 
leaves in the lower, a branch being produced from the axilla of each 
cauline leaf with the exception of one or two of the lowermost. 
Other specimens, gathered near Cobham and Ramsgate, in the same 
county, and near Moulsey in Surrey, agree with Mr. Winch's plant 
in their stalked pappus and branched stem, and probably therefore 

1841.] Linnean Society. 99 

belong to Barkhausia taraxacifolia. The only British specimens in 
the Society's possession that Mr. Kippist believes to be referrible 
with certainty to Crepis biennis are two in the Hortus Siccus of 
Mr. Woodward, with ripe achenia and perfectly sessile pappus ; the 
habitats of the plants are not given, but in all probability they were 
gathered either in Suffolk or Norfolk. 

Read also an " Extract from a Letter to John Miers, Esq., F.L.S., 
from George Gardner, Esq.," dated Rio de Janeiro, Dec. 16, 1840, 
in which Mr. Gardner gives some account of his journeys in the in- 
terior of Brazil, and of the collections made by him subsequent to 
May last. 

April 6. 

Mr, Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Read, an Extract of a Letter from J. Bumham, Esq., to Hyde 
Clarke, Esq., F.L.S., on a supposed new British Juncus. 

Read also the commencement of " An Appendix or Supplement 
to a Treatise on the (Estri and Cuterebree of various Animals." By 
Bracy Clark, Esq., F.L.S., Corresp. Memb. of the French Institute. 

April 20. 

Mr. Brown, V.P., in the Chair. 

John Branton, Esq., of Bush Hall, near Hatfield, Herts, was 
elected a Fellow. 

His Grace the Duke of Northimiberland, F.L.S., sent for exhibi- 
tion a specimen of the fruit of Chrysophyllum monopyrenum, Sw., 
from his living collection at Syon House. 

W. Felkin, Esq., F.L.S., sent for exhibition specimens of Sea- 
Island Cotton grown in a cotton-mill situate in the centre of Man- 
chester, accompanied by a Notice of the circumstances xmder which 
the experiment was made. The details have been given in the 
Transactions of the British Association. 

100 Linnean Society. [April 20, 

Read the conclusion of Mr. Bracy Clark's "Appendix or Supple- 
ment to a Treatise on the (Estri and CuterebrcB of various Animals." 

The first memoir to which this paper is intended as an Appendix 
appeared in the third volume of the Linnean Transactions, published 
in 1796. This memoir was republished by the author with consi- 
derable additions in 1815, and a Supplement was added in the fol- 
lowing year. Since that period much has been published on the sub- 
ject, and Mr. Clark is desirous in consequence of making some ad- 
ditions and corrections to his former publications. 

After adding to and modifying some of the passages contained in 
them, he examines the validity of several species of the genus (Estrus 
proposed by writers. He suspects (E. Trompe of Modeer and (E. 
ericetorum of Leach to be severally the males of (E. Tarandi and (E. 
Bovis. He believes (E. Pecorum of Fabricius to be only a dark- 
coloured variety of (E. nasalis, L. {(E. veterinus, B. CI.) ; and is sa- 
tisfied by an examination of the original specimen, that Dr. Leach's 
(E. Clarkii is nothing more than a very light- coloured variety of the 
same species. He also regards (E. lineatus of Villars as synonymous 
with (E. Bovis. 

Referring to Latreille's account of the genus in Cuvier's ' Rfegne 
Animal,' he points out some omissions with regard to the habits and 
oeconomy of (E. Equi and (E. hemorrhoidalis, and objects to the 
statement that the eggs of the latter are deposited on the verge of 
the anus of the animal attacked. He strongly deprecates the opi- 
nion of Pallas and Latreille, that there exists a proper human (Estrus, 
which he regards as altogether founded in error ; and believes the 
larva figured in illustration of a supposed case of the kind published 
by Mr. Howship, to be that of (E. Bovis. 

Lastly, he describes three species, added to the genus (Estrus since 
the publication of his Treatise, viz. (E. pictus of Megerle, (E. Liby- 
cus of Riippel, and (E. Clarkii of Shuckard. The following are the 
characters of the latter species, figures of which, and of (E. Libycus, 
accompany the paper. 

CE. Clarkii, cserulescenti-fuscus, alls obscuris antice sinuatis basin versus 

Ilah. ad Caput Bonse Spei. 

He adds also a description of a new species of his genus Cuterehra, 
with the following characters : — 

C. fonianella, thorace atro lateribus albis, abdomine violaceo : segmentis 

ultimis albis nigro-punctatis. 
Hah. in Illinois Americae Borealis, cuniculis praecipue infesta. 

1841.] Linnean Society. 101 

May 4. 

Mr. Brown, V.P., in the Chair. 

Dr. Carl Ernst von Baer, His Serene Highness Maximilian Prince 
of Wied-Neuwied, and Dr. Charles Bernhard Trinius, were elected 
Foreign Members. 

Read the commencement of " Remarks on some new or rare Spe- 
cies of Brazilian Plants." By Charles James Fox Bunbum^sq" 
F.L.S. A^ W' 

May 24. 
The Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

This day, the Anniversary of the birth-day of Linnaeus, and that 
appointed by the Charter for the Election of Council and Officers, the 
President opened the business of the Meeting, and stated the num- 
ber of Members whom the Society had lost during the past year. 
The following is a list of the Members who have died within that 
period, acccompanied with notices of some among them. 

Francis Bauer, Esq., F.R.S., SfC, was bom at Feldsberg, in 
Austria, on the 4th of October, 1758. His father, who held an ap- 
pointment as painter to Prince Lichtenstein, died while he was yet 
a boy, and the care of his education devolved upon his mother. So 
early was his talent for botanical drawing manifested, that the first 
published production of his pencil, a figure of Anemone pratensis, L., 
is appended to a dissertation by Storck ' de Usu Pulsatillse nigri- 
cantis,' which bears date in 1771. 

In 1788 he came to England in company with the younger Jac- 
quin, and after visiting his brother Ferdinand, who was then engaged 
in completing the beautiful series of drawings since published in the 
* Flora Grseca,' was about to proceed to Paris. But the liberal pro- 
posals made to him by Sir Joseph Banks on the eve of his intended 
departure, diverted him from this resolution, and induced him to 
remain in England and to take up his residence in the neighbourhood 
of the Royal Garden at Kew, in which village he continued to dwell 
until the termination of his life. It was the opinion of Sir Joseph 
Banks, that a botanic garden was incomplete without a draughtsman 
permanently attached to it, and he accordingly, with the sanction of 

102 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

His Majesty, fixed Mr. Bauer in that capacity at Kew, himself de- 
fraying the salary during his own life, and providing by his will for 
its continuance to the termination of that of Mr. Bauer. In fulfil- 
ment of this engagement with Sir Joseph, Mr. Bauer made numerous 
drawings and sketches of the plants of the garden, which are now 
preserved in the British Museum. A selection from his drawings 
was published in 1796 under the title of ' Delineations of Exotick 
Plants cultivated in the Royal Garden at Kew,' and this was in- 
tended to be continued annually ; but no more than three parts, con- 
sisting wholly of Heaths, and containing thirty plates, were published. 

In the early part of 1801, Mr. Bauer made for Mr. Brown, who 
had then been for some years engaged in a particular study of the 
Ferns, drawings of many genera of that family which Mr. Brown 
regarded as new. His drawings of Woodsia, made some years after- 
wards, were published in the 11th volume of our Transactions, in 
illustration of Mr. Brown's paper on that genus. At a later period 
he again directed his attention to that tribe of plants, his labours in 
which have within these few years been given to the world in Sir 
William Jackson Hooker's ' Genera of Ferns.' The 13th volume of 
our Transactions is enriched with his elaborate drawings accom- 
panying Mr. Brown's memoir on Rafflesia ; and the part published 
last year contains a paper by Mr. Bauer ' On the Ergot of Rye,' from 
materials collected between the years 1805 and 1809. 

The plate which accompanies the last-mentioned paper is derived 
from draviings which form part of an extensive series in the British 
Museum, illustrative of the structure of the grain, the germination, 
growth and development of wheat, and the diseases of that and other 
Cerealia. This admirable series of drawings constitutes perhaps the 
most splendid and important monument of Mr. Bauer's extraordinary 
talents as an artist and skill in mici'oscopic investigation. The sub- 
ject was suggested to him by Sir Joseph Banks, who was engaged 
in an inquiry into the disease of Corn known under the name of 
" Blight," and the part of Mr. Bauer's drawings which relates to 
that disease was published in illustration of Sir Joseph's memoir on 
the subject, and has been several times reprinted with it. Mr. Bauer 
has himself given, in the volume of the ' Philosophical Transactions' 
for 1823, an account of his observations on the Vibrio Tritici of 
Gleichen, with the figures relating to them ; and another small por- 
tion of his illustrations of the Diseases of Corn has since been pub- 
lished by him in the ' Penny Magazine' for 1833. His figures of a 
somewhat analogous subject, the Apple-blight and the Insect produ- 

1841.] lAnnean Society. 103 

cing it, accompany Sir Joseph Banks's Memoir on the Introduction 
of that Disease into England, in the 2nd volume of the ' Transactions 
of the Horticultural Society.' 

Before the close of the last century Mr. Bauer commenced a series 
of drawings of Orchidece, and of the details of their remarkable struc- 
ture, to which he continued to add, as opportunities offered, nearly 
to the termination of his life. A selection from these, which form 
one of the most beautiful and extensive series of his botanical draw- 
ings, was lithographed and published by Professor Lindley between 
the years 1830 and 1838, under the title of ' Illustrations of Orchi- 
daceous Plants.' 

His other pubUshed botanical works are : 1 . The first part, published 
in 1818, of ' Strelitzia Depicta,' a work intended to comprise figures 
of all the known species of that magnificent genus ; 2. ' Microsco- 
pical Observations on the Red Snow' brought from the Arctic Re- 
gions by Capt. Ross, the globules contained in which, by some re- 
garded as an Alga, he described in the 7th volume of the ' Quarterly 
Journal' of the Royal Institution as a species of t/retZo ; 3. 'Some 
Experiments on the Fungi which constitute the coloiu"ing matter of 
the Red Snow,' published in the ' Philosophical Transactions' for 
1 820 ; and 4. The Plates to the Botanical Appendix to Captain Parry's 
first Voyage of Discovery, pubUshed in 1821. One of the last pro- 
ductions of his pencil, illustrating the structure of a plant growing 
at Kew which produces perfect seeds without any apparent action 
of pollen, will appear in the forthcoming part of our Transactions. 

In the year 1816 he commenced lending the assistance of his 
pencil to the late Sir Everard Home in the various anatomical and 
physiological investigations in which that distinguished anatomist 
was engaged ; and in the course of ten or twelve years furnished, in 
illustration of his numerous papers in the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions,' upwards of 120 plates, which were afterwards reprinted with 
Sir Everard's ' Lectures on Comparative Anatomy.' These plates, 
which form together the most extensive series of his published works, 
embraced a great variety of important subjects, chiefly in microscopic 
anatomy, and afford abundant evidence of his powers of observation 
and skill in depicting the most difficult objects. 

It is this rare and previously almost unexampled union of the ob- 
server and the artist that has placed Mr. Bauer foremost in the first 
rank of scientific draughtsmen. His paintings, as the more finished 
of his productions may well be termed, are no less perfect as models 
of artistic skill and effect, than as representations of natural objects. 

104 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

Of all his predecessors, Ehret alone approaches him in these par- 
ticulars ; among his contemporaries, none but his brother Ferdinand 
can be regarded as his equal. 

Mr. Bauer became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1804, and 
of the Royal Society in 1820. He died at his residence on Kew- 
Green on the 11th of December last, in the 83rd year of his age ; 
and was buried in the church-yard of that parish on the 1 6th of the 
same month. 

Sir Anthony Carlisle, Knt., F.R.S., 8fC., a distinguished surgeon 
and physiologist, was born at Stillington, in the county of Durham, 
on the 8th of February, 1769, and received his early professional 
education partly at York and partly at Durham. He afterwards 
came to London, entered himself as a student at the Hunterian 
School under Cruickshank and Baillie, and became a resident pupil 
to Watson, whom he succeeded as one of the Surgeons of the West- 
minster Hospital in 1793. On the retirement of Sheldon, in 1808, 
he became Professor of Anatomy to the Royal Academy, and re- 
tained that office until 1824. He was also a member of the Council 
and of the Court of Examiners of the Royal College of Surgeons, of 
which College he was twice President. At the accession of George 
the Fourth he was knighted as a mark of acknowledgment to his 
professional skill. He died at his house, in Langham Place, on the 
2nd of November last, and was buried in the Cemetery at Kensal 

Mr. Carlisle became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1792, 
and of the Royal Society in 1804 ; and his most important contri- 
butions to Natural Science are contained in the Transactions of 
these Societies, His paper on the Structure and (Economy of 
TcBnice, in the second volume of our Transactions, is probably the 
first attempt to illustrate the structure of Entozoa by artificial injec- 
tions, and established, among other points, the non-existence of an 
anus in the Ttenite. At this early period, Mr. Carlisle anticipated 
M. Virey's idea of the state of the nervous system in the lowest 
animals, on which the chief character of Mr. MacLeay's Acrita is 
founded, ascribing to the Tanice a diffused condition of the nervous 
substance, and referring to John Hiuiter as having, in his lectures, 
applied that character to many of the lower tribes of animals. 

Of his papers in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' the first in im- 
portance and originality is the memoir ' On the peculiar arrange- 
ment of the Arteries in Slow-moving Animals;' and it is on the 
striking discovery detailed in it that his memory as a comparative 

1841.] Linnean Society. 105 

anatomist will chiefly rest. His paper on the Physiology of the 
Stapes, published in the volume for 1805, affords a good example 
of the application of Comparative Anatomy to the elucidation of a 
difiicult physiological question ; almost all the facts contained in it 
relating to the form and structure of the stapes in various animals 
were new. The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Organ 
of Hearing formed the subject of his Lectures at the College of Sur- 
geons in 1818. 

His Lectures on Extra- vascular Substances, also delivered at the 
College of Surgeons, but of which an abstract only of a small por- 
tion was published in the ' Annals of Philosophy,' are alluded to in 
high terms by Mr. Lawrence. In 1820, and again in 1826, he de- 
livered the Hunterian Orations at the College. The latter of these, 
containing the Anatomy of the Oyster, has been quoted in reference 
to the observations which indicate the sensibility of the Oyster to 
light. He also spent much time in experiments on the growth and 
reparation of Shell. In the prosecution of his various inquiries he 
enriched the Museum of the College wdth some unique examples of 
his peculiar anatomical skill. 

Besides these contributions to Comparative Anatomy and Animal 
Physiology, Mr. Carlisle communicated to the Horticultural Society 
a memoir ' On the connection between the Leaves and Fruit of 
"\''egetables, with other Physiological Observations,' and another 
paper published in the 2nd volume of the Transactions of that So- 

The Bishop of Chichester. 

Lord Henry John Spencer Churchill. 

Sir John William Lubbock, Bart. 

The Rev. Thomas Rackett, M.A., F.R.S., 8(C., during a long life 
successfully cultivated various branches of Natural Science and the 
liberal arts. Associated in his school-days with Hatchett, and after- 
wards with Maton, Pulteney and Cavallo, he became attached to 
the pursuits by which his friends were distinguished, and assisted 
warmly in the promotion of their views. In the years 1794 and 
1796, he accompanied the two former in the tours which Dr. Maton 
subsequently published under the title of ' Observations relative 
chiefly to the Natural History, Picturesque Scenery, and Antiquities 
of the Western Counties of England,' and furnished with his pencil 
the embellishments of that work, which was inscribed to him in a 
friendly and grateful dedication. In conjunction with Dr. Maton, 
he published in the 7 th volume of our Transactions 'An Historical 

1G6 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

Account of Testaceological Writers/ and in the 8tli ' A Descriptive 
Catalogue of the British Testacea.' These works may be justly- 
characterized as manifesting extensive research, careful comparison, 
and accurate observation : the latter long continued to be the text- 
book of British Conchologists. Dr. Maton and himself also pub- 
lished in our 8th volume ' An Account of some remarkable Shells 
found in cavities of a Calcareous Stone, called by the stone-masons 
Plymouth-Rag ;' and he subsequently contributed to the 1 1th volume 
' Observations on Cancer salinus,' and to the 12th, ' Observations on 
a Viper found in Cranborne Chace, Dorsetshire,' which he presumed 
to be Coluber Cher sea, L. In addition to his skill in the use of the 
pencil, he was an accomplished musician, and devoted much of his 
time to antiquarian research, as well as to the prosecution of Natural 
and Experimental Philosophy. 

Mr. Rackett became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1795, 
and of the Royal Society in 1803. In the year 1780 he was insti- 
tuted to the Rectory of Spettisbury and Charlton, in the county of 
Dorset, and died on the 29th of November last, at the advanced age 
of 85, after an incumbency of more than sixty years. 

The Rev. John Revett Sheppard, M.A. 

Lord Viscount Valentia. 

Nicholas Aylward Vigors, D.C.L., F.R.S., M.R.I. A., &;c., one of 
the most eminent ornithologists of the present day, was born in 
1787 at Old Leighlin, in the county of Carlow, where his family had 
long been settled. He was educated at Trinity College in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, and gave early proof of the diligence and success 
with which he pursued his classical and literary studies, by pub- 
lishing in 1810 'An Enquiry into the Nature and Extent of Poetick 
Licence.' Towards the close of 1809 he purchased an Ensigncy in 
the Grenadier Guards, and was severely wounded in the action at 
Barrosa, in the early part of 1811. On his return to England in the 
same year he quitted the army, and for the next twenty years 
devoted himself to the study of Zoology, and especially of birds 
and insects. In both these departments he formed extensive col- 
lections, and at a subsequent period liberally presented them to the 
Zoological Society, of which he was the first Secretary and one of 
the most zealous and active promoters. On the death of his father 
he succeeded to the family estate, and in 1832 became the repre- 
sentative in Parliament of the borough of Carlow, for which, or for 
the cormty of the same name, he continued to sit until the termina- 
tion of his life on the 26th of last October. 

1841.] Linnean Society. 107 

Mr. Vigors became a Fellow of this Society in 1819, and is author 
of an important paper in the 14th volume of our Transactions, ' On 
the Natural Affinities that connect the Orders and Families of Birds.' 
In this elaborate memoir he appUed to the whole Class of Birds the 
principles of the quinary arrangement propounded by Mr. W. S. 
MacLeay in the ' Horse Entomologicse,' of which he continued 
through life to be one of the most ardent supporters. In the suc- 
ceeding volume he published, in conjunction with Dr. Horsfield, the 
first part of ' A Description of the Australian Birds in the collection 
of the Linnean Society, with an attempt at arranging them accord- 
ing to their Natural Affinities,' in which the same principles were 
further developed and applied to the illustration of the Raptorial and 
Insessorial Orders. His only other contribution to our Transac- 
tions consists of a ' Description of a new Species of Scolopax lately 
discovered in the Britifsh Islands ; with Observations on the Anas 
glocitans of Pallas, and a description of the Female of that Species,' 
contained in the 14th volume. 

The first of his papers in the ' Zoological Journal' appeared in 
1824 ; in 1827 he became its principal editor, and so continued until 
its termination in 1834. Of his numerous ornithological memoirs 
published in that work, perhaps the most important is his ' Arrange- 
ment of the Genera of Birds ;' which, although scarcely more than 
a bare enumeration of names, contains the most complete outline of 
his views on the subject of classification. Some of his notices in 
the ' Zoological Journal' are on Entomological subjects ; and several 
valuable papers, written in conjunction with Dr. Horsfield, are de- 
scriptive of new or rare Mammalia in the collection of the Zoological 
Society. For several years before his death the active part which 
he took in politics precluded his paying much attention to Zoology, 
but he retained to the last a considerable interest in his former pur- 
suits, especially in connexion with the Zoological Society, He con- 
tributed many valuable notices to the ' Proceedings' of that Society. 

Major- General Viney. 

Robert Montague Wilmot, M.B. 

Rev. William Wood, B.D., and 

Francis Boucher Wi-ight, Esq. 

Among the Associates 

Henry Woods, Esq., a surgeon, formerly resident at Bath, and 
subsequently at Camden Town, near London, who was well versed 
in the study of the Mammaha, a ' Natural History' of which he was 
for many years engaged in preparing for the press. This work, 

108 Linnean Society. [June ], 

which was intended to be on a very extensive scale, has never ap- 
peared. He was author of ' An Introductory Lecture on the Study 
of Zoology/ of a memoir ' On a new Species of Antelope,' in the 
5th volume of the ' Zoological Journal,' and of one or two notices 
in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society.' A few years before 
his death he quitted the neighbourhood of London and returned to 
Bath, where he became Secretary to the Literary Institution, and 
died on the 18th of August last, at the age of 46. 

The President also announced that twelve Fellows, three Foreign 
Members, and two Associates had been elected into the Society 
since the last Anniversary. 

At the election, which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop 
of Norwich was re-elected President ; Edward Forster, Esq., Trea- 
surer ; John Joseph Bennett, Esq., Secretary ; and Richard Taylor, 
Esq., Under-Secretary. The following five Fellows were elected 
into the Council in the room of others going out, viz. Sir Wm. 
Jackson Hooker ; Joseph Janson, Esq. ; The Most Honourable the 
Marquis of Northampton ; John Parkinson, Esq. ; and John Obadiah 
Westwood, Esq. 

June 1. 

Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Read the conclusion of Mr. Bunbury's " Remarks on certain 

Plants of Brazil, with descriptions of some which appear to be new." 

The following are the characters of the species described as new : 

Lasiandra calyptrata, raniis teretibus ferrugineo-tomentosis, foliis petio- 
latis ovato-oblongis acutis 5-nervibus subsetoso-hirsutis subtus dense 
villosis, racemis terminalibus paucifloris, pedicellis oppositis 1-3-floris, 
bracteis hispido-pilosis convolutis calyptriformibus, calyce sericeo, fila- 
mentis styloque hirsutis. 

Hah. prope Gongo Soco, in prov. Minas Geraes. 

CUdemia ? glabrata, ramulis subtetragonis glabris, foliis petiolatis oblongo- 
lanceolatis subcordatis acuminatis serrulato-ciliatis 5-nervibus utrinque 
glabris: petiolis ciliatis, panicula terminali tricbotoma divaricata glabra, 
fioribus verticillato-aggregatis sessilibus ebracteatis, petalis lanceolatis. 

Uab. prope Gongo Soco, in prov. Minas Geraes. 

CUdemia defiexa, ramis subtetragonis petiolis paniculisque setoso-hispi- 
dissimis, foliis ovatis acuminatis quintuplinervibus subdenticulatis cili- 

1841.] Linnean Society. 109 

atis utrinqiie hispidis, panicula terminali elongata opposite ramosa de- 
flexa nutante, floribus ad ramulorum apices congestis ebracteatis, lobis 
calycinis obtusis concavis dorso appendiculatis. 
Hob. prope Gongo Soco. 

Cremanium ? cordifolium, undique glanduloso-pilosissimum, foliis petio- 
latis late cordatis acuminatis insequaliter denticulatis ciliatis sub-7- 
nervibus, panicula subterminali nutante laxa opposite ramosa, calyce 
subrotundo-turbinato : lobis subulatis, petalis lanceolatis acuminatis. 

Hub. prope Gongo Soco. 

Hireea cinerea, foliis lanceolatis acutis superne glabris subtus fructibusque 
adpresse sericeo-pilosis canescentibus, panicula terminali trichotoma 
folios&, calycibus eglandulosis adpresse pilosis, fructus alis semiorbicu- 
latis crenatis undulatis. 

Hab. in sylvis montis Corcovado prope Rio de Janeiro. 

Tetrapteris viutahilis, ramis paniculisque velutino-tomentosis, foliis 
obovato-ellipticis obtusis rugosis utrinque tomentosis : petiolis apice 
biglandulosis, panicula terminali laxa divaricata multiflora, alis fructus 

Hab. in sylvis montis Corcovado. 

Abutilon benedictum, ramis sulcatis petiolis pedunculis calycibusque 
floccoso-tomentosis, foliis lanceolatis acuminatis basi acutiusculis obtuse 
serratis rugosis supra glabris subtvis incano-velutiuis, pedunculis axil- 
laribus unifloris folium sequantibus. 

Hal, in sylvis caeduis {capoeiras dictis) prov. Minas Geraes. 

Riibus longifolius, caule angulato petiolis pedunculisque densissime glan- 
duloso-setosis aculeatis, foliis quinato-palmatis : foliolis petiolatis ob- 
longo-lanceolatis acuminatis basi subcordatis argute serratis utrinque 
glabris, stipulis setaceis, calyce subsericeo-tomentoso reflexo. 

Hab. prope Gongo Soco. 

Lupinus nitidissimus, suftruticosus erectus ramosus aureo-sericeus, foliis 
simplicibus ovatis acutis, stipulis petiolo adnatis breviter acuminatis, 
racemis subtei'miualibus elongatis, floribus verticillatis, calycis labiis 
integris : inferiore elongato. 

Hab. in campis altis prov. Minas Geraes, prope Capao et Ouro Preto. 

Achyranthes paludosa, caule herbaceo subramoso flstuloso, foliis obovato- 
lanceolatis acutiusculis glabris, pedunculis axillaribus folium subaequan- 
tibus, spicis abbreviatis capitatis glaberrimis. 

Hab. prope urbem Buenos Ayres. 

Desmochata ? sordida, caule herbaceo prostrato ramosissimo lanato, foliis 
subrotundis mucronulatis in petiolum attenuatis glabriusculis, capitulis 
sessilibus axillaribus ovatis, calycis foliolis 3 exterioribus majoribus ; 
interioribus carinatis conniventibus : setis uncinato-barbatis. 

Hab. ad vias prope urbem Bnenos Ayres. 

110 Linnemi Sociely. [June 1, 

Schultesia pollens, culmo erecto subramoso, foliis ovatis ellipticisque acu- 
tiusculis : summis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis, floribus terminalibus 
subsolitariis, alis calycis dilatatis semiovatis, corollae laciniis obovato- 
rhombeis breviter acuminatis integerrimis. 

Hab. prope Gongo Soco in prov. Minas Geraes. 

Solanum graveolens, suffruticosum inerme glanduloso-pilosum viscosum, 
foliis pinnatis : foliolis petiolulatis oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis mem- 
branaceis, racemis longe pedunculatis multifloris subcorymbosis uni- 
lateralibus, corolla quinquefida. 

Hab. prope Gongo Soco. 

Solanum reptans, herbaceum inerme bispido-birsutum, foliis pinnatis : 
foliolis petiolulatis oblongis subacuminatis : petiolis alatis, racemis late- 
ralibus folio brevioribus, caule prostrato radicante. 

Hab. prope Gongo Soco. 

Mr. Bunbury believes Lasiandra Jissinervia, DeC, to be merely a variety 
of L. Fontanesiana ; and Clidemia urceolata and C. biserrata to be one spe- 
cies. He descvibes variations in character occurring in Lasiandra protecB- 
formis. DeC, Clidemia urceolata, DeC, C. longibarbis, DeC, Tetrapteris 
acutifolia, Cav., Bignonia venusta and Neurocarpum angustifoliuin, Kuntli. 
He thinks it possible, however, that his plant may differ from the latter, as 
the flowers are resupinate, a character which could hardly have escaped M. 
Kunth ; he therefore proposes for it the following character, should it prove 
to be distinct : — 

Neurocarpum resupinatum, frutescens erectum, foliis trifoliolatis : foliolis 
ellipticis oblongisque retusis mucronulatis supra glabris subtus pallidis 
pilosiusculis, pedunculis subbifloris folio brevioribus, floribus resupinatis. 

Hab. ad Botafogo, prope Rio de Janeiro. 

Specimens of the plants noticed in this memoir were included in a col- 
lection presented to the Society by Mr. Bunbury some years ago. 

Read also a " Synopsis of the Coleopterous family PanssidcB, 
with, descriptions of a new Genus and some new Species." By J. 
O. Westwood, Esq.. F.L.S. 

This paper contains a brief enumeration of the species of the re- 
markable family of Paussidce, with some additions and corrections to 
Mr. Westwood's Monograph of it, published in the 16th volume of 
the Society's Transactions. 

He proposes to exclude from the family the genus Trochoideus, an 
examination of the cibarian organs having proved that genus to be- 
long to the Endomychidee ; and states that he is now acquainted with 
four, if not five, species belonging to it, viz. 1. Troch. cruciatus, 
Dalm. ; 2. T. Dalmanni, Westw. ; 3. T. Desjardinsii, Guer. ; 4. T. 
Americanus, Bucqu. ; and 5. ? T". Hopei, Westw, The last-named spe- 

1841.] ^ Linnean Society. Ill 

cies he has seen in Mr. Hope's collection : it is from New Grenada, 
and is possibly identical with T. Americanus . 

Mr. Westwood gives the following as a synopsis of the genera 
belonging to the family in its present state : — 

AntenncB quasi biarticulatae. 

Caput thorace baud immersum, collo distincto, ocellis nullis. 

Palpi labiates articulo ultimo elongate 1. Paussus. 

articulis aequalibus 2. Platyrhopalus. 

Caput thorace immersum ocellis duobus 3. Hylotorus. 

AntenncB quasi sexarticulatae. 

Prothorax angulis anticis valde productis 4. Pentaplatarthrus. 

transversus, angulis anticis rotun- 1 , j i-„j^-.,, 

datis, posticis valde emarginatis J 

truncato-cordatus 6. Ceratoderus. 

Antennce (\\xSLs\ decemarticulatae 7. Cerapterus. 

1. Paussus, Linn. 

Sect. A. Thorax quasi bipartitus. 

a. Anteimarum clava postice baud excavata. 

1. P. microcephalus, L. Africa? 

2. P. Jousselinii, Guer. Rangoon. 

3. P. Litincsi, Westw. Habitat unknown. 

4. P. Burmeisteri, Westw. Cape of Good Hope. 

5. P. rujitarsis, Westw. Habitat unknown. 

6. P. pilicornis, Donov. Bengal. 

7. P. Turcicus, Frivaldsk. Balkan Mountains. 

b. Antennarum clava postice excavata. 

8. P. thoracicus, Donov. Bengal. 

9. P. Fichtelii, Donov. Bengal. 

10. P.fulvus, luteo-fulvus subopacus, elj'tris magis rufescentibus, anten- 
narum articulo basali thoracis lateribus postice femoribusque obscurio- 
ribus, capite supra profunde impresso. — Long. corp. lin. 3. 

Hah. in India Orientali. 

11. P. tibialis, castaneus nitidus, elytris singulis plaga magna nigra, tibiis 
4 anterioribus elongatis ; posticis multo latioribus compressis, antenna- 
rum clava postice profunde excavata. — Long. corp. lin. 2f . 

Hob. in Bengala. In Mus. D. Westermann. 

12. P. excavatus, Westw. Senegal. 

13. p. ruber, Thunb. Cape of Good Hope. 

14. P. cochlearius, Westw. South Africa. 

15. P. Klugii, Westw. Cape of Good Hope. 

Sect. B. Thorax subcontinuus. 
a. Species Africanae. 
IG. P. spharocerus, Afzel. Sierra Leone. 

112 Linnean Society. [June 1, 

17. P. armatuSjDe].; P. cornutus,Chevro\. Senegal. 

18. P. curvicornis, Chevrol. ; P. cornutus, var.t, Chevrol. Senegal. 

19. P. Shucfcardi, Westw. South Africa. 

20. P. lineatus, Thunb. Cape of Good Hope. 

21. P. affinis, Westw. On the authority of the British Museum Cata- 
logue Mr. Westwood is now enabled to give Africa as the habitat of 
this species ; but he suggests that there may be some mistake as to lo- 
cality, and that the insect may really be Indian, and not specifically di- 
stinct from the following, P. cognatus. 

b. Species Indicae. 

22. P. cognatus, rufo-castaneus nitidus punctatus, elytris singulis plaga 
magna nigra, capite antice linea tenui impressa : vertice impressionibus 
duabus semicircularibus, antennarum clava subovata basi extiis in ha- 
mum producta. — Long. corp. lin. 4. 

Hah. in Bengala. In Muss. D. D. Melly et Westermann. 

23. P. HardwicMi, Westw. Nepaul. 

24. P. Saundersii, fulvo-rufescens subnitidus punctatus, capite thoraceque 
obscurioribus, antennarum clavd oblongo-ovata basi extiis in hamum 
setigerum producta. — Long, corp, lin. 3^. 

Hab. in India Orientali. Mus. D. W. W. Saunders. 

25. (Sp. ined.), Latr. Isle of France. 

Ohs. P. rujicollis, Fabr., is given by Dr. Erichson as one of the Malachii, 
and as identical with his Collops 4-maculatus. 

2. Platyrhopalus, Westw. 

1 (26). P. denticornis, Westw. East Indies. 

2 (27). P. umcolor, Westw. East Indies. 

3 (28). P. acutidens, Westw. Nepaul. 

4 (29). P. Westtuoodii, Saund. East Indies. 

5 (30). P. angustus, Westw. East Indies. 

6 (31). P. Melleii, Westw. Malabar. 

7 (32). P.aplustrifer,West\v. Bengal. Certainly belonging to this genus. 

8 (33), P. ? IcBvifrons, Westw. Senegal. 

9 (34). P. ? dentifrons, Westw. Senegal. 

3. Hylotorus, Dalm. 
I (35). H . bucephalus, Gyll, Sierra Leone. 

4. Pentaplatarthrus, Westw. 
1 (3G). P. paussoides, Westw. South Africa. 

5. Lebioderus, Westw. 
1 (37). L. Goryi, Westw. 

6. Ceratoderus. 
Corpus oblongum, depressura. Caput transverso-quadratum, postice collo 
insti-uctum, disco inter oculos bi-impressum. Antenna quasi 6-articu- 

1841.] Linnean Society. 113 

latae, articulis 4 interinediis transversis planis, ultimo semiorLiciilari . 
Maxilla minutae, plan«, corneas, apice acutae curvatae, intus sub apice 
dente acuto armatae. Palpi maxillares 4-articulati, articulo magno 
ovato, 3tio 4toque minoribus subcylindricis ; lahiales articulo ultimo 
prsecedente baud multo majori ovato apice truncato. Prothorax capite 
vix latior, cordato-truncatus, trans medium linea impressa notatus. 
Elytra oblongo-ovata, depressa. Pedes breviusculi ; femoribus tibiisque 
compressis, his apice baud calcaratis ; tarsis distincte 5-articulatis, ar- 
ticulo basali sequenti longiore. 

1 (38), C hifasciatus. 

Paussus bifasciatus, Kollar in Ann. Wien. Mus. 1836, t. 31. f. 7. a, b; 
Westw. in Trans. Ent. Soc. ii. p. 91. pi. 10. f. 3. 

Hah. in India Orientali. 

7. Cerapterus, Swederus. 

1 (39). C. latipes, Swed. Bengal. 

2 (40). C. Horsfieldii, Westw. Java. 

3 (41). C i-maculatus, Westw. Java, 

4 (42). C. (Orthoptekus) Smithii, MacL, South Africa. 

5 (43). C. (Arthropteuus) MacLeaii, Donov. New Holland. 

6 (44), C, (Phymatopterus) piceus, Westw. New Holland. 

7 (45). C. (HoiMOPTERUs) Brasiiiensis, Miers. Brazil, 

8 (46). C. (Pleuroptekus) Westermanni, Westw. Java. 

June 15. 

The Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

The President nominated the four following Members of the 
Council to be Vice-Presidents for the year commencing on the 25th 
of May last, viz. Robert Brown, Esq., Edward Forster, Esq., Thomas 
Horsfield, M.D., and Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq. 

Read, an Extract from a Letter from William Griffith, Esq., F.L.S,, 
to R, H. Solly, Esq., F.L.S., dated Meerut, March 29, 1841. 

Mr. Griffith states, that in its placentation, ovula, and protrusion 
of the embryonary sac, Osyris approaches Santalum, but presents in 
some particulars still more curious anomalies. First, the embryo- 
nary sac of Osyris seems to be produced beyond the base of the 
ovulum, passing down through the placenta and through the central 
tissue of the young fruit to its base. Secondly, the first steps of the 
growths consequent on fecundation take place outside the protruded 

No. XIII. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

114 Linnean Society. [June 15, 

sac, which may be found unaltered in the placenta of the ripe fruit. 
Whether the first cells, constituting the rudiments of the part in 
which albumen is suljsequently dejDosited, are derived from the boyau 
or from the embryonary sac, Mr. Griffith states, that he has not 
been able to determine ; but he imagines that they are derived fi'om 
the boyaii. He adds, that if his views of the seed of Loranthus being 
derived from the boyau solely be correct, Osyris is intermediate be- 
tween Loranthus and Santalum ; and intimates his intention of send- 
ing, on his arrival at Calcutta, a Supplement to his paper on Loran- 
thus, published in the Society's Transactions. 

Read also a paper " On a reformed character of the genus C7-y- 
ptolepis of Brown." By H. Falconer, M.D., Superintendent of the 
Hon. East India Company's Botanic Garden at Saharunpore. 

Dr. Falconer's character is as follows : — 
Cryptolepis, H. Br. 
Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla infundibiiliformis, 5-fida ; tubo intus proces- 
subus 5 carnosis, obtusis, inclusis, cum limbi laciniis alternantibus, in- 
structo ; fauce nuda. Stamina inio corollse tubo inserta, inclusa ;fila- 
menta brevissima, distincta ; anlherfe sagittatse, dorso penicillato-bar- 
batce, basi stigmatis margini adbserentes. Massce polUnis solitariae, 
granulosae, covpusculi glandulaeformis apjieiidicula; lineari tenuissimse 
applicitse. Ovaria 2. Stylus brevissimiis. Stigma dilatatum, margine 
attenuatum, apiculo conico. SquamulcE hypogynce nulls. FoUiculi di- 
varicatissimi, venti'icosi, apice acuto recto. Semina ad umbilicum co- 
Frutex volubilis, glaberrimus, succo lacteo scateus ; foliis oppositis, breve- 
petiolatis, lato-elUj)ticis ciua acumine subiilato brevi, supra Icete-viren- 
tibus, subtus albido-glaucis, transverse venosis ; petiolis supra basin ar- 
ticulatis ; corymbis axillaribus, breve-peclunculatis, curtafis ; floribus 
subsessilibus, majuscuUs, citrinis; corollee limbo patulo, segmentis ligu- 
C. Buchanani, Roem. et Sob., iv. p. 409. 
C. reticulata, Royle, Iltustr., p. 270. 
Nerium reticulatum, Roxb. Flor. Ind. Orient., ii. p. 9. 
Hab. passim in India Orientali. 

In his Monograph in the Wernerian Transactions, Mr. Brown re- 
ferred the genus Cryptolepis, which he there established, to Apocyneos, 
placing it next to Apocynum, and in this he has been followed by all 
subsequent writers ; but Dr. Falconer states that it has the whole 
stigmatic apparatus of Asclepiadeas, with granular pollen as typically 
developed as in Cryptostegia or any other of the PeriplocetE, although 
in a less considerable degree of evolution. He regards it, however, 

1841.] Linnean Society. 115 

as constituting the closest known transition from that family to Apo- 
cynece. He thinks the extreme minuteness of the appendiculae may 
account for their having escaped Mr. Brown's observation in the dry 
specimen ; but adds, that there are two other points of difference, 
which lead him to suspect his plant to be distinct from that described 
by Mr. Brown. These are the want of hypogynous scales, of which 
he finds no trace, and which he believes to be wanting in the series of 
Periploceous genera allied to Cryptolepis ; and the axillary, and not 
interpetiolar, inflorescence. He also gives a detailed description of 
the sexual organs, and states that he has never been able to observe 
the pollen tubes either naturally or artificially produced. 

In a supplementary note, Dr. Falconer adds, that he has since 
learned by letters from Dr. Wight and Mr. Griffith, that both those 
gentlemen have been long aware of Cryptolepis being an Asclepiadeous 
genus. With reference to Dr. Wight and Mr. Arnott's genus Stre- 
ptocaulon, under which those authors include the mass of Dr. Wallich's 
Indian species of Periploca, he observes, that S. calophyllum wants 
the principal character on which the distinction of that genus from 
Periploca is founded, and suggests its restoration to Periploca, of 
which he also characterizes a new species from the neighbourhood 
of Cashmeer with a peculiar pseudo-aphyllous habit. Of these spe- 
cies he gives the following characters : — 

P. calophylla, volubilis glabra, foliis anguste lanceolatis longe attenuatis 
utrinque nitidis transverse venosis, cymis subsessilibns paucifloris, flo- 
ribus breviter pedicellatls, corollis intiis parce hirsutis, squamis hirsutis- 
simis, folliculis elongatis gracilibus subparallelis (nee divaricatis !). 
Streptocaulon calophyllum, Wight, Contr. Ind. Bot., p. 65. 
Hab. passim in vallibus exterioribus montium Himalensium. 
P. Hydaspidis, volubilis ramosissima glabra, ramis fasciculatis nodoso- 
articulatis, foliis -tenuissiniis linearibus apiculatis adpressis remotis ca- 
ducis, cymis axillaribus multifloris, ilovibus breviter pedicellatls, corolli 
intiis squamisque tomentosis. 
Hab. secus ripas Hydaspidis extra Kashmeer prope " Khutao Kelah." — 
FL Septembri. 

The paper was accompanied by a coloured drawing of Cryptolepis 
Buchanani ? var. reticulata, and of the details of its fructification. 

Read also, " A Description of an additional species of Paussus." 
By J. O. Westwood, Esq., F.L.S., &c. 

The following are the characters of this species, which Mr. West- 
wood states to be most nearly allied to P. ruber, Thb., and of which 
he has seen only a single specimen in the collection of Samuel 

?w iJi'Eaiiiis' i. 


Bj tike 





cuff tibe kie TRSK loBHaiBalL lllieffiBrit^^'was sBEnBii n 
GSBEttEbg aBdfinedrilQEr^^B^iRBKlkDdaaB&d^pDHftEdantflK! 

isnks (if i&e Aafe and cssb^ddDI^ 2BenKdnpaKCBi&<Bg^aE%'^inB 


118 Linnean Society. [Nov. 16, 

deposits on the 24th of September, and found it to contain a living 
young, not quite so large as that last mentioned, and having a much 
larger yolk-bag ; and on the 1st of December he took up all the eggs 
of vphich he had any knowledge, none of v^^hich (although some were 
still living) were sufficiently matured for exclusion ; a circumstance 
which he attributes to a deficiency of the usual summer heat and to 
severe early frosts. Of the four young ones hatched, one escaped ; 
and the remaining three hybernated with the adults, reappeared in 
the spring, and lived in the garden for several years. 

November 16. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., was elected a Fellow. 

Read, " Descriptions of some Vegetable Monstrosities," by the 
Rev. William Hincks, F.L.S., F.R.S.E., &c. 

In this paper, which is a continuation of one read before the So- 
ciety towards the close of the year 1839, Mr. Hincks arranges the 
monsters described by him under the several heads of adherences, 
transformations, and increased or diminished developments of par- 
ticular parts. 

The adherences comprise, first, a case of the union of five grapes 
into one fruit in so complete a manner as to render it probable that 
the flowers were also united ; secondly, an instance of cohesion be- 
tween four peduncles of Centaur ea moschata, without fusion of their 
capitula ; and thirdly, the common case of adherence of two flowers 
oi Fuchsia fulgens. The latter is introduced for the purpose of re- 
marking how frequently, when the usual number of organs in a circle 
results from the suppression of certain parts rudimentally present, 
the same cause which produces adherence with the nearest flower, 
also developes all the rudiments, and thus increases the number of 
parts. On the other hand, in cases of union by fusion, that is, where 
the united flowers form one enlarged flower, Mr. Hincks observes, 
that one organ at least is generally sacrificed at each point of junc- 

Of transformations Mr. Hincks notices two : first, a terminal bud 
of an Azalea, gathered about the period when the plant ceased to 
produce blossoms, which is partially converted into a flower, the 

1841.] Linnean Society. 119 

leaves nearest the centre being imperfectly changed into stamina, 
and surrounded by many of petaloid aspect, while the outer leaves 
differ from the ordinary appearance only in having a little colour ; 
the organs are not arranged in circles, and one leaf only, and that 
among the most remote from the centre, assumes the form of a pi- 
stillum. The second transformation described occurs in a specimen 
of Gentiana campestris, in w^hich all the parts of the flower are con- 
verted into leaves, which are somewhat petaloid and crowded into a 
rose-like tuft : this kind of transformation is similar to that described 
and figured by M, De CandoUe in Trifolium repens. 

The first case of increased or diminished development noticed by 
Mr. Hincks affects a specimen of Anagallis arvensis, resembling one 
described by M. Moquin-Tandon as found by M. Gay, in which an 
increased development of the exterior circle is accompanied by dimi- 
nution in the interior ones : the effect produced is stated to be very 
unequal in different flowers, but the more the calyx is enlarged, the 
more the interior circles are contracted. The second case is the well- 
known wheat-ear carnation, Dianthus Caryophyllus imhricatus, L. 
which is noticed as probably affording the best example of the mon- 
strous multiplication of a particular circle. A third case occurs in 
a capitulum of Matricaria^ in which the bractese, consisting under 
ordinary circumstances of paleaceous scales, are enlarged into full- 
sized leaves, completely deforming the flower : the rose-ribwort is 
noticed as a phsenomenon of the same kind. Fourthly, Mr. Hincks 
mentions a monstrous variety or highly developed form of Convallaria 
multiflora, cultivated at Kew, which he presumes to be the var. 
bracteata of De Candolle and Duby : in it the number of flowers 
usually reaches five or six, and each of them proceeds from the 
axilla of a small leaf on the pedicel. And lastly, the author notices 
under this head a case of abortion or atrophy affecting the leaf of 
a fern cultivated by Messrs. RoUeston, by which in one instance the 
whole side of a frond, and in another the secondary veins with the 
parenchyma at both sides are entirely suppressed ; a phsenomenon 
which he has also observed in Scolopendrium officinale. 

Read also the commencement of a paper " On the Influence of 
the Dew-point on the Temperature of Plants," by D. P. Gardner, 
M.D., of Hampden Sidney College, Virginia, communicated by the 

120 Linnean Society. [Dec. 21, 

December 7. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P. in the Chair. 

Mr. John Brett was elected an Associate. 

Read, " On the Structure of the Nut known as Vegetable Ivory," 
by Daniel Cooper, Esq., A.L.S. 

Read also the conclusion of Dr. Gardner's paper " On the In- 
fluence of the Dew-point on the Temperature of Plants." 

December 21. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The following Addresses of Congratulation to Her Majesty and 
His Royal Highness Prince Albert were read and agreed to : — 

" To the Queen's most Excellent Majesty. 
" Most Gracious Sovereign, 

" We, Your Majest}''s most loyal and dutiful subjects, the Presi- 
dent, Council, and Fellows of the Linnean Society of London, beg 
leave to approach the throne with the expression of our warmest 
congratulations on the auspicious birth of an Heir Apparent to the 
Crown of these realms. 

" Deeply impiessed with feelings of loyal attachment to Your 
Majesty's person, we hail this event as an important addition to 
Your Majesty's domestic happiness and a renewed pledge of the 
permanence of Your Majesty's illustrious House. That Your Ma- 
jesty may long, in the enjoyment of every blessing, reign over a 
grateful people ; and may, at a far distant time, transmit to Your 
Majesty's successor the best inheritance of a prince in the affections 
of a loyal and devoted nation, is our most earnest prayer." 

" To His Royal Highness Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. 
" May it please Your Royal Highness, 

" We, Her Majesty's most loyal and dutiful subjects, the Presi- 
dent, Council, and Fellows of the Linnean Society of London, beg 
leave to offer to Your Royal Highness our warmest congratulations 
on the birth of an Heir Apparent to the Throne of these realms. 

" Deeply impressed with feelings of loyal attachment to Her 
Majestj^'s person, we hail this event as an additional source of 

1841.] Linnean Society. 121 

domestic happiness to Her Majesty and Your Royal Highness, and 
as a pledge of the permanence of Her Majesty's illustrious House. 
That Her Majesty and Your P^oyal Highness may long enjoy every 
blessing that can attend the married state, is our most earnest 

The Secretary announced to the Society, that since its last meet- 
ing it had sustained a severe loss by the death of its Librarian, Pro- 
fessor Don, which took place at the Society's House on the 8th 

Read an extract of a letter from William Griffith, Esq., F.L.S., 
to R. H. Solly, Esq., F.L.S., dated Serampore, the 11th of October 
1841, containing the following observations : — 

" In Santalum the ovulum consists of a nucleus and an embryo- 
sac, prolonged both beyond the apex and base of the nucleus ; the 
albumen and embryo are developed in the exserted part above the 
septum ; the mass of the embryo is developed directly from the ve- 
sicle, which is the termination of a pollen tube ; the seed (albumen) 
has no other proper covering than the incorporated upper separable 
part of the embryo-sac. 

" In Osyris the ovulum is reduced to a nucleus and an embryonary 
sac, prolonged exactly in the same directions as in Santalum, but not 
to such a degree anteriorly ; this anterior portion resembling exactly 
the unchanged part of the sac of Santalum below the septum. The 
albumen and embryo are formed outside the sac, and are absolutely 
naked, or whatever covering they may have did not enter into the 
composition of the ovulum." 

Mr. Griffith adds, " I have lately looked at Isoetes capsularis, 
Roxb. ; it is an instructive plant, for it shows that botanists are 
mistaken in their suj)position as to the male. In Roxburgh's plant 
the contents of the sporangium are sometimes of two sorts, but both 
have the same origin, both are precisely similarly constituted, except 
perhaps as to contents ; and the largest of these, the males of authors, 
become afterwards Uke the others, but larger. There can be no doubt 
that in all these plants the true sporules or seeds are those produced 
by division of an original simple cell or its contents. Isoetes and 
Azolla prove too a thing of some importance, that the dissimilar 
organs which have so puzzled botanists may have a similar origin. 
The true male of Isoetes will probably turn out to be the oblong, 
cordate, fleshy laminae above the female. On the male my observa- 
tions were stopped by indisposition. As a male it is certainly ano- 

No. XIV. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

122 Linnean Society. [Dec. 21 

malous ; it is probably, I conjecture, developed originally within the 
leaf, and the scale between it and the female is probably analogous 
to the indusium of ferns. The most instructive plant is Anthoceros 
(which is not a Hepatica), for this may explain Ferns by showing 
that a pre-existing organ, to be acted upon by the male influence , is 
not necessary. Endhcher says Isoetes has no stomata ; De Candolle 
figures them in his ' Organographie ;' in /. capsularis they are very 
evident : no matter whether emerged or submerged, all plants having 
a cutis have stomata." 

Read also a paper " On a new genus of Plants from Chile." By 
John Miers. Esq., F.L.S. 

This genus, which is named by Mr. Miers Solenomelus, on account 
of the confluence into a tubular form both of the stamina and stig- 
mata, belongs to the natural order IridecR, and is thus characterized : 


Cruckshanksia, Miers, Travels in Chile, ii. p. 529. iion Hook. 

Perianthium petaloideum ; tubo brevi incurvo ; limbo 6-partito, laciniis 
patentibus, 3 superioribus erectioribus, 3 infericribus deflexis. Tubus 
stamineiis cum tubo perianthii coalitus, demiim liber, ore antheras 3 
sessiles gevens. Stylus filiformis. Stigma integrum, urceolato-tubulo- 
sum, margine ciliatum. Capsula triquetra, tvilocularis, loculicido-tri- 
valvis. — Herbae Chilenses perennes, habitu Sisyrinchii. Spatha bivalvis, 
dorso sub apice mucronata. Flores hreviter pedicellati. 

1. Solenomelus Ckilensis, foliis lineari-ensiformibus, corolla aurantiaca. 
Cruckshanksia graminea, Miers, Travels in Chile, ii. p. 529. 

Hab. apud Concon, locis umbrosis. 

2. Solenomelits punctatus, foliis angustioribus, corolla aurantiaca; laciniis 
singulis supra basin puncto sanguineo notatis. 

Hab. prope Concepcion. 

Mr. Miers observes, that the curved corolla, the coherence of the 
filaments throughout their entire length, and the union of the stig- 
mata into an urceolate tube, afi"ord characters that sufficiently di- 
stinguish this genus from Sisyrinchium, to which it is in other re- 
spects most nearly related. In all the species of the latter genus 
that he has examined he has found a portion of the filaments free ; 
and he thinks the genus should be limited to those species in which 
the stamina are only partially united. This would exclude S. odo- 
ratissimum, Cav. (which is apparently the same as S. Narcissoides, 
Lindl.) and S. flexuosum, Lindl., described as having entirely united 
stamina, and further difi^ering from Sisyrinchium in having a long 
infundibuliform corolla, with more distinct markings, and a very 

1841.] Linnean Society. 123 

odoriferous smell. On these species Mr. Miers proposes to fovind a 
genus under the name of Symphyostemon ; agreeing with Solenome- 
lus in the complete union of its stamina, but differing by its deeply 
cleft style and the shape of its coroUa. He thinks also that several 
species added to Sisyrinchium by Sprengel, such as S. coUinum, S. 
filiforme and S. flexuosum, should be discarded from it, and believes 
that the entire genus requires a revision, for which he regrets that 
he does not possess sufficient materials. 

Read also a " Notice of a nevi'^ species oi Araucaria from the neigh- 
bourhood of Moreton Bay ; and of the Germination of Nuytsia flori- 
bunda," in a letter from J. C. Bidwell, Esq., to R. Taylor, Esq., 
Under Sec. L.S. 

January 18, 1842. 
R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Secretary reported that the Council held this day had agreed 
to the following resolution, viz. 

" That notice be given at the General Meeting this evening that 
the Election of a Clerk, Librarian and Housekeeper will take place 
on the 15 th of February ; the Chair to be taken at half-past seven 
o'clock in the evening, and the Ballot to close at nine." 

He further reported that the Candidates were Charles M. Lemann, 
M.D., Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in London, and 
Mr. Richard Kippist, Assistant Clerk and Librarian of the Society. 

Edward Solly, Jun., Esq., the Rev. Henry Hawkes, B.A., and 
Dr. William Henry Brown, were elected Fellows. 

l"lie Vice-President in the Chair then proposed, that in consequence 
of the recent death of Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq., V.P.L.S., and 
in consideration of his long connexion with the Society and emi- 
nent services to natural history, the meeting should adjourn, which 
was unanimously agreed to. 

February 1 . 
The Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. John William Griffith was elected a Fellow, and Mr. Lovell 
Reeve an Associate. 

124 Linnean Society. [Feb. 1, 

Read, " Contributions to Vegetable Embryology, from Observa- 
tions on the Origin and Development of the Embryo in Tropceolum 
majus." By Herbert Giraud, M.D., communicated by the Secretary. 

After referring to the researches of MM. Schleiden, Wydler, 
Mirbel and Spach, and A. St. Hilaire, on this important point, Dr. 
Giraud states that he was induced to select Tropceolum as the sub- 
ject of his ovi^n observations on account of its solitary ovula, and 
their comparatively large size, which render the individuals of this 
family, as well as the allied Geraniacece, peculiarly fitted for the pur- 
pose. He arranges his observations under seven general heads cor- 
responding with as many progressive periods in the growth of the 
female organs, and extending from the completion of the anatropous 
development of the ovule to the perfect formation of the embryo ; 
or from the commencement of the expansion of the bud to the com- 
plete formation of the fruit. The results are collected from a great 
number of dissections. 

In the first period, or just before the expansion of the bud, a lon- 
gitudinal section of the carpellum from its dorsum towards the axis 
of the pistillum, dividing the ovule, shows the latter to have com- 
pleted its anatropous development. A portion of rather firm and 
dense cellular tissue enclosing a bundle of vessels descends from the 
placenta and in apposition with it to form the raphe, and terminates 
in the base of the ovule. The nucleus has only one integument, at 
the apex of which is the exostome or micropyle, opening close by 
and to the outside of the point of attachment ; and the conducting 
tissue of the style may be traced into the carpellary cavity as far as 
the exostome. 

In the second period, during which the expansion of the bud and 
the dehiscence of the anthers commence, and therefore before im- 
pregnation, a small elliptical cavity makes its appearance near the 
apex of the nucleus, having a delicate lining membrane formed by 
the walls of the surrounding cells : this cavity is the embryo-sac, 
and a minute canal may be traced leading fi'om it to the exostome. 
The apex of the embryo -sac encloses at this period a quantity of 
organizable mucilage containing many minute bodies having the 
appearance and character of cytoblasts. 

In the third period, the apex of the nucleus and of its integument 
becomes slightly inclined towards the placenta. The embryo-sac is 
much enlarged and lengthened ; its mucilage has disappeared and 
given place to an elongated diaphanous utricle (utricule primordiale, 
Mirbel ; vesicule embryonnaire, Meyen ; extremite anterieure du boyau 
pollinique, Schleiden ;) containing a quantity of globular matter or 

1842.] Linnean Society. 125 

cytoblasts. This primary utricle is developed wholly within the em- 
bryo-sac, from which it is obviously distinct. 

The fourth period occurs after impregnation. The pollen tubes 
do not extend into the carpellary cavity ; but the foviUa with its gra- 
nules is found abundantly in the passage leading from the style to 
the exostome. With the increased development of the embryo-sac, 
the primary utricle elongates and becomes distinctly cellular by the 
development of minute cells in its interior, while at the extremity 
next the base of the nucleus it is terminated by a spherical mass con- 
sisting of globular cells. The primary' utricle at this period assumes 
the character of the suspensor (Mirbel), and its spherical extremity 
constitutes the first trace of the embryo. 

In the fifth period the apex of the nucleus and of its integument 
becomes more inclined towards the placenta; the spherical extre- 
mity of the suspensor enlarges, and it becomes more evident that it 
constitutes the rudimental embryo. In the mean time the suspensor 
has become lengthened by an increase in the number of its cells ; 
and its upper extremity is found to be protruded through the apex 
of the embryo -sac, the apex of the nucleus and the micropyle. 
From this extremity there is a considerable development of cells, 
many of which hang loosely in the passage leading to the conduct- 
ing tissue of the style, while the rest unite in forming a process 
which passes down the outer side of the ovulum within the carpel- 
lary cavity. This process is composed of from nine to twelve rows 
of cells, and its extremity resembles in appearance and in the ana- 
tomical condition of its cells the spongiole of a root. By a slight 
traction of this cellular process the suspensor with the embryo may 
be withdrawn from the embryo-sac through the exostome, thus pro- 
ving the continuity of the process with the suspensor, and through 
it with the embryo itself. 

During the sixth period the suspensor becomes more attenuated ; 
and the cellular process has reached the base of the ovulum, the cells 
of its extremity abounding with cytoblasts, which prove that it is still 
progressing in development. The embryo also increases in size, and 
two lateral processes are observed, which evidently form the first 
traces of the cotyledons. 

In the seventh period all distinction between the nucleus and its 
integument ceases, and they form a single envelope enclosing the 
embryo-sac ; the cellular process has become so much developed, 
that its extremity has passed round the base of the ovulum and is 
directed towards the placenta ; and the lateral processes of the em- 
bryo have become distinct fleshy cotyledons, enclosing both the 

126 Linnean Society. [Feb. 15, 

radicle and plumule in corresponding depressions of their opposed 
surfaces. The subsequent changes consist chiefly in the great de- 
velopment of the cotyledons, which ultimately occupy the entire ca- 
vity of the nucleus, filling the space usually taken up by albumen. 

From these observ^ations Dr. Giraud deduces the follow^ing in- 

The formation of the embryo-sac and the development of cyto- 
blasts vsdthin it having been shown to take place at a period prior to 
impregnation, and even the primary utricle itself making its appear- 
ance before the emission of the pollen from the anther and before 
the expansion of the stigma, the origin of the primary utricle cannot 
be referred to the influence of impregnation, nor can it have been de- 
rived from the pollen tube pressing before it a fold of the embryo-sac. 

The primary utricle at its first formation being quite distinct from 
the embryo-sac, even at its apex (although brought into contact with 
it at a subsequent period, and ultimately penetrating it), cannot re- 
sult from a depression or involution of the embryo-sac, as is main- 
tained by M. Brongniart. 

The pollen tubes (which after impregnation may be traced in the 
conducting tissue of the style) never reaching the micropyle, but 
pollen granules being found in abundance in the channel leading to 
it, and being doubtless brought into contact with the outer surface 
of the embryo-sac through the exostome ; and the first trace of the 
embryo appearing at this time in the formation of the spherical body 
at the inferior extremity of the primary utricle — Dr. Giraud is led 
to conclude that the origin of this simple spherical body results from 
a peculiar process of nutrition, determined by the material or dyna- 
mic influence of the fovilla, conveyed through the medium of the 
primary utricle or suspensor. 

The paper was accompanied by a series of drawings representing 
the ovulum of Tropaolum in the several stages of development de- 

February 15. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Meeting having been specially summoned for the election of 

a Clerk, Librarian, and Housekeeper in the place of Professor Don, 

the Vice-President in the Chair opened the business of the day, and 

the Members present proceeded to ballot. 

1842.] Linnean Society. 127 

The Vice-President appointed Mr. Bentham and Mr. Yarrell to be 
Scrutators, and the ballot being closed and the votes being counted, 
the Scrutators reported the election to have fallen on Mr. Kippist, 
vpho was thereupon declared to be duly elected. 

March 1. 
T. Horsfield, M.D., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Secretary reported, that since the last meeting the Society had 
received from W. Borrer, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c., the present of a 
valuable Herbarium of Foreign Flowering Plants. 

George Gardner, Esq., was elected a FeUow. 

Read a paper " On some rare and beautiful Coleopterous Insects 
from Silhet, the major part belonging to the collection of Frederic 
Parry, Esq., of Cheltenham." By the Rev. F. W. Hope, F.R.S., 
F.L.S., &c. 

The number of species described amounts to fourteen, one of 
which is regarded by Mr. Hope as forming the type of a new genus. 
The following are the generic and specific characters : — 


Hexarthrius Parryi, niger, mandibulis exsertis subdenticulatis bidentatis, 

capite thoraceque scabriusculis, elytris postice castaneis. Long. lin. 36 ; 

lat. lin. 10. 
Odontolabis Cuvera, ater, mandibulis valde exsertis denticuiatis, elytris 

pallide castaneis littera V nigra signatis. Long, (mandibulis inclusis) 

lin. 34; lat. lin. 11. 
Odontolabis Baladena, niger, mandibulis porrectis multidentatis, capite 

thoraceque unidentatis. Long. lin. 26 ; lat. 10. 
Dorcas Westermanni, niger, mandibulis porrectis multidentatis capite 

thoraceque pariam brevioribus. Long. hn. 26i ; lat. lin. 9. 
Dorcas DeHaani, niger, mandibulis porrectis capite parum longioribus : 

dente forti fere trigono ante basin posito : reliquis minoribus. Long. 

Hn. 22 ; lat. lin. 7^. 
Hab. in agro Assamensi. Mus. D. Hope. 
Lucanus Brahminus, niger, mandibulis valde exsertis denticuiatis capiti 

thoracique sequalibus, thorace postice utrinque dentato, elytris glabris 

marginatis. Long. lin. 24i ; lat. lin. 6^. 
Lucanus Buddha, niger nitidus, mandibulis valde porrectis capite thora- 
ceque longioribus denticuiatis. Long. lin. 21 ; lat. lin. 6. 

128 Linnean Society. [March 15, 


Mimela Passerinii, viridis, thoracis lateribus luteolis, elytrorum margini- 
bus elevatis pallide virescentibus, corpore infra roseo-cupreo, pectore ca- 
pillis longis flavescentibus obsito. Long. lin. 9J ; lat. lin. 4i. 

Hab. in Montibus Himalayanis. 


Chrysochroa Edwardsii, viridi-aurata, thorace cupreo-purpureo, elytris 
fascia irregulari rnacula flava insignitis, corpore subtus roseo-cupreo, 
pedibus concoloribus. Long. lin. 27 ; lat. lin. 8^. 

This superb Buprestis approaches most nearly to that named Pe- 
rottetii by M. Guerin. 


Monochamus sulphurifer, corpore toto supra et infra flavo-sulphureo, 

antennis pedibusque nigro cinereoque variegatis. Long. lin. 13 ; lat. 

lin. 4f . 
Purpuricenus ruhripennis, violaceus, elytris rubro-marginatis macula sub- 

quadrata in medio disco insignitis, pedibus concoloribus. Long. lin. 15 ; 

lat. lin. 4. 

ZoNOPTERus, Hope. 

Caput mandibulis arcuatis, fronte declivi, cornu brevi utrinque ad basin 
antennarum. A7itenncB 11-articulatse, articulo basali apice crassiore, 
2do minimo, 3tio longissimo, 4to fere dimidio minore, 6 sequentibus 
fere aequalibus, ultimo longiore acuto. Thorax depressus, capite duplo 
longior. Elytra thorace triplo longiora, parallela, apicibus rotundatis. 
Pedes femoribus 4 anterioribus incrassatis, posticis duplo majoribus 
subcompressis ; tibiis posticis subincurvis. 

Zo7iopterus Jlavitarsis, niger, antennis bicoloribus, thorace nigro-tomen- 
toso, elytris flavo-bifasciatis, femoribus tibiisque atris, tarsis flavis. 
Long. lin. 15 ; lat. lin, 4. 

Colobothea ruhricollis, rubro-picea, antennis concoloribus, elytris nigri- 
cantibus maculis flavo-ochraceis aspersis. Long. lin. 15 ; lat. lin. 4. 

Sagra Carhunculus, cyanea, elytris igne auroque micantibus, pedibus pos- 
ticis incrassatis ; tibiis incurvis. Long. lin. 4^. 

March 15. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. R. H. Solly exhibited a Cabinet for Microscopic objects made 
of Cedar-wood, the specimens contained in which, consisting of thinly 
ground sections of fossil- wood cemented on glass, had become co- 

1842.] Linnean Society. 129 

vered with a very adhesive varnish. Where the fossil-wood was 
quite sound, and the cement (j^robably of Canada Balsam) did not 
project beyond its edges, very little of the varnish was deposited ; 
but where the fossil-wood was cracked or unsound, or where the ce- 
ment projected beyond its edges, it was found in considerable quan- 
tity ; and on the specimens not cemented to glass, it was deposited 
chiefly in the pores or cracks which had imbibed some of the oil used 
in polishing the surface. The cabinet was quite new when the spe- 
cimens were placed in it, and Mr. Solly supposes that the air con- 
tained in the drawers had become loaded with vapour from the Ce- 
dar-wood, which coming into contact with oil or resin combined with 
it to produce a varnish. 

Read a paper " On Edgeicorthia, a new genus of Plants of the 
Order Myrsinece." By Hugh Falconer, M.D., Superintendent of the 
Hon. E. I. C.'s Botanic Garden at Saharunpore, communicated by 
J. F. Royle, M.D., F.L.S., &c. 

Dr. Falconer refers this new genus to the Tribe Theophrastece, and 
characterizes it as follows : — 


Calyx 5-pavtitus; laciniis obtusis imbricatis. Co/'o//a hypogyna, siibcam- 
panulata ; tubo brevi crasso, intus squamis 5 adnatis acuminatis, cum 
limbi 5-partiti lobis acutis (in cestivatione contorto-imbricatis) alter- 
nantibus, instructo. Stamina b, corollas tubo iiiserta, ejus denique la- 
ciniis opposita, exserta ; filamenta subulata, basi cum squamis conflu- 
entia ; antberae, versatiles, Joculis longitudinaHter debiscen- 
tibus. Ovarium 1 -loculare ; placenta basilaris, parva ; ovula pauca, 
erecta, anatropa. Stylus elongatus, etiam in alabastro exsertus ; stigma 
minutum, indivisum. Drupa mono- (raio di-) sperma. Semen pelta- 
tum, hilo lato excavato umbilicatum ; testa ossea. Embryo intra albu- 
men (cartilaginemn) ruminatum excentricus, transverse arcuatus ; ra- 
dicula infera. — Arbuscula sempervirens ; foliis alternis exsfipulatis, 
solitariis v. fasciculatis, ellipticis, integerrimis, coriaceis, marginatis ; 
ramis spinescentibiis; pedicellis hracieolatis ; ^ov\h\x% parvis subseasilibus 
in capitula axillaria subumbellata dense coacervatis, chloroleucis ; drupl 
ednli dulci. 

Obs. Genus inter Theophrasteas,JacqninicBet 7'/^eo/J/jfaste juxta charac- 
teres tribuales affine, sed ab utroque et a sociis albumine ruminato, 
necnon inflovescentia distinctum. Notatu dignissimum, stylum etiara 
in alabastro exsertum ! 

Edgeworthia biixifoUa. 

Hab. in collibus aridis Provinciarum Taxilae et Peucelaotis in Bactria In- 
feriore ; passim obvenit prope Peshawur, Cohaut et Attock, indigenis 

No. XV. — Proceedings of the Linnean Societt. 

ISO Linnean Society. [April 5, 

Goorgoora dicta. Floret Februario ; fructus maturescit Julio. Semina 
dura globosa vulgo in monilia precatoria conseruntnr. 
Dr. Falconer describes Edgeworthia as one of the most character- 
istic forms of Lower AiFghanistan, where it grows associated with a 
species of Dodoncea, Olea Laitoona, a species of RJiazya, and an un- 
described Asclepiadeous genus. To the latter, which he refers to the 
tribe of Periplocece, he gives the name of Campelepis, with the follow- 
ing generic characters : — 


Corolla rotata, 5-fida ; fauce coronata, squamis 5 cum segmentis alternan- 
tibus, brevibus, flexuoso-trilobis, conflnentibus, medio aristatis, aristis 
filiformibns erectis apice uncinatis ; tubo intus squamulis totidem inclu- 
sis, laceris, patentibus, staminibus oppositis, instructo. Filamenta di- 
stincta, fauci infra squamas inserta ; antheras sagittatae, apiculo acuto 
terminatse, dorso barbatse, basi stigmatis medio agglutinatae. Masses 
polUnis solitarise, granulosa, corpusculorum stigmatis appendiculis di- 
latatis applicitae. Stigma dilatatum, muticum. FoUicuU cylindracei^ 
Iseves, divaricatissimi. Semina ad umbilicum comosa. — Frutex erectus, 
ramosissimus, glabtr, quasi aphyllus; foliis nenipe squamceformibus, deci- 
duis, remotis ; cymis breve pedu?icidatis, paucijloris ; ^orihus parvis, cO" 
riaeeis ; corollae laciniis intus prope apicem barbatis, disco leprosis, 

Campelepis viminea. 

Hah. passim in Bactria Inferiore, prope Peshawur, Attock, &c. 

April 5. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Secretary announced that the Society had received, in pur 
suance of the bequest of the late Professor David Don, Libr. L.S., 
his Herbarium and collection of Woods and Fruits, with the ex- 
ception of such as relate to Materia Medica. 

Mr. Richard Kippist, Libr. L.S,, was elected an Associate. 

Read the commencement of " A Catalogue of Spiders, either not 
previously recorded or little known as indigenous to Great Britain, 
with remarks on their Habits and Economy." By John Blackwall, 
Esq., F.L.S., &c. 

1842.] Linnean Society. 131 

April 19. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

M. Pakenham Edgeworth, Esq., of the Bengal Civil Service, was 
elected a Fellow. 

The Secretary announced that the Treasurer had received from the 
Executors of the late Archibald Menzies, Esq., F.L.S., the sum of 
90^., being the amount of a legacy of 1001. bequeathed by him to the 
Linnean Society, after deducting 10/. for legacy duty. 

J. O. Westwood, Esq., F.L.S., exhibited numerous species of 
SphingidcB, Nocturnal Lepidoptera, and other insects, from the collec- 
tion of Lieut. -Col. Hearsey, formed during a residence of thirty years 
in Central India. He stated this collection to be very interesting on 
account of its local character, and as compared with the splendid col- 
lections recently received from Sylhet and the Himalayas, exhibited 
at late meetings of this Society. In Colonel Hearsey's collection 
the species of the modern genus Papilio are very few in number, and 
well known. Of P. Hector there is but a single specimen. There 
is not a single species of Lucanus, nor true Fulgora, in the collection ; 
a striking peculiarity as compared with the Sylhet and Himalayan 
collections. The collection, however, contains a species of Paussus 
and one of Diopsis, both new ; a very minute Apotomus, specimens 
of both sexes of the interesting Hymenopterous genus Trirogma, a 
number of very English-looking Harpalidce, various Alhyrei and 
Bolboceri, as well as most of the new species described by Mr. 
Saunders in the last Part of the Transactions of the Entomological 

Read the concluding portion of " A Catalogue of Spiders, either 
not previously recorded or little known as indigenous to Great Bri- 
tain, with remarks on their Habits and Economy." By John Black- 
waU, Esq., F.L.S., &c. 

The following is a list of the species enumerated by Mr. Black- 
wall : — 

1. Drassus sericeus, Walck. In several of the northern counties of En- 
gland and Wales. 

2. Drassus ater, Walck. Common in Denbighshire and Caernarvon- 

132 Linnean Society. [April 19, 

3. Clubiona epimelas, Walck. Found rarely in the wooded districts of 

4. Clubiona accentiiata, Walck. In the woods of Denbighshire and Caer- 

5. Clubiona erratica, Walck. Frequent in the woods and commons of 

6. Argyroneta aquatica, Walck. In the fens of Cambridgeshire, Mr. Ba- 
bington ; and in small pools in Cheshire, Mr. Glover. 

7. Cinijlo ferox, Blackw. Abundant in England and Wales. 

8. Ergatis latens, Blackw. On commons in Denbighshii-e. 

9. Tegenaria domestica, Walck. Oxford and Cambridge. 

10. Lycosa andrenivora, Walck. Commons and old pastures in various 
parts of England and Wales. 

11. Lycosa agretyca, Walck. Old pastures in England and Wales. 

12. Lycosa allodroma, Walck., var. leucophaea. Lycosa leucophaea, 
Blackw., in Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag. x. p. 104. 

13. Lycosa picta, Hahn. In Cheshire and Denbighshire, frequenting 
sandy districts on the coast. 

14. Lycosa lugubris, Walck. Abundant in woods in Denbighshire and 

15. Lycosa pallida, Walck. Frequent on banks of rivers in Denbighshire 
and Caernarvonshire. 

16. Lycosa piratica, Walck. Marshes and margins of pools in England 
and Wales. 

17. Doloinedes jimbriatus, Walck. In the fens of Cambridgeshire, J/r, 

18. Salticus cupreus, Hahn. Momitain-woods of Denbighshire and Caer- 

19. Saltic7(s coronatus,^]s.ckv!. Attus coronatus, Walck. Common in the 
woods of Denbigiishire and Caernarvonshire. 

20. Salticus gracilis, Hahn. Gwydir woods in Caernarvonshire. 

21. TTiomisus brevipes, Hahn. In fields adjacent to woods, at Oakland, 
near Llanrwst, Denbighshire. 

22. Thomisus bifasciatus, Blackw. Xysticus bifasclatus, Koch. In pas- 
tures near Llanrwst. 

23. T/tomisus citreus, Walck. In the western parts of Denbighshire. 

24. Philodromus dispar, Walck. In the wooded parts of Denbighshire 
and Caernarvonshire. 

25. Philodromus cespiticolens, Walck. In woods in Denbighshire. 

26. Philodromus oblongus, Walck. In the north of Cheshire. 

27. Sparassus smaragdulus, Walck. England, Mr. Babington ; in the 
woods at Tan-y-Bwlch in Merionethshire, Mr. Glover. 

28. Theridion denticulaium, Walck. Common in England and Wales. 

29. Theridion signatum, Walck. Among heath in Denbighshire : rare. 

30. Neriene trilineata, Blackw. Theridion reticulatum, Hahn. Under 
stones in the neighbourhood of Manchester, 

1S42.] Linnean Society. 133 

31. Neriene graminicolens, Blackw. Sp. nov. a Neriene trilineatd di- 
versa pedibus palpisque unicoloribus nee annulatis. Old pastures at Oak- 
land, near Llanrvvst, Denbighshire. 

32. Manduculus vernalis, Blackw. Thei'idion vernale, Hahn. In pas- 
tures in various parts of Lancashire and Denbighshire. 

33. Pholcus phalangioides, Walck. Barmouth, Merionethshire, Mr. Pot- 
ter; Liverpool, Mr. Glover; Isle of Wight. 

34. Linyplda pallida, Blackw. Theridium pallidum, Koch. Among grass 
in the grounds about Oakland. 

35. Epe'ira hicornis, Walck. In the wooded parts of Denbighshire. 

36. Epe'ira agelena, Walck. In pastures near Llanrwst. 

37. Epe'ira scalaris, Walck. In the neighbourhood of London. 

38. Epe'ira umhratica, Walck. Abundant in various parts of England 
and Wales. 

39. Epe'ira fusca, Walck. In Denbighshire and Caernarvonshire. 

40. Epeira antriada, Walck. Common in the north of England and 

41. Dysdera erythrina, Walck. In the town of Manchester; also in Cam- 
bridge, Mr. Potter. 

42. Dysdera rubicunda, Koch. Cambridge, Mr. Bahington. 

43. Dysdera Homhergii, Walck. Plentiful in the wooded districts of Den- 
bighshire and Caernarvonshire. 

44. O'onops pulcher. Tempi. Deletrix exilis, Blackw., in Lond. and 
Edinb. Phil. Mag. x. p. 100. In Lancashire, Denbighshire and Caernar- 
vonshire : abundant in the two last. 

Mr. Blackwall states, that with a ievf exceptions, the spiders com- 
prised in the foregoing catalogue have never before been recognized 
as British species. With respect to nearly the whole of them, nu- 
merous facts are detailed relative to their structure, instincts, eco- 
nomy and haunts, with occasional remarks on their nomenclature 
and systematic arrangement. 

Read also a " Description of a new Indian species of Paussus." 
By J. O. Westwood, Esq., F.L.S., &c. 

This species, which is in the collection made by Lieut. -Colonel 
Hearsey mentioned above, approaches Platyrhopalus in having the 
penultimate joint of its labial palpi about two-thirds the length of 
the terminal joint. In all its other characters, however, it accords so 
exactly with the Indian species of Mr. Westwood's second division 
of the genus Paussus, that were the antennse broken off, it would be 
almost impossible to distinguish it from Paussus cognatus. 

Paussus Hearseyanus, rufo-castaneus nitidus punctatus, elytris singulis 
plaga lata longitudinal! nigra, capite pone oculos carina elevata trans- 
versa alteraque longitudinali mediana ad nasum fere ducta, antennarum 

134 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

clava subovata basi extus in hamum producta ; margine postic^ super- 
neque oblique 3-impresso. 

The only specimen known was captured by Col. Hearsey at Be- 
nares by night, having flown against the lamp and fallen upon the 
table, a habit observed in other species of the genus by several Indian 

May 5. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Capt. Theobald Jones, R.N., M.P., was elected a Fellow. 

His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., F.R.S., F.L.S., 
&c., sent for exhibition a specimen of the ripe fruit of Diospyros 
edulis, and of the female flowers of the same, grown in one of His 
Grace's stoves at Sion. 

J. A. Hankey, Esq., F.L.S., laid on the table for distribution nu- 
merous specimens of Fritillaria Meleagris, L., gathered by himself 
at Finchley, Middlesex. 

W. H. Rudston Read, Esq., F.L.S., exhibited a specimen of a 
shell {Spondylus varius, Brod.) collected at Riatea, one of the So- 
ciety Islands, under the enamel of which was retained for several 
months a quantity of water. 

Read a portion of Dr. Hamilton Buchanan's Commentary on the 
8th Part of Rheede's ' Hortus Malabaricus.' 

May 24. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

This day, the Anniversary of the birth of Linnaeus, and that ap- 
pointed by the Charter for the Election of Council and Ofiicers, the 
President opened the business of the Meeting, and stated the num- 

1842.] Linnean Society. 135 

i»er of Members whom the Society had lost during the past year, of 
some of whom the Secretary read the following notices : — 

John Ansley, Esq. 

Sir Wm. Beatty, Knt., M.D., F.R.S., well known as having been 
surgeon of the Victory at the memorable action oflF Cape Trafalgar, 
and as having in that capacity assisted at the last moments of Lord 
Nelson, of which he afterwards published an account. 

Sir Charles Bell, K.H., F.R.S. Lond. 8^ Ed., Professor of Surgery 
in the University of Edinburgh. 

The very recent death of this eminent surgeon and distinguished 
physiologist precludes on the present occasion any detailed account 
of his Hfe and works. He was born in Edinburgh in 1778, and the 
early part of his life was spent in his native city as the assistant of 
his brother John in his surgical lectures. He came to London in 
1806, and became lectui'er on surgery at the Hunterian School in 
Windmill Street, and afterwards one of the surgeons of the Middlesex 
Hospital. His important discoveries in the functions of the Nervous 
System, by which his fame has been most widely spread, were com- 
municated in a series of papers read before the Royal Society, com- 
mencing in 1821. On the accession of King William the Fourth he 
received the honour of knighthood ; and in 1836 he returned to 
Edinburgh, having been appointed to the Professorship of Surgery 
in that University. He died almost suddenly at the beginning of 
the present month. 

The Rev. Isaac Bell. 

John Eddowes Bowman, Esq., was born at Nantwich in Cheshire, 
on the 30th October, 1785. He was in early life confined to busi- 
ness during more than twelve hours of the day, and yet con- 
trived, by early rising, to cultivate a taste for botany, which he had 
imbibed from his father. The small town in which he lived fur- 
nished no persons of congenial pursuits with whom he could asso- 
ciate, but this circumstance, though it limited his progress, did not 
damp his ardour. He became the manager of a bank at Welch Pool, 
and with an income extremely limited, was not only enabled to 
give a liberal education to his rising family, but, by the help of such 
books and instruments as he could purchase, to extend his studies 
to many branches of natural science with great zeal and success. In 
1 824 he became a partner in a banking establishment in Wrexham, 
from which he retired in 1830, and never entered into business again; 
for being in possession of a moderate competence, he willingly relin- 
quished together the profits and the cares of active life, in exchange 
for the tranquil happiness he hoped to enjoy from the undivided pur- 

136 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

suit of those sciences of which he had ever been passionately fond. 
Hitherto he had been able to follow them only as a recreation, having 
never allowed their cultivation to encroach on the time set apart for 
business ; yet he had already, from the ample stores around him, ac- 
quired extensive collections in the departments of botany and geology, 
which were his favourite studies. 

In 1837 he transferred his residence to Manchester, where he in- 
tended to pass the remainder of his life. During his short abode in 
that great emporium of manufactures and commerce he endeavoui-ed 
by all the means in his power to advance and diffuse a love for sci- 
ence, and especially for natural history ; and by his associates in the 
different societies of that place his memory will be warmly cherished. 
He had looked forward with much interest to the approaching meet- 
ing of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 
that town, but this hope was not realized. He died after a sudden 
illness on the 4th December last. 

Mr. Bowman became a Fellow of this Society in 1828. He has 
contributed two papers to the sixteenth volume of its ' Transactions' : 
viz. " An Account of a new Plant of the Gastromycous order of 
Fungi," which is well described and figured under the name oi Ener- 
thema elegans ; and a memoir " On the parasitical connexion of 
Lathrtsa SqvMmaria, and the peculiar structure of its subterranean 
leaves." The last-named paper is a valuable contribution to our 
knowledge of a very obscure branch of vegetable physiology, the 
connection, namely, of Root-Parasites with the plants on which they 
grow, and is beautifully iUustrated by two plates of details, from Mr. 
Bowman's owti pencil. His other natural-history publications are, 
with one exception, geological. They consist of, 1. a memoir " On 
the Longevity of the Yew, as ascertained from actual sections of its 
trunk, and on the origin of its frequent occurrence in Churchyards," 
in Loudon's ' Magazine of Natural History for 1836 ' ; 2. "Notes on a 
small patch of Silurian Rocks to the W. of Abergele, on the north- 
ern coast of Denbighshire," communicated by Mr. Murchison to the 
Geological Society in 1838; 3. "On a white fossil Powder found 
under Peat-Bog in Lincolnshire, composed of the siliceous fragments 
of microscopic parasitical Confervce ;" 4. "On the origin of Coal, and 
the geological conditions under which it was produced;" 5. "Ob- 
servations on the characters of the Fossil Trees discovered on the line 
of the Bolton Railway;" 6. "On the Upper Silurian Rocks in the 
Vale of Llangollen, North Wales ; " (the four latter communicated to 
the Manchester Geological Society, and published in the first volume 
of their Transactions ;) 7. three papers in the 'Philosophical Maga- 

1842.] Linnean Society. 137 

zine' for 1840, "On the Natural Terraces on the Eildon Hills;" and 
8. a memoir in the same Journal for 1841, "On the question whether 
there are any evidences of the former existence of Glaciers in North 

The Rev. Thomas Butt. 

Edmimd John Clark, M.D. 

George Coles, JEsq. 

Richard Goolden, Esq. 

William Harrison, Esq., Queen's Counsel, a Bencher of the Inner 
Temple, Counsel of the Treasury and "War Office, and Attorney- 
General for the Duchy of Cornwall, died at his seat at Cheshunt, 
Herts, on the 4th of October last. He was eminently distinguished 
in his profession, in the parliamentary business of which he for many 
years took the lead. Those among us who have visited his retreat 
at Cheshunt are not likely soon to forget the beautiful garden, with 
its noble range of stoves and conservatories, which he had formed 
there, or the kind hospitality with which they were received. Much 
of his leisure was devoted to planting, and his garden exhibited, in 
the great variety of trees and shrubs which it contained and the taste 
displayed in their arrangement, ample proof of his attachment to that 

James Rawlins Johnson, M.D., F.R.S., S^c., was author of "A Trea- 
tise on the Medicinal Leech, including its medical and natural his- 
tory, with a Description of its Anatomical Structure ; also. Remarks 
upon the Diseases, Preservation and Management of Leeches," 1816, 
8vo, London; and of two papers published in the 'Philosophical Trans- 
actions' for 1817, entitled "Observations on the mode of Propagation 
of the Hirudo vulgaris, or Rivulet-Leech," and " On the Hirudo com- 
planata and Hirudo stagnalis, now formed into a distinct genus under 
the name of Glossopo7'a." These two papers were reprinted in 1825, 
with some additional facts and observations, under the title of 
" Further Observations on the Medicinal Leech." In these publica- 
tions Dr. Johnson contributed much to the elucidation of the natural 
history of the Leech, which has since been so ably completed by Ca- 
rena and others. 

Ayhner Bourke Lambert, Esq., the last survivor of the original 
members of the Linnean Society, and for nearly fifty years one of its 
Vice-Presidents, was born at Bath on the 2nd of February, 1761. 
His father, Edmund Lambert, Esq., of Boyton-House, near Heytes- 
bury, Wilts., married Bridget, daughter of the last Viscount Mayo 
and his only surviving child, through whom Mr. Lambert inherited 
the family property and the name of Bourke. He was educated at 

138 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

St. Mary's Hall, in the University of Oxford, and attaching himself 
early in life to botanical pursuits, joined the Linnean Society at its 
foundation, and became one of its warmest friends and promoters. In 
1791 he also became a Fellow of the Royal Society. 

On succeeding to his paternal estate, he was enabled to indulge his 
taste for botany more freely, and laboured with great ardour and suc- 
cess to increase his herbarium, which at length acquired the charac- 
ter of being one of the most valuable and important private collec- 
tions in existence. Of this herbarium, and of the several collections 
from which it was chiefly formed, an account has been given by Mr. 
Don, who for many years acted as its curator, and who had also 
charge of Mr, Lambert's extensive botanical library. These collec- 
tions were at all times most hberally opened by their possessor for 
the use of men of science, and one day in the week (Saturday) was 
constantly set apart for the reception of scientific visitors, travellers 
and others, who either brought with them or sought for information 
on botanical subjects. 

Mr. Lambert's separate publications are two in number : " A De- 
scription of the Genus Cinchona," London, 1797, 4to, and "A De- 
scription of the Genus Pinus," London, 1803—24, in two vols, folio. 
Of the latter work, which is one of the most splendid botanical pub- 
lications that ever issued from the press, a second edition, with addi- 
tions, was published in 1828, and a third volume was added in 1834. 
A small edition, in two vols. 8vo, was also published in 1832. 

His other works consist entirely of papers in our ' Transactions.' 
They are as follows : — 

"An Account of the Cams Grains Hibernicus, or Irish Wolf-Dog," 
in vol. ii. 

"Anecdotes of the late Dr. Patrick Browne, author of the 'Natural 
History of Jamaica'," in vol. iv., containing some interesting par- 
ticulars relative to that intelligent naturalist, from whom Mr. Lam- 
bert received and presented to this Society his MS. of a ' Flora Hi- 
bernica,' together with a small herbarium, collected in the counties 
of Mayo and Galway, and a separate collection of Mosses. 

" A Description of the Blight of Wheat, Uredo Frumenti," 

" A Description of Bos frontalis, a new species from India," de- 
scribed from a Uving specimen in the collection of Mr. Brookes of 
the New Road. 

" Observations on the Zizania aquatica," accompanied by a figure 
from the pencil of Ferdinand Bauer, taken from specimens grown by 
Sir Joseph Banks in a pond at Spring-grove. 

" A further Account of Bos frontalis," containing numerous par- 

1842.] Linnean Society. 139 

ticulars of its habits, taken from a Letter written by Mr. Macrae. 
These four papers are in vol. vii. 

"A Description of a new Species of Macropus (M. elegans), from 
New Holland," from a living specimen in the collection at Exeter 
Change, in vol. viii. 

" Some Account of the Herbarium of Prof. Pallas," in vol. x., which, 
besides a general account of the collection, then recently purchased 
by Mr. Lambert, contains characters of a number of new species of 
plants, which are figured on six accompanying plates. 

" Notes relating to Botany, collected from the MSS. of the late 
Peter Collinson, Esq.," also in vol. x., and affording many interest- 
ing notices relating to botanists, gardeners and gardens in England, 
in the middle of the last century. 

" Description of a new Species of Psidium " {P. polycarpon), which 
had ripened its fruit at Boyton, in vol. xi. 

" Some Account of the Galls found on a species of Oak from the 
shores of the Dead Sea," and a " Note on the Mustard-plant of the 
Scriptures," in vol. xvii. 

Mr. Lambert's health had for some years been failing, and he had 
ceased to visit his country-seat at Boyton, but preferred, when out 
of toAvn, taking up his residence of Kew, where his proximit}^ to the 
Royal Gardens, and to his friends in town, aflforded him more co- 
pious sources of enjoyment than he could have found elsewhere. He 
died at Kew, on the 10th of January in the present year, and his 
remains were removed to Boyton for interment. He married Catha- 
rine, daughter of Richard Bowater, Esq., of AUesley in the county 
of Warwick, but was left a widower, without any family, some years 
before his death. 

Charles Lane, Esq. 

Richard Leigh, Esq. 

Archibald Menzies, Esq., who, on the death of Mr. Lambert, be- 
came father of the Society, was bom at Weem, in the county of 
Perth, on the 15th of March, 1754. He was early attached to the 
Botanic Garden at Edinburgh, of which his brother William after- 
wards had charge ; and was enabled, through the kind assistance of 
Dr. John Hope, then Botanical Professor in that University, who was 
attracted by his love for natural history and especially botany, to 
pass through the academical studies necessary for his education as a 
surgeon. In the summer of 1778 he made a tour, under the auspices 
of Dr. Hope, through the Higlilands and Hebrides, with the view of 
collecting their rarer plants, to which attention was then strongly 
directed by the recent publication of Lightfoot's 'Flora Scotica.' He 

140 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

afterwards became assistant to a surgeon at Caernarvon ; but soon 
quitting for a time the practice of his profession on shore, he entered 
the navy, and became assistant-surgeon on board the Nonsuch, 
Captain Truscott, in which vessel he was present at the famous vic- 
tory obtained by Rodney over the Comte de Grasse on the 12th of 
April, 1782. After the peace of that year he remained for some time 
on the Halifax station. In 1 786 he embarked as surgeon on board the 
Prince of Wales, a vessel fitted out by the enterprising firm of John 
and Cadman Etches and Co., and was placed under the command 
of Lieut, (afterwards Captain) Colnett, of the Royal Navy, for a voy- 
age of commercial discovery to the north-west coast of America. In 
this voyage he visited Staten Land, where he remained for some time, 
the Sandwich Islands and China, as well as North-western America, 
and returned from China by the direct route to England in the be- 
ginning of 1789. In the following year he was appointed in the 
capacity of naturalist, and with the rank of surgeon, to accompany 
Captain Vancouver, on board the Discovery, in his celebrated voy- 
age ; from which, after visiting King George's Sound on the south 
coast of New Holland, a part of New Zealand, Otaheite and the 
Sandwich Islands, and exploring by far the greater part of the north- 
west coast of America, he returned to England in the autumn of 
1795. During one of the visits made by this expedition to the Sand- 
wich Islands he ascended Wha-ra-rai and Mowna-roa, two of the 
principal mountains of the island of Owhyhee, and determined their 
heights (that of the latter exceeding 13,000 feet) by barometrical 
observations made simultaneously with others on board the vessel. 
" Some account" of his ascent of the former was subsequently given 
by him in the 1st and 2nd volumes of Loudon's 'Magazine of Natural 
History.' From an early period of the voyage Mr. Menzies added 
to his duties as naturalist those of surgeon of the Discovery, and it 
affords a striking proof of his professional skill, that on so arduous 
a service and in so protracted a voyage, not a single man was lost 
by disease after quitting the Cape of Good Hope in their passage 

From these various voyages Mr. Menzies brought back with him 
to England large collections of natural history, chiefly botanical. A 
very considerable number of the plants which he had collected, and 
especially of the Cryptogamous, to the study of which he was always 
devotedly attached, were new to science, and have been described 
from his specimens by Sir James Edward Smith, Mr. Brown, Sir 
W. J. Hooker and other botanical friends, among whom they were 
most liberally distributed. His own publications were few in uum- 

1842.] Linnean Society, 141 

ber. In the 1st volume of our 'Transactions' are contained "De- 
scriptions of three new Animals [Echene'is lineata, Fasciola cjavata, 
and Hiriido branchiata] found in the Pacific Ocean" during his first 
voyage round the world ; and in the 4th, " A new Arrangement of 
the Species of Polytrichum, with some Emendations," which, to- 
gether with an Appendix, afterwards added, forms a valuable mono- 
graph of that extensive genus. In the 'Philosophical Transactions' 
for 1796, he gave, in conjunction with Mr. (afterwards Sir Everard) 
Home, " A Description of the Anatomy of the Sea-Otter," of which 
he had brought home a fine specimen, afterwards presented, with 
many other zoological specimens and a set of his plants, to the Bri- 
tish Museum. 

He subsequently served in the West Indies as surgeon of the Sans- 
pareil, commanded by Lord Hugh Seymour ; but early in the present 
century he quitted the sea, and continued to practise his profession 
in London. For some years previous to his death he had retired to 
Netting Hill, where he passed the tranquil remainder of his length- 
ened existence, eager to the last to obtain additions to his botanical 
collection, and enjoying the society of his numerous friends with a 
kindness of heart that never failed. 

He died on the loth of February in the present year, having nearly 
reached the age of 88, and was buried beside his wife (who died five 
years earlier, and by whom he had no children), in the Cemetery at 
Kensal Green. He left his herbarium, consisting chiefly of Cr}"pto- 
gamous plants, Graminece and Cyperacece, arranged with character- 
istic neatness on paper of an 8vo size, to the Botanic Garden at 
Edinburgh, where he had studied ; and also gave by his wiU a be- 
quest of £100 to this Society, of which he became a Fellow on the 
19th of January, 1790, and to which he was always most warmly 

David Pennant, Esq., son of the distinguished naturalist and ele- 
gant writer to whom we owe so many agreeable and instructive 
publications, and who, on the foundation of this Society, was elected 
one of its Honorary Members, died on the 24th of June, in the 7Sth 
year of his age. He edited some of his father's posthumous works, 
to one of which, consisting of the third and foiirth volumes of the 
' Outlines of the Globe,' he supplied a preface containing some 
account of the latter days of his parent, and an eloquent tiibute to 
his talents and virtues. He was himself one of the oldest Fellows 
of the Society, having been elected in 1792. 

Among our Foreign Members we have sustained, in common 
with the whole world of science, a severe loss in the person of 

142 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

Augustin Pyramus DeCandolle, a botanist of such [distinguished 
eminence as to demand from us a more than ordinary tribute of re- 
spect. Descended from a family which came originally from Mar- 
seilles, but had for more than two centuries been settled at Geneva, 
and which towards the close of the sixteenth century furnished one 
of that illustrious band of classical printers who united in so high a 
degree the study of letters with the art of transmitting them to pos- 
terity, he was born in the latter city, of which his father had been 
Premier Syndic, on the 4th of February, 1778. His youthful incli- 
nations were turned towards literature rather than science ; but a 
residence in the country awakened in him a taste for botany, which 
his attendance on the lectures of Professor Vaucher confirmed, and 
at the age of sixteen his path in life was determined, and he devoted 
himself to the cultivation of botanical science. 

In 1795 he paid his first visit to Paris, where he attended the lec- 
tures of Cuvier, Lamarck, Fourcroy, Vauquelin, and other distin- 
guished professors ; and when Geneva was a few years afterwards 
incorporated with the French Republic he returned to the metropolis, 
where he fixed his residence for several years, attending the medical 
classes and pursuing his botanical studies at the same time under 
Jussieu and Desfontaines, with both of whom he formed a close and 
intimate friendship. Soon after taking up his abode in Paris he com- 
menced the publication of his ' Plantarum Historia Succulentarum,' 
which was speedily followed by his ' Astragalogia;' and in 1802 he 
began to furnish the text to Redoute's magnificent work, ' Les Lilia- 
cees,' which he supplied up to the 4th volume. In 1805 he was as- 
sociated with Lamarck in the third edition of that excellent natu- 
ralist's ' Flore Frangaise,' to which he prefixed an introduction, en- 
titled ' Principes Elementaires de Botanique,' and containing the 
outlines of a course of lectures which he had delivered in the pre- 
vious year at the College de France. A ' Synopsis Plantarum in 
Flora Gallica descriptarum ' followed in 1806. He had previously, 
in 1 804, connected his medical and botanical studies in an ' Essai 
sur les Proprietes Medicales des Plantes, comparees avec leur clas- 
sification naturelle,' of which a second edition appeared in 1816. 
At an early period of his residence in Paris M. DeCandolle took an 
active part in the formation, under the auspices of Baron Benjamin 
Delessert, of the Societe Philanthropique for the supply of ceconomical 
soups to the poor and other charitable purposes, of which he con- 
tinued for several years to be the secretary. The Society for the 
Encouragement of National Industry is also stated to have been 
formed under his direction and management. 

In 1806 he ceased to be permanently resident in Paris. He re- 

1842.] Linnean Society. 143 

ceived in that year a commission from the Imperial Government to 
collect information on the state of botany and agriculture throughout 
the empire, and in pursuance of this commission he took for six suc- 
cessive years annual journeys into the several departments, the re- 
sults of which are contained in his ' Rapports sur les Voyages Bota- 
niques et Agronomiques faits dans les Departemens de I'Empire 
Fran^ais,' which were published in a collected form in 1813. 

Soon after his appointment to this important task he quitted Paris 
for Montpellier, where he became Professor of Botany in the Faculty 
of Medicine in 1807, and a Chair of Botany having been established 
in the Faculty of Sciences of that Academy in 1810, he attached 
himself with renewed ardour to the promotion of his favourite pur- 
suit. Under his direction the Botanic Garden was greatly improved, 
and a Catalogue, with descriptions of many new species, was pub- 
lished by him in 1813, in which year his ' Theorie Elementaire de la 
Botanique' also made its first appearance. Many valuable memoirs, 
scattered through various publications, but chiefly taken from the 
' Annales du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle,' were in this year col- 
lected into a volume. 

After the second Restoration of the Bourbons, circumstances oc- 
curred which induced him to quit Montpellier and return to his na- 
tive city, now restored to independence. A Chair of Natural History 
was instituted expressly for him, of which he took possession in 
January 1816, and the Botanic Garden, established towards the 
close of the last century wdth the assistance of funds bequeathed for 
that purpose by the celebrated Bonnet, was greatly augmented, partly 
by assistance derived from the Government, and partly by voluntary 
subscription. Several Fasciculi of the ' Plantes rares du Jardin de 
Geneve' attest the interest which he took in its success. 

In 1816 he visited England for the purpose of consulting the Her- 
baria of our country with a view to the general system of plants, the 
publication of which he then meditated, and during his stay here 
communicated to the Linnean Society a paper entitled " Remarks on 
two Genera of Plants to be referred to the Family of Rosacea." These 
are Kerria and Purshia, previously strangely misunderstood, and as 
strangely misplaced in distant and very dissimilar families. His me- 
moir on this subject, the only one by M. DeCandolle which has a 
place in our ' Transactions,' is contained in the twelfth volume. 

In 1818 appeared the first volume of his intended ' Regni Vege- 
tabilis Systema Naturale,' which was followed by a second in 1821. 
But the plan of this work was obviously too vast for accomplishment 
by individual industry, however great ; and after the publication of 
these two volumes, M. DeCandolle recognized the necessity of con- 

144 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

fining himself M'ithin narrower limits. In the year 1824 he commenced 
the publication of his ' Prodromus Systematis Regni Vegetabilis,' the 
title of which indicates his intention at some future period to resume 
the more extensive work. But even this ' Enumeratio Contracta,' 
as he designates it, proved too mighty a labour, and in the remain- 
ing seventeen years of his life, all that his unwearied energy could 
accompUsh was the publication of seven volumes, completing pro- 
bably about two-thirds of the contemplated task. The value of these 
important manuals, in the present state of botanical science, can only 
be estimated by those with whom they are of necessity in daily use. 
On many of the more interesting families on which they treat he si- 
multaneously published a series of descriptive memoirs. 

It is the great merit of this important work, that, far more than 
any other approaching it in extent, it is founded on actual observa- 
tion. M. DeCandoUe's own herbarium was extremely rich ; he had 
visited and carefully examined many of the most extensive collections, 
and especially those of Paris ; and many entire collections as well as 
separate families, on which he was specially engaged, were from 
time to time submitted to his examination by their possessors. He 
had thus opportunities of comparison greatly beyond what in ordi- 
nary circumstances fall to the lot of an individual. His library too 
was stored with almost every important publication that could be 
required for his undertaking. With such ample materials, aided by 
his untiring zeal and the persevering energj' of his character, he 
steadily pursued his allotted task, and only ceased to labour at it 
when he ceased to live. 

It was not merely as a botanist that M. DeCandolle deserved well 
of his country and of mankind. Both as an individual and in the 
Council of his native cit)', he was ever active in the promotion of 
measures of public utility, whether they related to the improvement 
of agriculture, the cultivation of the arts, the advancement of public 
instruction, or the amelioration of the legislative code. Even in his 
botanical lectures he never lost an opportunity of inculcating the 
importance of these and similar subjects. Those lectures were at- 
tended by a numerous class, who caught from their teacher a portion 
of the enthusiasm with which he was himself inspired. Some idea 
of the manner in which he brought their subject before his auditors 
may be obtained from his ' Organographie ' and ' Physiologic Vege- 
tale,' published in 1827 and 1832, which contain the substance of 
his lectures on those two great departments of the science. 

For some years his health had been declining, and it is to be 
feared that the severe and incessant attention which he paid to the 
elaboration of the great family of Compositte had made a deep inroad 

1842.] Linnean ^society. 145 

Upon it. As a relaxation from his labours, he undertook, in the last 
year of his life, a long joiirney, and attended the Scientific Meeting 
held at Turin ; but he did not derive from this journey the anticipated 
improvement in his health, which gradually failed until his death, on 
the 9th of September last. He has left a son, Alphonse, well known 
as the author of several valuable botanical publications, one of which, 
his memoir on the family of Myrsinea, appeared in our ' Transac- 

Jens Wilken Hornemann was born in 1770, and studied at the Uni- 
versity of Copenhagen, where his ' Forsog til en Dansk ceconoraisk 
Plantelaere' obtained a prize in 1795. In 1798 he commenced a 
botanical tour through Germany, France and England, and in 1801 
became lecturer at the Copenhagen Botanic Garden. He succeeded 
his teacher Vahl as Regius Professor and Director of the Garden in 
1804, and published in 1807 an 'Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Hav- 
niensis,' and in 1813 and 1815 a more complete synopsis of the 
plants there cultivated under the title of ' Hortus Regius Botanicus 
Havniensis.' In 1819 he wrote a dissertation ' De Indole Plantarum 
Guineensium.' After the death of Vahl he superintended the pub- 
lication of the ' Flora Danica,' and several papers by him have been 
published in the ' Transactions of the Danish Philosophical Society ' 
and the ' Tidskrift for Naturvidenskaberne,' of which he was one of 
the editors. His lectures and writings have done much to extend 
the study of botany in Denmark, and have contributed to maintain 
the character acqmred for Danish botanists by Koenig, Forskahl, 
CEder, Rottboll and Vahl. 

Among the Associates we lament the loss of 

The Rev. Robert Francis Bree, who became a Fellow of the Lin- 
nean Society in 1815, and was placed on the List of Associates in 
1827. He died at his residence in the New Kent Road on the 28t]i 
of January in the present year, at the age of 66. 

David Don, Fsq., Professor of Botany in King's College, London, 
and Librarian of this Society, was born in the year 1800, at Forfar, 
where his father, an acute practical botanist, had estabhshed a Nursery 
and Botanic Garden. On his father's being afterwards appointed to 
the charge of the Botanic Garden at Edinburgh, he attracted the 
notice of Mr. Patrick Neill, and was enabled to attend some of the 
classes in that city. His father, however, after a while quitting 
Edinburgh, he returned with him to Forfar, and received his early 
training in the Garden there. Subsequently he again visited Edin- 
burgh, and had charge of the stoves and greenhouses in the esta- 

146 Linnean Society. [May 24^ 

blishment of the Messrs. Dickson of Broughton near that city, then 
among the finest in Scotland. Late in 1819 he removed to London, 
and soon after became librarian to Mr. Lambert, in whose house he 
was domiciled, and of whose extensive herbarium he had charge. 
About this period he published " Descriptions of several new or rare 
native Plants, found in Scotland chiefly by the late Mr. George Don,^ 
of Forfar;" and wrote "A Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga," 
which appeared in the 13th volume of our 'Transactions.' These 
publications brought him into favourable notice, and in the year 1822 
he became Librarian of the Linnean Society, an office ■which he con- 
tinued to hold till his death, and in which he acquired the universal 
respect and esteem of the Members by the wide extent of his infor- 
mation and the liberality with which he was at all times ready to 
impart it. 

On the death of Prof. Burnet in 1836 he succeeded to the Bota- 
nical Chair at King's College, which he also retained till his decease. 
His constitution was apparently robust, but towards the end of 1 840 
a tumour appeared in his lower lip, which it was found necessary to 
remove. The disease, however, after a short respite, reappeared in 
the neck, and assuming by degrees a decidedly malignant character, 
left no hope of his long surviving. He died on the 8th of December 
last, worn out by severe suffering, which he bore with the most 
exemplary fortitude, and was buried on the 15th of the same month 
in the Cemetery at Kensal Green. He was married, but left no 

As a systematic botanist his character stands deservedly high. 
His knowledge of plants was most extensive, and his appreciation of 
species ready and exact. The most important of his publications are 
his " Prodromus Florae Nepalensis ;" his monographs of Saxifraga 
and other genera, and of the family of Melastomacece ; his memoirs 
on CompositcE, in our ' Transactions ;' and his papers, especially those 
on the plants of Peru and Chile, in the ' Edinburgh Philosophical 
Journal.' The following is believed to be a nearly complete cata- 
logue of his works : — 

I. In the ' Transactions of the Linnean Society :' 

1. "A Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga," in vol. xiii. 

2. " Descriptions of nine new species of Carex, natives of the Hi- 
malaya Alps in Upper Nepaul," in vol. xiv. 

3. " Description of Cowunia, a new genus of Plants ; and of a new 
species of Sieversia," in vol. xiv. 

4. " Description of a new genus (^Lophospermurn) belonging to the 
Natural Family of Plants called Scrophularlnea," in vol. xv. 

1842.] Linnean Society. 147 

5. " On the Origin and Nature of the ligulate Raj's in Zin7iia, and 
on a remarkable multiplication observed in the parts of fructification 
of that genus," in vol. xvi. 

6. " Descriptions of the new genera and species of the Class Com- 
positce, belonging to the Floras of Peru, Mexico and Chile," in vol. xvi. 

7. " On the Plant which yields the Gum Ammoniacum," in vol. xvi. 

8. " Observations on the Tropaolum pentaphyllum. Lam.," and "Ad- 
ditional Observations " on the same, in vol. xvii. 

9. " On the modifications of .Estivation observable in certain plants 
formerly referred to the Genus Cinchona," in vol. xvii. 

10. " Remarks on some British Ferns," in vol. xvii. 

11. "Descriptions of five new species of the Genus Pinus, disco- 
vered by Dr. Coulter in California," in vol. xvii. 

12. " Descriptions of Indian Gentianece," in vol. xvii. 

13. "Descriptions of two new genera of the Natural Family of 
Plants called Coniferce," in vol. xviii. 

14. " Description of a new genus of Plants (Catophractes) belong- 
ing to the Natural Family Bignoniacece," in vol. xviii. 

15. "Descriptions of the Indian species oi Iris," in vol. xviii. 

16. " An Account of the Indian species oi Juncus and Luzula," in 
vol. xviii. 

17. "A Monograph of the Genus Disporum," in vol. xviii. 

18. "A Monograph of Streptopus, with the Description of a new 
genus (Prosartes) now first separated from it," in vol. xviii. 

II. In the ' Memoirs of the Wernerian Society of Edinburgh :' 

19. " Descriptions of new or rare Native Plants, found in Scotland 
by the late Mr. George Don of Forfar," in vol. iii. 

20. " Descriptions of new Plants from Nepaul, in the Herbarium 
of A. B. Lambert, Esq.," in vol. iii. 

21. " Illustrations of the Natural Family of Plants called Me/as/o- 
maceee," in vol. iv. 

22. "A Monograph of the Genus Pyrola," in vol. v. 

23. " On the classification and division of Gnaphalium and Xeran- 
themum of Linnaeus," in vol. v. 

III. In the ' Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal :' 

24. " Observations on Philadelphea and Granatece, two new Fa- 
milies of Plants," in vol. i. 

25. " On the Affinities of Empetreee," in vol. ii. 

26. " On the Rhubarb of Commerce, the Purple-coned Fir of Ne- 
paul, and the Mustard- tree," in vol. ii. 

27. "Description of the Genus Malesherbia of the Flora Peru- 
viana, with remarks on its affinities," in vol. ii. 

148 Linnean Society, [May 24, 

28. " Observations on the Cow-tree of the Caraccas, and on the 
culture of the Nutmeg," in vol. iii. 

29. " Remarks on the Irritability of the Stigma, and on the Origin 
and Nature of certain parts of the Fructification in Finns Larix," in 
vol. iv. 

30. " On the general presence of spiral Vessels in the Vegetable 
Structure," in vol. vi. 

31. "Descriptions of the Genera Columellia, Tovaria and Francoa," 
in vol. vi. 

32. " An attempt at a new Classification of the Cichoracece," in 
vol. vi. 

33. " On the Characters and Affinities of Darwinia, Brunsfelsia, 
Browallia, Argylia, Eccremocarpus, and of a Plant improperly re- 
ferred to the latter genus," in vol. vii. 

34. " On the Affinities of Vellozia, Barbacenia, Glaux, Aucuba, 
Viviania, Deutzia, and of a new genus of the Order Rubiacece," in 
vol. viii. 

35. "On the anomalous Structure of the Leaf oi Rosa berberi- 
folia," in vol. viii. 

36. " A Monograph of the Family of Plants called Cunoniacea," 
in vol. ix. 

37. " On the Characters and Affinities of certain Genera, chiefly 
belonging to the Flora Peruviana," various papers in vols. x. — xiv. 

38. " Descriptions of some new species of Malesherbia, Kage- 
neckia, Quillaja, and of a new genus of Salicaria," in vol. xii. 

39. " Additional Remarks on Er cilia, Macromeria, Aitonia and 
Citronella," in vol. xiv. 

40. " On the Coniferee at present growing in Australia," in vol. xiv. 

41. " On the Characters and Affinities of the Genus Codon," in 

vol. XV. 

42. " On the Connexion between the Calyx and Ovarium in cer- 
tain Plants of the Order Melastomacece," in vol. xv. 

43. " Some Remarks on the Plant which yields the Cascarilla 
Bark," in vol. xvi. 

44. " An attempt at a new Arrangement of the Ericaceae," in 
vol. xvii. 

45. "On the Characters of certain Groups of the Class Personatce," 
in vol. xix. 

IV. Miscellaneous : 

46. " Prodromus Florae Nepalensis," 12mo, 1825. 

47. The Text of the new Series of Sweet's "British Flower- 

1842.] Linnean Society. 149 

48. "A List of the Plants collected by Mr. Fellows in Asia Minor, 
with descriptions of some new species," appended to Mr. Fellows's 
Narrative of his Travels. 

Mr. Charles Edward Sowerby (son of the late James Sowerby, and 
brother of James De Carle and George Brettingham Sowerby, who 
still survive to maintain the reputation of the family name,) was 
principally known as a naturalist by the smaller and cheaper edition 
of the ' English Botany,' which he superintended and which is now 
nearly completed. He died on the 7th of the present month. 

The President also announced that ten Fellows and three Asso- 
ciates had been elected since the last Anniversary. 

At the Election which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop 
of Norwich was elected President ; Edward Forster, Esq., Trea- 
surer; John Joseph Bennett, Esq., Secretary; and Richard Taylor, 
Esq., Under-Secretary. The following five Fellows were elected 
into the Council in the room of others going out, viz. The Right 
Hon. the Earl of Beverley; John Alexander Hankey, Esq.; John 
Miers, Esq. ; Roderick Impey Murchison, Esq. ; and Alfred White, 

The President announced that Vol. XIX. Part 1. of the Society's 
'Transactions' was ready for distribution. 

In accordance with the Resolution of Council of the 26th ultimo, 
the Secretary read the following Statement : — 

" The Council having had under their serious consideration the 
financial affairs of the Society, submit the following Statement to 
the Fellows at large. 

" The cost of the Collections and Library of Linnaeus, together 
with those of the first President Sir James Edward Smith, purchased 
of the Executors of the latter in 1828, amounted to £3000. Of this 
sum about £1500 were then raised by subscription ; and to meet the 
remainder a debt on bonds was incurred, which now amounts to 
£1300, paying interest at 5 per cent. 

" In consequence partly of this amount of interest, and partly of 
a diminution in the Annual Receipts, there has been accumulated 
within the last few years a further debt of about £500. 

" By recent arrangements a saving of some amount has been effected 
in the Expenditure ; but the Council are convinced that no further 
material reduction can be made without greatly impairing the effi- 
ciency of the Society, and they desire to avoid, as far as possible, the 
necessity of calling upon the Fellows to agree to a small charge being 


Linnean Society. 

[May 24, 

placed upon the Society's Publications, that appearing to be the most 
obvious means of supplying the deficiency in the Annual Receipts. 

" With this view they propose a General Subscription, vv^hich, they 
trust, may reach such an amount as to meet the present liabilities, 
and to relieve the funds of the Society from the burthen of debt and 

" They therefore earnestly recommend the Subscription to the 
Members of the Society."* 

* The following is a List of the Subscriptions up to the 20th of October: — 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, 

President 50 

His Grace the Duke of So- 
merset 26 

His Grace the Duke of North- 
umberland 50 

The Rt. Hon. Earl Brownlow 21 

William Anderson, Esq 10 

Chas, Cardale Babington, Esq. 5 

Rev. John Barlow 5 

Thomas Bell, Esq 21 

John J. Bennett, Esq., Sec 21 
Rev. Miles Joseph Berkeley. 5 

John Black wall, Esq 10 

Francis Boott, Esq., M.D. ... 10 

William Boner, Esq 21 

William Borrer, Jun., Esq. ... 5 
William Arnold Bromfield, 

Esq., M.D 5 

Henry Alexander Brown, Esq. 5 
Robert Brown, Esq., V.P. ... 21 

Walter Buchanan, Esq 5 

William John Burchell, Esq., 

LL.D 5 

Jonathan Couch, Esq 1 

Hvigh Cuming, Esq 5 

Rev. William Cuthbert, D.D. 5 
Charles Daubeny, Esq., M.D. 5 
David Elisha Davy, Esq. ... 5 
Lewis Weston Dillwyn, Esq. 10 
John Shute Duncan, Esq., 


Alexander Erskine, Esq. ... 
Edwai-d Eorster, Esq., Trea- 
surer and V.P 

Edward Forstei', Jun., Esq. .. 5 

Thomas Forster, M.D 5 

George Townsbend Fox, Esq. 5 

John Guillemard, Esq 5 

Rev. John Hailstone 5 

John Alexander Hankey, Esq. 26 


Rev. Henry Hasted 3 

Charles Hatchett, Esq 5 

John Hogg, Esq 3 

Sir Wm. Jackson Hooker,V. P. 21 

Rev. Frederick William Hope 21 

Thomas Horsfield, M.D., V.P. 8 

Frederick H. Janson, Esq. ... 5 

Joseph Janson, Esq 50 

Mr. Richard Kippist 5 

Rev. William Kirby 5 

John Leonard Knapp, Esq. .. 5 

Henry Lee, Esq., M.D 2 

William Horton Lloyd, Esq. 50 

Sir John Wm. Lubbock, Bart. 5 
Duncan M'Arthur, Esq., M.D. I 

Gideon Mantell, Esq., LL.D. 5 

John Miers, Esq 5 

Joshua Milne, Esq 50 

George Moore, Esq 5 

Rev. Thomas Newton 5 

William Ogilb)', Esq 5 

John Parkinson, Esq 5 

P'rederick J. Parry, Esq. ... 5 

Algernon Peckover, Esq 5 

Louis Hayes Petit, Esq 10 

William Pilkington, Esq. ... 10 

William Wilson Saunders, Esq. 5 

Daniel Sharpe, Esq 5 

Richard Horsman Soil}', Esq. 21 
Sir George Thomas Staunton, 

Bart 10 

Charles Stokes, Esq 10 

Richard Taylor, Esq 21 

James Thomson, Esq 5 

Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward, Esq. 10 

John ObadiahWestwood, Esq. 7 

AJfred White, Esq 10 

Jas. Edw. Winterbottom, Esq. 10 

Joseph Woods, Esq 21 

William Yarrell, Esq 26 

1842.] Linnean Society. 151 

June 7. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

An Address to Her Majesty, on the late treasonable attempt on 
Her Majesty's life, was read and agreed to. 

Joseph Hooker, Esq., M.D., was elected a Fellow. 

The Hon. H. Wright, of the Ceylon Civil Service, presented spe- 
cimens of the inner bark of the Cinnamon Tree (the fine Ceylon Cin- 
namon of commerce), peeled of an unusual length (nearly eleven 

Read " An Account of a Fish, nearly allied to the genus Hemi- 
ramphus, taken in Cornwall." By Jonathan Couch, Esq., F.L.S., &c. 

Mr. Couch states, that in the month of August 1841, several indi- 
viduals of this little fish were found swimming at the surface of a 
large pool in the rocks near Polperro, where they had been left by 
the receding tide, having been swept thither by a continued south- 
west wind, which had also driven in many individuals of Motella 
glauca and other fishes that do not ordinarily select such a situation. 
Their length was half an inch ; the head proportionately large, espe- 
cially across ; the body slender ; eye large ; snout in front of it 
short and abrupt ; upper jaw arched ; under stout, projecting to a 
considerable extent, but in some specimens more than in others, the 
point declining, and the sides not appearing to be formed of parallel 
rami of the jaw, but rather of a cartilaginous substance ; vent placed 
posteriorly ; body, which is equal from the head to this point, taper- 
ing thence to the tail ; lateral line, so far as could be distinguished, 
straight ; dorsal and anal fins single, posterior, opposite, the latter 
beginning close behind the vent, and both reaching nearly to the 
tail, their membrane at first broader, but narrowing in its progress ; 
pectoral fins and tail round. The colours of different specimens 
varied greatly, some being dark with a tint of green, others cream- 
coloured but sprinkled with specks ; regular and thickly set narrow 
stripes passed from the back obliquely forward, breaking into dots at 
the sides, in the darker coloured specimens; belly dark. 

Mr. Couch was unable to discover ventral fins even with the aid 
of a lens. He has no doubt of the specimens being in a very early 
stage of their existence, but cannot refer them to any known species. 

152 Linnean Society. [June 21, 

He thinks it indeed doubtful whether they really belong to the genua 
by the name of which he has provisionally designated them, or even 
to the same family, some parts of their structure seeming to indicate 
an affinity with the genus Ammodytes. 

The paper was accompanied by magnified figures. 

Read also the commencement of a paper " On the Sea Cocoa- 
nut of the Seychelles, Lodoicea Seychellarum, Comm. and Labill." 
By Clark, Esq., a gentleman long resident in those islands. 

June 21. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
John Bright, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read " Observations on the Growth and Reproduction of Entero- 
morpha intestinalis." By Arthur Hill Hassall, Esq. 

Mr. Hassall states that, in the earliest stage of their development, 
the tapering filaments consist of a single series of cells placed end to 
end. Each of these cells afterwards becomes bisected by a longitu- 
dinal line, and other lines subsequently appear, so that the original 
cells are ultimately divided into several, each of which in its turn 
enlarges and is in like manner divided. From the continued growth 
and unlimited division of the cells, the filaments increase to an in- 
definite size, soon lose their original confervoid character, present a 
reticulated appearance, and instead of being attenuated become cy- 
lindrical and hollow. 

Mr. Hassall proceeds to state, that in each articulation of the fila- 
ments, and often when they are not thicker than a horse-hair, a dark 
central nucleus is gradually developed, which is the reproductive 
germ. He thinks there can be little doubt that this, as well as the 
cell in which it is contained, undergoes repeated division in the same 
manner as the reproductive globules of the Ulva. These reproductive 
bodies germinate while still inclosed within the cells in which they 
were developed, and while the parent filament retains all its fresh- 
ness and vigour, giving rise to the jointed and tapering filaments 
first described ; which in this state, after the rupture of the parent 
cell, and while their bases are still fixed within it, bear a strong re- 

1842.] Linnean Society. 153 

semblance to a parasitic Conferva. This development, division and 
growth of cells and reproductive bodies appears, Mr. Hassall adds, 
to be going on continually and successively, so that most specimens 
of the plant present examples of each different stage of its formation. 
These observations lead Mr. Hassall to regard Enteromorpha in,' 
testinalis as having a twofold relation, viz. to the Confervce in its 
young articulated filaments, and to the Ulvce in its reproduction from 
globules which undergo repeated division. He objects to the tauto- 
logy of the specific name, and proposes that of lacustris in its place. 

Read also the conclusion of Mr. Clark's paper " On the Sea Cocoa- 
nut of the Seychelles, Lodoicea Sechellarum, Comm. and Labill." 

Mr. Clark's paper contains a complete history of this remarkable 
palm, on which so much has been written ; but in the following abs- 
tract only those points are noticed which appear either to have been 
overlooked, or not to have been sufficiently attended to by former 

Mr. Clark states the Lodoicea to have been completely extirpated 
on Round Island, and to exist at present in a state of nat\ire only on 
the Islands Praslin and Curieuse. The few which are found on the 
other islands of the Seychelles Archipelago have aU been planted, 
and only two or three of these appear to thrive. The trunk yields to 
the slightest breeze, and when the wind is moderately strong, the 
huge leaves are crashed together with an astonishing noise. The part 
of the trunk immediately above the surface of the ground forms an 
inverted cone, which is terminated below by an hemispherical base, 
from whence spread in all directions a great number of cord-like 
roots, penetrating to a considerable distance around, and having a 
tough brown bark surrounding a soft internal substance. These 
roots remain long after the destruction of the plant to which they 
belonged. In spots that have been burned, or in some of the oldest 
clearings, where the trees have long since perished and disappeared, 
a black circle on a level with the surface of the earth indicates their 
former existence. This is the base of the cone before mentioned, 
and now forms the brim of a huge bowl, often filled with decayed 
vegetable matter ; on removing which, the internal surface is found 
to be pierced by a vast number of holes, forming the openings of the 
tubes into which the roots have been converted by the decay of their 
internal substance. Such tubes are generally large enough to admit 
the end of the fore finger, and are compact and sonorous, but brittle. 

So firmly are the leaves attached to the trunk, that Mr. Clark 
No. XVI. — Phoceedings of the Linnean Society. 

154 Linnean Society. [June 1 1, 

states a man may seat himself at the end of one of them with per- 
fect safety. The texture of the leaflets (the largest number of which 
yet found was ninety-seven) is very strong, and consists of fine 
threads or fibres disposed in three layers. The direction of the two 
outer layers is longitudinal, that of the central layer transverse ; 
when denuded by the decomposition of the parenchyma, their tissue 
resembles coarse book-muslin. Mr. Clark estimates, that three of 
the leaves, only one of which is produced each year, occupy eight 
inches on the stem, and that consequently a tree of eighty feet in 
height must be about 400 [360] years old. 

According to Mr. Clark, both the male and female spadix, instead 
of rising from the angle of the accompanying leaf-stalk, pass through 
a fissure in its base. 

The drupe attains the length of fifteen inches, is about three feet 
in circumference, and weighs from thirty to fifty pounds. When the 
fruit has reached its full size, but is still soft (in which state it is 
called Coco tendre), it may easily be cut through with a knife. A 
transverse section, Mr. Clark states, successively displays the husk, 
green on the outside but whitish within, of a harsh astringent taste, 
much like the husk of the common cocoa-nut, inside of which is the 
substance which is destined to form the shell; next follows a layer, 
more or less thick, of a mealy insipid substance, of a white colour, 
covering a yellow substance, of a very decided bitter and said to be 
poisonous, which incloses the perisperm. This is a white translucent 
mass of a gelatinous consistence and sweetish taste ; taken at the 
proper period it furnishes an agreeable food, much esteemed by the 
Sechellois. In the centre of this, at the spot where the two lobes of 
the perisperm unite, is the germ, at this period scarcely visible. 

The germination of the seed sometimes commences before the fall 
of the fruit, but most frequently after. It is prevented by burying 
the nut, but readily takes place on the surface of the earth, in a situa- 
tion not too much exposed to the sun. The length of time from the 
germination to the period when the trunk begins to be formed above 
ground, is stated at from fifteen to twenty years ; and even in favour- 
able situations the Lodoicea is full twenty-five years before producing 

Mr. Clark states, that although the tree puts forth only one spadix 
in a year, ten or more may be seen flowering at the same time ; this 
is explained by the multiplicity of flowers in each catkin, which blos- 
som successively. The female trees bear flowers and fruit in all their 
different stages at the same time. As many as seven well-formed 

1842.] Linnean Society. 155 

drupes are sometimes produced on a single spadix. It sometimes 
happens that the fecundation is imperfect, in which case the ovary 
expands and lengthens, but does not assume the usual form, and at 
the end of two or three years it drops off; but seven or eight years 
are required for the full maturing of the nut. This fact Mr. Clark 
states to have been ascertained on one of the female Lodoiceas planted 
at Mahe, which had flowered for several years without producing 
fruit, owing to the absence of a male plant. A male flower was pro- 
cured from an estate a few miles distant and suspended in the tree, 
and about two months afterwards one of the buds expanded and 
finally arrived at maturity. The experiment was made in 1833, and 
the fruit fell at the latter end of 1841. 

November 1. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Joseph Henderson and Mr. Thomas Shearman Ralph were 
elected Associates. 

J. E. Bicheno, Esq., F.L.S., late Secretary of the Society, pre- 
sented his portrait by Mr. Eddis, and the best thanks of the Society 
were ordered to be returned to Mr. Bicheno for his very acceptable 

Jonathan Pereira, M.D., F.L.S,, presented specimens of the dif- 
ferent varieties of Ceylon, Malabar and Java Cardamoms, &c. 

Prof. Owen, F.L.S., exhibited a specimen of the animal of the 
Pearly Nautilus, with its shell, brought from Amboyna by Captain 
Belcher, R.N., C.B. 

Read " A Notice of the African Grain called Fundi or Fundungi." 
By Robert Clarke, Esq., Senior Assistant Surgeon to the Colony of 
Sierra Leone. Communicated by Jacob Bell, Esq., F.L.S. 

This Lilliputian grain, which is described by Mr. Clarke as being 
about the size of mignonette-seed, is stated to be cultivated in the 

156 Linnean Society. [Nov. 1, 

village of Kissy and in the neighbourhood of Waterloo by indus- 
trious individuals of the Soosoo, Foulah, Bassa and JolofF nations, 
by whom it is called " hungry rice." The ground is cleared for its 
reception by burning down the copse-wood and hoeing between the 
roots and stumps. It is sown in the months of May and June, the 
ground being slightly opened and again lightly drawn together over 
the seed with a hoe. In August, when it shoots up, it is carefully 
weeded. It ripens in September, growing to the height of about 
eighteen inches, and its stems, which are very slender, are then bent 
to the earth by the mere weight of the grain. They are reaped with 
hooked knives. The patch of land is then either suffered to lie fal- 
low, or planted with yams or cassada in rotation. Manure is said to 
be unnecessary or even injurious, the plant delighting in light soils 
and being raised even in rocky situations, which are most frequent 
in and about Kissy. When cut down it is tied up in small sheaves 
and placed in a dry situation within the hut, for if allowed to remain 
on the ground or to become wet the grains become agglutinated to 
their coverings. The grain is trodden out with the feet, and is then 
parched or dried in the sun to allow of the more easy removal of the 
chaff in the process of pounding, which is performed in wooden 
mortars. It is afterwards winnowed with a kind of cane fanner on 

In preparing this delicious grain for food, Mr. Clarke states that 
it is first thrown into boiling water, in which it is assiduously stirred 
for a few minutes. The water is then poured off and the natives add 
to it palm oil, butter or milk ; but the Europeans and negroes con- 
nected with the colony stew it with fowl, fish or mutton, adding a 
small piece of salt pork for the sake of flavour, and the dish thus pre- 
pared is stated to resemble kous-kous. The grain is also made into 
a pudding with the usual condiments, and eaten either hot or cold 
with milk ; the Scotch residents sometimes dressing it as milk-por- 
ridge. Mr. Clarke is of opinion that if the fundi grain were raised 
for exportation to Europe, it might prove a valuable addition to the 
list of light farinaceous articles of food in use among the delicate or 

Specimens of the grass accompanied Mr. Clarke's communication, 
and were examined by Mr. Kippist, Libr. L.S., who added some ob- 
servations on its botanical characters. 

It is a slender grass with digitate spikes, which has much of the 
habit of Digitaria, but which, on account of the absence of the small 
outer glume existing in that genus, must be referred to Paspalum. 

1842.] Linnean Society. 157 

Mr. Kippist regards it as an undescribed species, although speci- 
mens collected at Sierra Leone by Afzelius are in the collections of 
Sir James E. Smith and Sir Joseph Banks, on the former of which 
Afzelius has noted that it is much cultivated by the negroes in Sierra 

Mr. Kippist distinguishes the species by the following characters: — 
Paspalum exile, glabenimum, caule filifoi-mi, racemis subternis digitatis, 
axi partial! spiculis singulis angustiore, spiculis parvis sub-biserialibus 
pedicellatis, glumis ovatis acutiusculis paleis asqualibus, foliis lineari- 
lanceolatis margine seri'ulatis. 
Gramen sub-bipedale, inferne ramosum ; racemi tenues, 3 — 4-pollicares, 
subsessiles ; axes partiales angustissimse, planae, margine minute den- 
ticulatse ; spiculae vix lineales ; glumae exterioris respectu racheos, (val- 
vulae floris masculi superstitis) nervi 7 — 9 sequidistantes, interioris 5, 
quorum laterales approximati ; palese minutissime striatae j folia plana ; 
vaginae longissimae ; ligulae truncatae integrse. 

Read also a letter from N. B. "Ward, Esq., F.L.S., containing a 
statement furnished to him by Mrs. "Williams, the widow of the late 
missionary of that name, respecting the transportation of the Musa 
Cavendishii to the Navigators' Islands, and its culture there. Mr. 
"Williams left England on the 11th of April 1839, and arrived at 
LTpolu, one of the Navigators' Islands, at the end of November. He 
carried with him, in one of Mr. Ward's glazed cases, a young plant 
of Musa Cavendishii, which bore the voyage well. It was trans- 
planted into a favourable situation, and in May 1840 a cluster of 
fine fruit (in number exceeding 300) was produced ; after which the 
parent plant died, leaving behind more than thirty suckers, which 
were distributed to various parts of the island. In May 1841, when 
Mrs. Williams left to return to England, the greater part of these 
were in a fructifying state, so that there cannot be a doubt of this 
valuable plant quickly becoming abundant, not only in Upolu, but 
also in the neighbouring islands. Mrs. Williams further states that 
the fruit is highly prized by the natives as being much finer and very 
different in flavour from any of the species or varieties previously 
growing in these islands. 

Read also a continuation of Mr. Hope's memoir on new and un- 
described Insects from Sylhet. 

158 Linnean Society. [Nov. 15, 

November 15. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Frederick John Parry, Esq., was elected a Fellow ; and Mr. Samuel 
P. "Woodward and Mr. John William Salter, Associates. 

Mr. T. S. Ralph, A.L.S., presented numerous fruits and seeds col- 
lected in the neighbourhood of Aurungabad. 

Read a Note " On the permanent varieties of Papaver orientate, 
L." By T. Forster, M.B., F.L.S., &c. 

Dr. Forster states, that ever since the introduction of Papaver brac- 
teatum, Lindl., into England, he has regarded it as a permanent va- 
riety of P. orientate, of which P. bracteatum, as having fertile seeds, 
while those of P. orientate are usually sterile, was to be considered 
the original plant. He retains, however, the name of orientate for 
the species, both as being the earlier and as being applicable to all 
the varieties, four of which he now distinguishes as permanent by the 
following characters : — 

1. P. orientate bracteatum, characterized by its height, its bractese, 
its large and deep red petals, and its uniformly perfect seeds. 

2. P. orientate prcBCox, the common " Monkey Poppy" of the old 
gardeners, and the most common variety in England, distinguished 
by its somewhat depressed capsule and sterile seeds. It flowers along 
with the former, generally about the 10th of May, the flowers being 
of a fine deep orange inclining to cinnabar. 

3. P, orientate serotinum, resembling the last except in that its 
petals incline more to what is called salmon-colour, but principally 
characterized by its flowering nearly a month later, along with P. 
somniferum, L., early in June. Dr. Forster has several times tried in 
vain to make it flower with the commoner sort. The seeds are always 
imperfect, and the flower and capsule of the same shape as in the 

4. P. orientate, capsutd et fioribus tongioribus, which are its prin- 
cipal distinguishing characters. It flowers in May a few days after 
the old English sort, but is only met with on the Continent : the 
petals are of the same colour, but the leaves are rather smaller. 
Dr. Forster states it to be common in the gardens of Belgium as 
the only variety cultivated, the two last-named varieties being there 

1842.] Linnean Society. 159 

unknown. It holds a middle rank between them and P. orientale 
hracteatum, being tall and bearing seeds, which are sometimes pro- 
lific, and well deserv^es to be introduced into English gardens. 

Dr. Forster adds, that about ten years ago Mr. Curtis showed him 
a bed of seedlings of the second year in full flower in May, which 
had round capsules and orange flowers like P. orientale, but which 
he stated to have been derived from seeds of P. hracteatum. Mr. Cur- 
tis attributed the change to the bees having transported the pollen 
of that plant, but the uniform appearance of the whole bed led Dr. 
Forster to think this explanation doubtful. He further states, that 
he has been assured in the South of Europe that the best opium and 
in the largest quantity is obtained from P. orientale hracteatum ; and 
as this plant suits the English soil and seeds freely, he thinks it 
might often be advantageously substituted for P. somniferum. 

Read also a Note " On Secale cornutum, the Ergot of Rye ;" and 
" On a species of Asplenium, related to A. Trichomanes, L." By A. 
Haro, M.D., of Metz, communicated by the Secretary. 

In the latter communication Dr. Haro calls attention to a fern dis- 
covered by himself in the well of an old castle. The well in which 
it was found is described as being large, four-cornered, and having 
at the top on one side a square window, freely admitting air and 
light. The opposite wall is lined with the fern, which lies flat upon 
the stones, to which the fronds are said to be attached throughout 
their length by slender roots, rendering it difficult to remove them 
even with a knife. Dr. Haro submitted the plant to a Professor of 
the faculty of Nancy, who regarded it as a new species, more distinct 
from A. Trichomanes than A. viride or A. Petrarchce, and supplied 
the following descriptive characters of these four species : — 

A. Trichomanes, frondes patulce, glabrcB, impari-pinnatae ; stipes nigres- 
centi-vernicosus, supra membranuld cvenulata et ab insertione pinnu- 
larum utrinque decurrente manifeste appendiculatus ; pinniilse medias 
ovatcB inasquilaterales, superiores oblongje et basi oblique cuneatEe, 
impar crenulata, omnes obtusas ohtuse(\ue crenatse. 

A. Harovii, frondes decumhentes saxoque fibrillis tenuissimis adfixae, 
glahrcE, impari-pinnatae; stipes nigrescenti-vernicosus, supra membra- 
nula obsoleta et ab insertione pinnularum utrinque decurrente appen- 
diculatus ; pinnulse mediae hastato-rhomboidecB, trilobafcE, superiores 
oblongae basi obh'que attenuatse vel cuneatae, impar pinnatifida, omnes 
obtusEe sed acute dentatae. 

A. viride, frondes erecto-pntulce, glabra, impari-pinnatae ; stipes viridis, 
supra canaliculatus, inappendiculalus ; pinnulse mediae fere omnes ovato- 

1 60 Linnean Society. [Dec. 20, 

rhomboidege, inffiquilaterales, impar creniilata incisa, omnes obtusae 
oi^Mseque creniilatas. 
A. PetrarcJiee, frondes erecto-patulce, glanduloso-villosce, impari-pinnatse ; 
stipes obscure nigrescens, supra applanato-canaliculatus, inappendicu- 
latus ; pinnulee mediae ohlongce basi oblique truncatse vel cuneatce et 
inde valde inaequilatei-ales, pinnatifidae, lobulis obtusis insequaliter cre- 
nulatis, superiores supra rachin decurrentes. 

December 6. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
William Roden, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Mr. Lovell Reeve, A.L.S., exhibited a fine specimen preserved in 
spirit of the animal of Panopma Aldrovandi, one of the largest of 
Acephalous Mollusca. 

Read a portion of " An Essay on the Distribution, Vitality, Struc- 
ture, Modes of Growth and Reproduction, and Uses of the Fresh- 
water Conferva." By Arthur Hill Hassall, Esq. Communicated by 
the Secretary. 

December 20. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. . 

A. H. Hassall, Esq., exhibited an Apple in which decay had been 
artificially induced by inoculating it with decayed matter from another 
apple containing filaments of Entophytal Fungi. 

Read a continuation of Mr. Hassall's memoir on the Freshwater 

Read also " Some further Observations on the Nature of the Ergot 
of Grasses." By Edwin John Quekett, Esq., F.L.S. 

1842.] Linnean Society. IGl 

This paper contains the results of experiments made by the author 
with the view of determining the mode in wliich the sporidia of the 
fungus which he regards as the cause of Ergot are introduced into 
the infected grass. 

In March 1840 twelve healthy grains of rye, of wheat and of bar- 
ley were placed in a shallow glass vessel containing a sufficient 
quantity of distilled water to moisten them, and covered with a glass 
shade. When germination commenced an ergot of wheat of the pre- 
ceding year was immersed in the water, the sporidia on its surface 
were detached, and the ergot itself was then removed. The same 
experiment was performed with sporidia obtained from an ergot 
of Elymus sabulosus. Sevex'al days afterwards, when the leaves had 
attained a length of three or four inches, the young plants were 
conveyed into the country and planted side by side in a garden. At 
the period of harshest there remained alive only four plants of the rj^e 
(one of which had been infected from the ergot of Elymus, and the 
remaining three from that of wheat), three of the barley and four of 
the wheat. Of the rye scarcely a single ear produced healthy grains, 
the paleae being generally quite emptj' ; but nine of the ears contained 
ergots, some furnishing only a single specimen, and others as many 
as six. The ears of the barley were filled with healthj^ grains, and 
only one apparently diseased grain was detected ; while in the wheat 
the ears were full and without disease. 

As in these experiments no grains from the same sample were 
sown which had not been subjected to the influence of the sporidia 
of the fungus, Mr. Quekett made in the following autumn another 
experiment with the %iew of supplying this deficiency. Twelve 
grains of rye, of wheat and of barley were again made to germinate 
under similar circumstances to the last, and the sporidia obtained 
from the surface of one of the ergots of rye produced in the first ex- 
periment were diffused in the water in which they grew. These were 
planted in October on the same estate, but not within half a mile of 
the former spot ; and twelve healthy grains of each kind which had 
been carefully kept apart from the others were planted in the same 
locality. Very few of the plants arrived at maturity, and in August 
last there remained of the infected plants only two of rye, two of 
wheat, and one of barley ; and of the uninfected plants one of each 
kind. On each of the plants of rye which had been subjected to the 
influence of the sporidia an ergot was discovered, and the ears as be- 
fore were almost entirely devoid of healthy grains ; while the plants 
of wheat and barley subjected to the same influence produced perfect 
ears and healthy grains. The three plants of rye, wheat and barley 

No. XVII. — Proceedings of the Linxean Society. 

162 Linnean Society. [Feb, 7? 

planted at the same time without exposure to the sporidia of the 
fungus presented no unhealthy appearance. 

Mr. Quekett argues that all the grains of rye subjected during 
germination to the influence of the sporidia of the fungus in both 
sets of experiments having produced plants infected with ergot, 
while the plants derived from grains not so subjected escaped disease, 
a convincing proof is aff"orded that their infection could not have been 
the effect of chance, but must have resulted from the artificial intro- 
duction of the sporidia ; and that the infection of the rye only, while 
the wheat and barley escaped, is to be attributed to the greater sus- 
ceptibility of the rye to infection, as proved by the much greater fre- 
quency of the production of ergots in that species of grain. 

January 17, 1843. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Francis G. P. Neison, Esq., "William Maddox Bush, M.D., and 
William Osbern, Esq., were elected Fellows. 

William Taylor, Esq., F.L.S., presented specimens of the seeds, 
oil, and oil-cake of Camelina sativa, Crantz, accompanied by some 
observations strongly recommending its cultivation in preference to 
that of flax for the production of oil. 

Read the commencement of a memoir " On the Ovulura of San- 
talum, Loranthus, Viscum," &c. By William Griffith, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

February 7. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Edward Forbes, Esq., Professor of Botany in King's College, 
London, was elected a Fellow. 

The Rev. William Hincks, F.L.S., exhibited a specimen believed 
to belong to Neottia gemmipara. Smith. The specimen, which was 

1843.] Linnean Society. 163 

from the collection of Dr. Wood of Cork, was obtained by him from 
very near the original locality named by Mr. Drummond. Mr. Hincks 
stated that he had taken some pains in comparing the specimen, not 
only with the description, but also with the original sketch made by 
Mr. James Drummond on a blank leaf of the pocket-book in which 
he noted down the occurrences of the tour upon which he made the 
discovery of this curious plant. The specimen now exhibited was 
marked by Dr. Wood when fresh, and he had no doubt of its identity ; 
and the result of Mr. Hincks's examination was a confirmation of 
this opinion. 

Read the conclusion of Mr. HassaU's " Essay on the Distribution, 
Vitality, Structure, Modes of Growth and Eeproduction, and Uses 
of the Freshwater ConfervcE." 

The author commences his memoir by a general notice of the cir- 
cumstances under Mhich the freshwater Conferv<z are found, and the 
distribution of various species. As regards their vitality he is in- 
clined to think that the lives of fevv' species, if any, extend beyond 
the period of a year ; while it is certain that very many perish after 
a few months or even weeks, and are reproduced, under favourable 
circumstances, twice or thrice in the course of the year : their tena- 
city of hfe is also verj- great. 

In structure they exhibit great uniformity. An outer transparent 
membrane destitute of markings, but whose ultimate structure Mr. 
HassaU beUeves to be fibrous, invests a simple series of cells placed 
end to end, and containing a turbid almost colourless fluid, in which 
float a number of vesicular bodies of various sizes, the uses and na- 
ture of which are not satisfactorily ascertained. In some of them 
Mr. HassaU has noticed a dark central nucleus ; and it is supposed 
that they are connected with the function of reproduction, and that 
they supply the material for the formation and growth of the cells 
and their investing membrane. Each cell, the author thinks, may 
be regarded as possessing a separate and independent existence; and 
consequently the entire Conferva is to be looked upon, like the asso- 
ciated zoophytes, as a compound or aggregated being. 

The principal part of Mr. Hassall's observations on the growth of 
Confervce has been already published in the ' Annals and Magazine 
of Natural History,' vol. ix. p. 431-2 ; and he has, since the reading 
of the present paper, published his obser\-ations on a mode of deve- 
lopment not previously noticed by him, in the same Journal, vol. xi. 
p. .359. At the period of the former publication he was not aware of the 
observations of M. Morren, M. Dumortier and M. Mold on the growth 

164 Linnean Society. [Feb. f, 

of Conferva by the subdivision of their cells ; but he states that his 
views of the mode in which this subdivision is effected differ consi- 
derably from those of M. Morren. He does not believe that wdien 
the endochrome of a cell has become separated into two masses, 
leaving a transparent space between them, this space is occupied by 
a formative intercellular matter such as M. Morren describes. On 
the contrary, he states that the first indication of the partitions which 
are to divide the parent cell into two consists of a solution of the 
continuity of a portion of the periphery of the cell, the divided edges 
of which become inflected and gradually approach the centre, where 
they coalesce. 

After dismissing as unphilosojjhical the doctrine of spontaneous 
generation, as well as the more recent theory which attempts to de- 
duce the origin of productions so widely differing in their structure 
and modes of growth as Mosses and Confervce from the same germ 
developed under different circumstances or in different media, the 
author proceeds to pass in review the mode of reproduction of the 
several genera of freshwater Confervce, adopting for the most part 
the divisions of Vaucher, and comparing his own observations with 
those of that distinguished algologist. 

In his account of the reproduction of the genus Vauchcria, he dif- 
fers from Vaucher, who states that the horns (which he regards as 
the anthers) approach the globular cell containing the future spore. 
On the contrary, he affirms that it is the spore which approaches the 
horn, in contact with which it remains for some hours ; and he adds 
that the sporiferous cell is perforated or prolonged into a tube at the 
place where it comes in contact with the horn. Of the function at- 
tributed to the latter by Vaucher he has no doubt. He finds also, 
in contradiction of Vaucher's statement, that enlargements of the 
filaments, distinct from the reproductive apparatus, occur in all the 
species of Vaucheria ; but he regards their presence as unconnected 
with reproduction, their purpose being possibly to assist in sustain- 
ing the plant on the surface of the water. 

The most important of Mr. Hassall's observations on the genus 
Conjugata of Vaucher (including the more modern genera Zygnema, 
Tyndaridea and Mougeotia), viz. the development of the spores with- 
out conjugation of the filaments by the confluence of the contents of 
two adjoining cells of the same filament, was published by him in the 
' Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' vol. x. p. 34. To his 
account of the reproduction of this genus he adds, that the filaments 
of the different species never grow in an entangled manner, but on 
♦;he contrary always lie, when undisturbed, parallel to each other, 

1843.] lAnnean Society. 165 

thus allowing of the regular tinion of the filaments, which could not 
otherwise take place. So remarkable is this arrangement, that Mr, 
Hassall states it to be alone sufficient to enable us at once to recog- 
nize a species as belonging to the Conjugating Confervce. 

On the reproduction of Hydrodictyon and Polysperma (Lemania, 
Bory) Mr. Hassall offers no observations of his own. The account 
given by Vaucher of that of Batrachospernnim (including also Chceto- 
phora and Draparnaldia) has been since doubted, but Mr. Hassall 
thinks that he has verified it by obsen^ations on B. plutnosum. On 
the other hand, he believes Vaucher's account of the reproduction of 
ProUfera to be in a great measure inaccurate. The enlargements of 
the filaments are doubtless connected with reproduction, but not, he 
thinks, in the manner supposed by Vaucher, while what Vaucher re- 
garded as the young proliferous offspring appear to him to be para- 
sitic growths, to which Confervce are peculiarly liable. 

Having completed his review of the genera of freshwater Confervce 
noticed by Vaucher, Mr. Hassall next proceeds to call attention to 
the mode of reproduction occurring in a group of which he believes 
himself to have first ascertained the true characters, and which 
he has denominated VesicuUferce. His observations on this group 
have been already published in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History,' vol. x. p. 336, &c. In these obser^-ations he had described 
as the usual mode of reproduction in that group the formation of the 
si)ores without union of the filaments by the intermingling of the 
contents of two contiguous cells in the same filament ; and had 
questioned the motion and development of the zoospores as described 
by M. Agardh the younger. In his communication to the Society 
he adds some extracts from letters which he had since received from 
Mr, Ralfs, who describes the disintegration of the sporular masses 
and the vivid motion of the separated granules in Draparnaldia tenuis 
and Sphceroplea crispa, and adduces the testimony of Mr. Borrer and 
Mr. Berkeley to the same fact. And Mr. Hassall himself, in a note 
under date of the 7th of April, retracts his objections to the motion 
and development of zoospores in the Vesiculiferce, and states his be- 
lief that they possess a double mode of reproduction, that which he 
had described as occurring by means of true spores being the perfect 

Mr. Hassall's observations on the reproduction of the branched 
Confervce have been published, since the reading of his paper before 
the Society, in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' vol. xi. 
p,360, &c. With regard to the genus Meloseira, Mr. Hassall believes, 
from the occurrence of vesicles in the filaments similar to those of the 

166 Linnean Society. [March 7j 

VesicuUferee, that its true position will be with them. The Vesi- 
culifera composita, Hass., Ann. Nat. Hist. x. p. 394, is identical with 
Meloseira varians, Agardh. 

The paper concludes with some remarks on the various uses of 
the freshwater Confervce. 

February 21. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Frederick Blundstone White, M.D., and Edward Doubleday, Esq., 
were elected Fellows. 

The Rev. F. W. Hope, M.A., F.L.S., &c., exhibited an extensive 
collection of engraved Portraits of Linneeus, accompanied by a hst of 
such as had fallen under his observation, and notices of the more 
important among them. 

March 7. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Thomas Corbyn Janson, Esq. and William Hammond Solly, Esq., 
were elected Fellows. 

J. O. Westwood, Esq., F.L.S., presented specimens of the aerial 
processes of the roots of Sonneratia acida, L., sent by Mr. Templeton 
from Ceylon, and described by him as affording a wood of an ex- 
tremely light and close texture, admirably adapted for lining insect- 
boxes, on account of the facility with which it admits, and the tena- 
city with which it retains, the finest pins. 

Read a continuation of Mr. Griffith's memoir " On the Ovulum of 
Santalum," &c. 

1843.] Linnean Society. 167 

March 21. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Arthur Henfrey was elected an Associate. 

J. Janson, Esq., F.L.S., exhibited hving flowering plants of the 
"hungry rice" of Sierra Leone, Paspalum exile, Kipp., described at 
p. 157, raised from seeds brought from Sierra Leone by Robert 
Clarke, Esq. 

Read a memoir " OnPectinura, a new genus of Ophiuridce, and 
on the species of Ophiura inhabiting the Eastern Mediterranean." 
By Edward Forbes, Esq., F.L.S., Professor of Botany in King's Col- 
lege, London. 

Professor Forbes states that in his late researches in the .^gean 
Sea he found ten species of Starfishes of the order Ophiuridee, several 
of which are undescribed. In the present memoir he confines him- 
self to those belonging to the genus Ophiura, and to an alUed genus, 
hitherto uncharacterized, to which he gives the name of Pectinura. 
This genus is founded on a small starfish brought up by the dredge 
from the depth of 100 fathoms on the coast of Lycia, and is charac- 
terized as follows : — 


Coi-pus orbiculare, squamosum, granulosum, ad peripheriam radiatum ; 

radiis simplicibus, squamosis, in corporis discum subprolongatis ; squamis 

radiorura lateralibus adpressis, in rnarginibus superioribus spiniferis ; 

ossiculis ovarialibus binis in corporis lobos non productis. 
P. VESTiTA, disco orbiculari, radiis convexiusculis ; squamis superioribus 

rotundatis : lateralibus 8 spiniferis. — Lat. disci ^ unc. 

Professor Forbes states that he should scarcely have ventured to 
establish a genus on the single specimen of this species which he 
possesses, and which is somewhat imperfect in the raj's, had he not 
had an opportunity of examining a large foreign species, which shows 
it to be a well-marked genus, ha^'ing a rather closer affinity with 
Ophiura than with Ophiocoma. It differ.^ from the former in having 
the disc clothed with granules, in the absence of the pectinated 
scales embracing the origins of the rays, and in the ovarian plates 
(not soldered into one as in Ophiura) not encroaching on the body ; 
and from Ophiocoma by the lateral ray-plates overlapping each other 
and the posterior ray-plates as in Ophiura, and instead of ha\'ing the 
spines on a transverse ridge or keel having them articulated to their 
superior margins, so that when the animal is dead they lie close to 
the rays and do not bristle out as in Ophiocoma. 

168 Linnean Society. [April 18, 

Of Ophiura Professor Forbes found three species, 0. texturata, O. 
albida, and a new species to which he gives the name of 0. abyssicola, 
on account of its being found in deeper water than any recorded 
starfish, at the depth namely of from 150 to 200 fathoms. A com- 
parison of the characters of this new species with those of its de- 
scribed allies, has enabled him to revise the characters of the genus 
Ophiura as foUows : — 

Ophiura, Lam., Agass. 
Corpus orbiculare, squamosum, lasve, ad periplieriam radiatum ; radiis 
simplicibus, squamosis, in corporis discum prolongatis, ad origines 
squamis pectiuatis adpressis ; squamis vadiorum lateralibus adpressis, 
in marginibus superioribus spinifevis ; ossiculis marginis ovariaHbus 
simplicibus, in corporis lobos prodiictis. 
The following are the specific characters of the ^gean species : — 
0. texturata, Lam. Squamis pectinatis ad radiorum origines plus quam 
20-dentatis, ossiculis ovariaHbus lyratis, radiis carinatis ; squamis supe- 
rioribus transverse oblongis : lateralibus 7 spiniferis. 
0. albida, Forbes. Squamis pectinatis ad radiorum origines 16-dentatis, 
ossiculis ovariaHbus scutatis, radiis convexis ; squamis superioribus tri- 
angularibus : lateralibus 4 vel 5 spiniferis. 
O. ABYSSICOLA, squamis pectinatis ad radiorum origines biiiis 5 — 9-den- 
tatis, ossiculis ovariaHbus pentagonis, radiis carinatis ; squamis supe- 
rioribus quadratis : lateralibus 3 vel 4 spiniferis. — Lat. disci -f-u unc. 

Read also a continuation of Mr. Griffith's memoir " On the Ovu- 
lum of Santalum," &c. 

April 4. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

George Suttor, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a continuation of Mr. Griffith's memoir " On the Ovulum of 
Santalum," &c. 

April 18. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair, 

Robert Armstrong, M.D., Nathaniel Buckley, Esq., Charles Pope, 
M.D., and Thomas West, M.D., were elected Fellows. 

Read the conclusion of Mr. Griffith's memoir " On the Ovulum of 
Santalum, Loranthus, Viscum," &c. 

1843.] Linnean Society. 169 

In this paper, dated " Malacca, March 28th, 1842," Mr. Griffith 
proposes to supply many of the deficiencies in his tv/o memoirs on 
the ovula of Santalum, Loranthus and Viscum, published in the 1 8th 
vol. of the Society's " Transactions," to correct some important mis- 
takes, and to extend his inquiries to another genus of the natural 
family of Santalacea, viz. Osyris. With this view he gives a detailed 
description of the progress of the development of the embryo, so far 
as he has been enabled to observe it, in Santalum album, Osyris Ne- 
palensis, Loranthus bicolor, Loranthus globosus and tvv^o species of 
Viscum ; each of which subjects is illustrated by an extensive series 
of microscopical drawings. In connection with these details he pro- 
ceeds to remark at some length on the four following points : — 1. the 
solidity of the ovarium and the appearance of the ovulum after fecun- 
dation, or rather after the action of the pollen on the stigmatic sur- 
faces ; 2. the reduction of an ovulum to the nucleus or to the 
embryonary sac ; 3. the embryonary sac ; and 4. the origin of the 
embryo. The following is the summary given by him of his ideas 
of the structure of Santalum, Osyris, Loranthus and Viscum : — 

" In Santalum the ovulum consists of a nucleus and an embryonary 
sac, prolonged beyond both the apex and base of the nucleus : the 
albumen and embryo are developed in the parts above the septum 
[in the exserted portion of the sac] , the parts below and the nucleus 
remaining unchanged. The embryo is developed from the poUinic 
vesicle. The seed has no actual proper covering, and no other theo- 
retical covering than the incorporated upper separable parts of the 

" In Osyris the ovulum is reduced to a nucleus and an embryonary 
sac, which is prolonged in the same directions as in Santalum, but not 
to such a degree beyond the apex of the nucleus. The seed is formed 
outside the embryo-sac, and is absolutely without proper tegument, 
or whatever covering it may have did not enter into the composition 
of the ovulum. The embryo appears to be developed at some di- 
stance from the anterior end of the pollen tube. 

" In Viscum the modifications appear to me to be two : in the one 
an evident cavity exists in the ovarium, and the ovulum appears to be 
reduced to an embryonary sac hanging from one side of the base of 
a nipple-shaped or conical placenta. In the other the ovulum is 
reduced to an embryonary sac, but this is erect, and has no such ob- 
viously distinct point of origin as in the first. In both the albumen 
has no other proper covering than the incorporated embryonary sac ; 
and, at least in the last, the embryo appears to be a direct transfor- 
mation of the poUinic vesicle. 

No. XVIII. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

170 Linnean Society. [April 18, 

" In Loranthus each ovulum appears to be reduced to an embryonary 
sac, the albumen is developed either partly within the sac, or entirely, 
or almost entirely, without it. The embryo is a growth from the 
ends of the continuations of the pollen tubes outside the anterior 
ends of the embryo-sacs, and is, in one modification, exemplified by 
L. globosus, up to a certain period exterior even to the albumen. In 
L. hicolor the albumen has no proper tegument ; in L. globosus it 
may be supposed to have a partial one in the incorporated albumi- 
nous part of the embryo-sac. 

" The gradation of structure appears to me to be tolerably complete. 
One modification of Viscum, in my opinion, tends to show that in San- 
talum the first steps towards the disappearance of the usual nucleus 
take place. Osyris seems to me to indicate that a similar tendency 
may affect the embryonary sac ; and Santalum appears to me to 
allude to a reduction in the embryo-sac to the form of that of Osyris. 
Nor is this all, Osyris has its albumen and embryo developed outside 
that end of the sac to which the pollen tubes are applied : Loranthus 
bicolor has the same developed outside the opposite end of the sac. 
And the partial development of the albumen in the embryo-sac of 
Loranthus globosus may perhaps be a passage to its development out- 
side that sac in L, bicolor. 

" The novel points of structure and development pointed out in 
this paper are, so far as I know, the possibility of the separation of 
a continuous membranous embryo-sac into two distinct parts, of 
which the lower remains unchanged, though it would almost appear 
from Osyris to be the most permanent ; the presence of the embryo- 
sac not being necessarily connected with its forming one of the con- 
stituent parts of the young or of the mature seed ; the longitudinal 
percursion of the embryo-sac by the pollen tubes ; the formation of 
the albumen either only partially within the embryo-sac, or almost 
entirely, if not quite so, without it ; the confluence of the albumina 
of several sacs into one albumen ; the growth of the embryonic tis- 
sues from the continuations of the poUen tubes outside the embryo- 
sac ; the possibility of one embryo resulting from a combination of 
several pollen tubes, and of its becoming interior to the albumen, 
although it may have been for some time entirely exterior to it. 

" I make no mention of the posterior prolongations of the sacs, in 
doubt of the true nature or origin of the so-called chalazal apparatus 
of Thesium ; or of the growth of the embryonic tissues from the ends 
of the pollen tubes, in doubt of my having misunderstood the obser- 
vations of M. Schleiden, and in ignorance of those of M. Wydler." 
In a subsequent note Mr. Cxriffith notices certain peculiarities in 

1843.] Linnean Society. 171 

the development of the embryo in Avicennia, and in a genus which, 
notwithstanding its very curious anomalies, he considers referrible 
to Santalales, and to which he gives the following characters : — 


Ca/f/^ superus ; limbo niinutissimo, 5-dentato. Petala 5, ^isco epigyno 
inserta, basi utrinque uni-glandulosa. Stamina 5, petalis opposita. 
Ovarium omnino inferum, 1-loculare. Ovula 3, ex apice loculi ! pen- 
dula, anatropa! Stylus brevis. Stigmata 3, subcapitata. Fructus 
subdrupaceus, monospermus, calyce demum soluto quasi 5-valvis ! ! 
•yeJHew unicmn, pendulum ; endocarpio osseo inclusum. Albinne7i co- 
piosum. RadiculcB locus superus. 

Frutex scandens, cirrhifer, cirrhis axillaribtis. Folia alter7ia, exstipulata, 
oblonffo-ovata, basi siibcordata et quinque-venia. Flores minuti, incon- 
spiciii. Glandulee apice piliferce ! Fructus abortu solitarius, cum pe- 
dicello clavato-jyyriformis; valvse intus ?-ubr(e. 

Habitus Modeccce ; Rhamneis mediante Gouanid analoga? Santalaceis 
potius affinis. 

Hab. in Assamia Superiore, Oris Tenasserim, Mevgui Provincia, Ma- 

May 2. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

M. Achille Richard and M. Joachim Frederic Schouw were elected 
Foreign Members ; John Salt, M.D., was elected a Fellow ; and Mr. 
Thomas Sansom an Associate. 

In consequence of the recent death of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex, 
the Meeting adjourned. 

Anniversary Meeting, 
May 24. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

His Majesty the King of Saxony was elected an Honorary Member. 

The President opened the business of the Meeting, and having 
stated the number of Members whom the Society had lost during 

172 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

the pa?t year, the Secretary read the following notices of some of 
them : — 

The deaths among the Fellows have been six in number. 

The Rev. James Dalton was educated at Clare Hall, in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, where he took his Bachelor's degree in 1787, 
and that of Master of Arts in 1790. He was much attached to bo- 
tanical pursuits, and well acquainted with our native plants, and 
especially with the Carices and Mosses. Among the latter he was 
the first discoverer of several new species, and his name has been 
commemorated by Sir W. J. Hooker in a well-known genus. Many 
of his observations are recorded by Sir James E. Smith in his ' En- 
glish Botany ' and ' English Flora.' He became a Fellow of this 
Society in 1 803 ; and in 1 805 he was presented by the King to the 
living of Croft in Yorkshire, where he continued to reside until his 
decease, on the 2nd of January in the present year, at the age of 78. 

Joh?i Latham, M.D., formerly a physician of considerable emi- 
nence and extensive practice, was born at Gawsworth in the county 
of Chester, Dec. 29, 1761, and educated at Brasen-nose College, 
Oxford, vvhere he took his Doctor's degree in 1788. In the same 
year he established himself in London, and became successively 
physician to the Middlesex, the Magdalen, and St. Bartholomew's 
Hospitals, and Fellow and President of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians. He was elected a Fellow of this Society on the 16th of March 
1790, and was consequently its senior member. He died on the 
20th of April in the present year at Bradwall Hall, Cheshire, to 
which place he had retired from the fatigues of practice in 1829. 
His published works are wholly medical. 

James Lynn, M.D. 

Rev. Thos. Newman, M.A. 

Rev. Thos. Newton, M.A. 

John Gage Rokewode, Esq., for many years Director of the Society 
of Antiquaries, was the fourth and youngest son of Sir Thomas Gage 
of Hengrave Hall in the county of Suffolk, the sixth baronet of that 
family, and brother of the late Sir Thomas Gage, also a Fellow of 
our Society and a botanist of considerable attainments, especially in 
his knowledge of the family of Lichens. On the death of his second 
brother, he assumed the name of Rokewode and entered into posses- 
sion of Coldham Hall and the property belonging to it, in pursuance 
of a settlement executed in 1728 by one of his ancestors. Mr. Gage 
Rokewode was devoted from an early period of his life to the study 
of the antiquities of his native country, to the illustration of which 
his numerous publications in the ' Archseologia,' in the ' Vetusta 

1843.] Linnean Society. 173 

Monumenta,' and in various separate works, have greatly contri- 

The Society has also to regret the loss of two of its Associates. 

Mr. Daniel Cooper was the second son of Mr. John Thomas Cooper, 
well known as a distinguished practical chemist. He was educated 
for the medical profession, and assiduously devoted himself to the 
study of natural history', and more especially of bot*iy and concho- 
logy. He took an active part in the establishment of the Botanical 
Society of London ; and subsequently became one of the Assistants 
in the Zoological Department of the British Museum, and delivered 
Botanical lectures at various Medical Schools. On quitting the British 
Museum he entered the Medical Service of the Army, and was for 
some time employed in the Museum at Fort Pitt, Chatham ; whence 
he was appointed Assistant- Surgeon to the 17th Lancers, then sta- 
tioned at Leeds. He died at the early age of 25, in the Cavalry Bar- 
racks of that town, on the 23rd of November 1 842, about two months 
after joining the regiment, of a sudden attack of inflammation of the 

Soon after the establishment of the Microscopical Society he com- 
menced the publication of a ' Microscopic Journal,' of which he 
edited nearly two annual volumes, the latter in conjunction with 
Mr. Busk. He published also a ' Flora Metropohtana/ 12mo, 1836, 
which constitutes a useful guide to the stations of the rarer plants 
found witliin a walk of the metropoUs, and includes ' A List of the 
Land and Freshwater Shells found in the environs of London.' To 
this little work a Supplement was added in 1837 ; and he also super- 
intended a new edition of Bingley's ' Useful Knowledge ' remodelled 
and with considerable additions. 

Mr. Alexander Matthews, an active and inteUigent botanical col- 
lector, died at Chachapoyas on the Andes of Peru, on the 24th of No- 
vember 1841. He had been engaged for many years in forming and 
transmitting to Europe collections of Peruvian and Chilian plants ; 
and was the first discoverer of many species of great interest and 
beauty, which have been described, from the specimens gathered by 
him, chiefly in Sir W. J. Hooker's various publications, in which also 
occasional letters from him on the subject of his botanical pursuits 
will be found. 

The President also announced that two Foreign Members, eighteen 
Fellows and six Associates had been elected since the last Anni- 

At the election which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop of 


Linnean Society. 

[June 6, 

Norwich was re-elected President ; Edj\vard Forster, Esq., Treasurer ; 
John Joseph Bennett, Esq., Secretary ; and Richard Taylor, Esq., 
Under-Secretary. The following five Fellows were elected into the 
Council in the room of others going out : viz. Arthur Aikin, Esq. ; 
Rev. Frederic William Hope ; William Horton Lloyd, Esq. ; Richard 
Owen, Esq., and William Yarrell, Esq. 

The Treasurer reported that the Subscriptions hitherto received 
in aid of the fund for relieving the Society from its incumbrances 
amounted to 9S2Z. 14.^.* 

June 6, 

Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Thomas Turner, Esq., and James Tulloch, Esq., were elected 

Read the conclusion of Professor Forbes's memoir " On the Ophiu- 
ridce of the ^gean Sea." 

The author commences this portion of his paper by a revised cha- 
racter of the genus Ophioderma of Mviller andTroschel, as follows : — 

* The following Subscriptions have been received subsequent to the pub- 
lication of the List given at p. 150, making the total amount received up to 
the 31st of July, 994Z. '6s. 


William Atkinson, Esq 2 

Robert John Ashton, Esq. ... .5 

Henry Beaufoy, Esq 5 

William Bvidgman, Esq 5 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir Thomas M. 

Brisbane, K.C.B 5 

Harford James Jones Brydges, 

Esq 5 

James Charles Dale, Esq. ... 5 

M.PakenhamEdgeworthjEsq. 5 

Mr. James Forbes 1 

Rev. Henry Hasted (2nd 

subscr.) 3 

Rev. Henry Hawkes 5 

Mr. Joseph Henderson 1 

Thomas Charles Hope, Esq., 

M.U 5 


James Charles Hui"st 

Mr. Abel Ingpen 

Capt. Theobald Jones, R.N., 


Benjamin Kennedy, Esq. ... 

John Kidd, Es(]., M.D 

Mr. James Main 

Thomas White Mann, Esq.... 

John Martin, Esq 

Jonh Miers, Esq. (2nd subscr.) 
Roderick Impey Muvchison, 

Esq 10 

Mr. William Pamplin 1 

John Reeves, Esq 5 

Edward Rudge, Esq 5 

Rev. George Thackeray, D.D. 5 
John Windsor, Esq 3 

1843.] Linnean Society. 175 

Corpus ovbiculare, squamosum, granulosum, ad periplieiiam radiatuni ; 
radiis simplicibus squamosis ; disco in radiorum origines pvolongato, 
infra povis genitalibus viginti ; squamis radiorum lateralibus adpressis, 
in marginibus superioribus spiniferis, spinis simplicibus ; ossiculis ova- 
rialibus parvis, oralibus pectinatis. 

The species on which this genus is founded, Ophiura lacertosa. 
Lam., is stated to be rare in the ^gean Sea, and is thus character- 
ized : — 

Oph. lacertosa. 

O. radiis convexiuscuHs ; squamis superioribus transverse oblongis : late- 
ralibus 8-spiniferis : inferioribus quadratis. 

Of the genus Ophiomyxa of the same authors. Professor Forbes 
also gives the following revised character : — 

Corpus pentagonale, coriaceum, Iseve, ad periplieriam radiatiim ; radiis 
simplicibus, interrupte squamosis ; disco in I'adiorum origines prolon- 
gate ; squamis radiorum lateralibus spiniferis, spinis serrulatis ; ossi- 
culis ovarialibus binis parvis, oralibus spinis serrulatis armatis. 
The ^gean species, 0. luhrica, Forbes, was found in between ten 
and twenty fathoms water in the sea of the Cyclades. 

For a new species not uncommon in the seas of the Archipelago, 
the author establishes the genus — 

Opiiiopsila, Forbes. 
Corpus orbiculare, coriaceum, liEve, ad periplieriam radiatum ; radiis sim- 
pliciter squamosis, infra disciim insertis ; squamis latetalibus subcari- 
natis spiniferis, spinis simplicibus ; ossiculis ovarialibus parvis, oralibus 
ad latera nudis. 
Oph. Aranea, Forbes. 

Another new genus is constituted for the reception of the long- 
rayed, scaly and smooth-bodied Ophiuridce, with simple tentacula and 
smooth spines, and is characterized as follows : — 

Amphiura, Forbes. 
Corpus orbiculare, squamosum, leeve, ad periplieriam radiatum ; radiis 
simplicibus squamosis, infra discum insertis ; squamis lateralibus sub- 
carinatis spiniferis, spinis simplicibus ; ossiculis ovarialibus parvis, ora- 
libus ad latera nudis ; cirrhis simplicibus. 

Three species inhabit the ^gean Sea, of which one is undescribed. 
Their characters are thus given : — 
A. florifeka, Forbes. 
A. disco squamis cenlralibus niaximis rosulalis, scutellis ovatis disjiniclis, 


176 Linnean Society. [June 6, 

squamis radiorum superioribus quadratis : inferioribus trilobatis : late- 
ralibus 3-spiniferis ; spinis brevissimis linearibus simplicibus. 

A. neglecta, Forbes. 

A. disco squamis central ibus parvisrosulatis, scutellis oblongis conjunctis, 
squamis radiorum superioribus quadratis : inferioribus oblongis : late- 
ralibus 4 — 5-spiniferis ; spinis bre^abus simplicibus. 

Ophiura neglecta, Johnslon. 

A. Chiajli, Forbes. 

A. disco squamis minutis rosulatis, scutellis cuneatis divergentibus apici- 
bus approximatis, squamis i-adiorum superioribus lenticularibus : infe- 
rioribus quadratis sulcatis : lateralibus 4-spiniferis ; spinis longis sim- 

Ophiura filiformis, Chiaje (nee Miiller). 

Lastly, the author adopts the genus Ophiothrix of Miiller and 
Troschel, with the following revised character : — 

Corpus orbiculare, spinosum, ad peripheriam radiatum ; radiis simplicibus, 
squamosis, squamis superioribus imbricatis, lateralibus carinatis spi- 
iiiferis; spinis serrulatis; ossiculis ovarialibus parvis, oralibus ad latera 
nudis ; cirrhis pinnatis. 
Op/iioihrix Rosula is common in the ^gean Sea. 

Figures are given of all the new genera and species, with nume- 
rous magnified details. 

Read also a " Description of Peltophyllum, a new genus of Plants 
allied to Triiiris of Miers, with remarks on their Affinities." By 
George Gardner, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

The jjlant described in the present communication was discovered 
by Mr. Gardner in the pi'ovince of Goyaz, in the interior of Brazil, 
and the few specimens which he possesses are unfortunately all 
female. The following are its characters : — 

Peltophyllum, Gardner. 
Flores dioici. Mase. ignoti. Fcem. Perigonium 6-partitum, coloratura, 

patens, persistens; laciniis ovatis, longe acuminatis ; acumine piano. 

Ovaria plurima, in tori apice sessilia, adpressa, libera. Styli ad apicem 

incrassati, oblique truncati. Fructus ignotus. 
i^exha. parvula BrasUiensis. Folia a scapo distantia, longe petiolata, pel- 

tata, valde reticulata. Radix tuherosa, fibrosa. Scapus siihramosus, 

bast squamosus ; pedimculis basi bracteatis, tmijloris ; floribus luteis. 
Peltophyllum luteum, Gardn. Herb. Bras. n. 3570. 

Mr. Gardner compares the female flowers of his plant with those 
of Triuris, to which it is evidently nearly related ; and discusses at 
some length the subject of their proper position in the natural system, 

1843.] Linnean Society. 177 

which he believes to be along with Smilacea and the other orders of 
the group to which Prof. Lindley gave first the name of Retosce and 
subsequently that of Dictyogens. He proposes to form a distinct 
order for their reception under the name of 


Herhm parvulae, perennes, rhizomate repente ? Folia solitaria, a scapo 
distantia, longe petiolata, nervosa, integei-rima. FagintB ad basin pe- 
tiolorum membranaceEe. Scapus subramosiis, basi squamosus. Flores 
regulares, dioici ; pedicelHs unifloris, bracteatis. Perigonium corollinuni, 
3- vel 6-partitum, patens, persistens ; laciniis longis, acuminatis, aesti- 
vatione basi valvatis ; acumine interdum tubuloso, ante anthesin gy- 
rato incluso. Stamina 3 vel 6? Antherce extrorsae, loculis disjunctis, 
imo androphoro magno carnosn centrali insertae. Ovaria plurima, in 
tori apice sessilia, adpressa, libera. Ot'z^/a in loculis solitaria ? Sfyli 
sublaterales, subulati, vel ad apicem incrassati et oblique truncati. 
Fruclus ignotus. 

A figure of Peltophyllum luteum, with details, from the pencil of 
Mr. Miers, accompanied the paper. 

June 20. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read " Notes on the Forest-trees of Australia." By George 
Suttor, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Mr. Suttor states that the far greater number of these trees be- 
long to the order Myrtacea, and chiefly to the genus Eucalyptus. The 
species are very numerous, and many of them are still undescribed. 
They are generically known to the colonists as Gum-trees, and their 
distinctive names are chiefly derived from the colour of their barks ; 
as for example, blue, black-butted, red, white, yellow, green, and 
spotted Gum-trees. There is also a Flooded Gum-tree, a Manna 
Gum-tree, and a so-called Mountain-ash, all belonging to the genus 
Eucalyptus. Many of the species are of gigantic growth, and the 
Black-butted Gum-tree in particular (Eucalyptus globulus, Labill. ?) 
attains a size equal perhaps to that of any tree in the world. It 
derives its name from the blackness of its butt, caused, it is said, by 
exposure to the fires which are so frequently kindled by the natives 
in order to burn the grass and secure the game. 

No. XIX. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

178 Linnean Society. [Nov. 7? 

The Manna Gum-tree {Eucalyptus mannifera) is also of large 
growth, with widely spreading branches. Its manna drops in a 
liquid state most plentifully in the summer from the flowers and buds 
of the young shoots into the leaves, where it quickly becomes hard- 
ened, and falls thence to the ground in irregular lumps. It has a 
sweet agreeable taste, and is said to have all the properties of the 
manna of the shops. The wood contains a large quantity of saccha- 
rine sap, which soon becomes acid, and it is to this cause that Mr. 
Suttor attributes the jDower of resisting fire, so remarkable in all the 
Gum-trees, and which renders them peculiarly valuable in building 

Another species of Eucalyptus, the so-called Mountain-ash, which 
grows in the Blue Mountains, is a very fine timber- tree, which splits 
freely into long pieces and is brought to Paramatta for chair-rafts, 
&c. Its wood is very strong and elastic, and said to be equal in 
those respects to any wood in the world. 

The Forest-mahogany of the colonists (^Eucalyptus robusta, Smith) 
has strong large spreading branches, forming a very large head, and 
sweet-scented flowers. Its wood is heavy and close-grained, resem- 
bles the mahogany of Jamaica, and is used in Sydney for making 
chairs and bedsteads. 

The timber-trees not belonging to the order Myrtacece consist of 
a few species of Conifera, the Casuarinee, and the so-called Cedar 
(Cedrelu Toona, Roxb.), the wood of which very much resembles the 
Honduras mahogan}^ and is very valuable to the colonists in fitting 
up their houses, making furniture, &c. The tree is of large growth, 
and has not been found in the interior, but generally on the low 
grrounds of the coast rivers. 

November 7. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

A letter was read from the Baron de Gersdorff", Resident Minister 
of the King of Saxony, addressed to the President, and stating that 
" the King will feel highly gratified in seeing his name enrolled on 
the list of Honorary Members of the Linnean Society of London, and 
that his Majesty has accordingly been graciously pleased to accept 
the Diploma transmitted by your Lordship, as President." 

1843.] Linnean Society. 179 

Dr. Bromfield, F.L.S., presented a specimen of a species of Cala- 
mintha found by him in the Isle of Wight and regarded as new. 

Mr. Newman exhibited a specimen of Trichomanes lately found in 
the CO. Kerry, and supposed to be distinct from Tr. speciosum. 

Read a letter from Joshua Clarke, Esq., of SaiFron Waldon, ac- 
companying specimens of Barkhausia sctosa, Dec, found in that 
neighbourhood, with a note on the characters and distribution of the 
species by Mr. Kippist, Libr. L.S. 

Read also the commencement of " An Analj'sis of Rhizanthea." 
By Wm. Griifith, Esq., F.L.S., beine the first of a series of memoirs 
on Root-Parasites and their allies. 

November 2 1 . 
E. Forster, Esq., V.F., in the Chair. 
David William Mitchell, Esq. was elected a Fellow. 

Read the conclusion of Mr. Griffith's " Analysis of Rhizanthece," 
and his " Description of Sapria, a Himalayan genus related to Rqf- 

December 5. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Westwood, F.L.S., exhibited a box of CEstrideous insects re- 
cently received from Professors Zetterstedt and Dahlbom, with the 
view of determining the correctness of Mr. Bracy Clarke's conjecture 
as to certain characters, which, in his memoir published in the last 
Part of the ' Transactions' of this Society, he had regarded as sexual, 
and as proving that the (Estrus Tarandi and (E. Ti'ompe are sexes of 
the same species. Mr. Westwood stated that this collection con- 
tained both sexes of each of these species, and that it would conse- 
quently be necessary to reinstate these two species as well as several 

180 Linnean Society. [Dec. 19, 

others, which, on the same account, Mr. B. Clarke had sunk in his 


Read " Observations on Cy tinea; and on the genus Thottea of 
Rottboll," in continuation of Mr. Griffith's memoirs on Root-Para- 
sites, &c. 

December 19. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

William Ferrand Merson, M.D., William Tucker AUaway, M.D., 
John Hillier, Esq., and Sylvanus Hanley, Esq., were elected Fellows ; 
and Mr. Henry Denny an Associate. 

Mr. J. T. Lay, Her Majesty's Consul at Canton, presented a box 
of specimens of the Keih-seen-me, a species of Alga related to Nostoc, 
and eaten as a delicacy among the Chinese. 

The Secretary exhibited on the part of Mr. Newport, President of 
the Entomological Society, a specimen in spirits of a Neuropterous 
insect, Pteronarcys regalis, furnished with external branchiae in its 
perfect state. 

Read a paper " On Carex saxatilis, L., and an allied species." By 
Francis Boott, M.D.. F.L.S. &c. 

The allied species referred to was found in 1832 in Glen Phee, 
Clova, by the party accompanying Dr. Graham on his annual bota- 
nical excursion to the Highlands, and was considered as a form of 
C. saxatilis, L. ; but Dr. Boott, whose attention has lately been called 
to the subject by a letter from Mr. W. Wilson of Warrington, point- 
ing out certain diff'erences between the two plants, is led to regard it 
as a distinct species, which he names and characterizes as follows : — 

Carex Qrahami, spicis 4 — 5 cylindricis ferrugineis ; masculis 2 (rarius 1) 
gracilibus acutis : foemineis 2 — 3 subrernotis crassis obtusis inferioribus 
pedunculatis evaginatis subnutantibus, stigmatibiis 2, perigyniis ob- 
longo-ovatis rostratis bifurcatis inflatis nervosis suberectis ferrugineis 
(rarius stramincis) basi pallidis squama ovata acuta fusca apice albida 
r.L'vvo pallido duplo longioribus. 

1843.] Linnean Society. 181 

Of Carex saxatilis, L., Dr. Booth gives the following character : — 

C, saxatilis, spiels 2 — 3 atropurpureis ; mascula 1 (rarius 2) cylindrica 
perlunculata : foemineis 1 — 2 votundatis ovatisvc infima plus minusve 
pediinculata evaginata bracteata erecta, stigmatibus 2 — 3, perigyniis 
subglobosis ovatisve rostratis emarginatis stipitatis patentibus enerviis 
atropurpureis basi pallidis squama ovata abtusiuscula nigro-purpurea 
apice albida nervo concolovi longioribus. 

C. saxatilis, L. Fl. Lapp. 2.59 (1737). 
C. pulla, Good, in Linn. Trans, iii. t. 14 (1795). 

Hah. in Alpibus Scotiag, Norvegise, Lapponia?, Suecite, Islandise. Insula- 
rum Fi3Broensium. 

The author enters at length into a critical examination of the ori- 
ginal authorities which prove the Carex pulla of Goodenough to be 
the same with Carex saxatilis, L. ; and points out the origin of the 
confusion of the latter with C. rigida, Good. He then examines more 
particularly the distinguishing characters of C. Grahami and C. sax- 
atilis ; and adds that he should have no doubt of the specific distinc- 
tion between them but for the observations of Drejer, who in his 
' Revisio critica Caricum Borealium ' describes, under the name of 
C. pulla /3 fusca, specimens from Iceland and Greenland closely 
agreeing with C. Grahami, except that he makes no mention of the 
nerves of the perigynium, and observes that the Greenland specimens 
are so extremely variable that it could scarcely be believed that they 
belong to the same species. In the absence of precise information 
respecting the perigynium of the larger Greenland specimens, Dr. 
Boott is inclined to refer them, together with the specimens from the 
Rocky Mountains described by him in Sir W. J. Hooker's ' Flora 
Boreali- Americana' under the name of C. saxatilis, to C. physocarpa, 
Presl, a native of Nootka Sound. Of the latter his knowledge is 
derived from M. Kunth's " Cyperographia." 

In conclusion Dr. Boott leaves it to future observation to deter- 
mine the value of the specific character which he has given of C. Gra- 
hami ; whether it is to be considered as a distinct species, referred 
back to C. saxatilis, L., or transferred to C physocarpa, Presl, re- 
peating that at present he considers it, with Mr. Wilson, entitled 
to rank as a species. 

Read also an " Account of the Trees producing Myrrh and Frank- 
incense, as found in those parts of the coast of the Red Sea and In - 
dian Ocean whence those Gums were obtained in the first dawn of 
Commei-ce." By Major W. C. Harris, latj on an Embassy to the 

182 Linnean Society. [Dec. 19, 1843. 

Court of Shoa in Southern Abyssinia. Communicated by the Se- 

Major Harris describes the Myrrh-tree {Balsamodendron MyrrJia) 
as growing abundantly on the Abyssinian coast of the Red Sea to 
the Straits of Bab el Mandeb, over all the barren hill-sides of the 
low zone inhabited by the Danakil or Adaiel tribes. It is called 
Kurbeta, and there exist two varieties ; one producing the better de- 
scription of the gum being a dwarf shrub, with deeply serrated crisp 
leaves of a dull green ; while the other, which yields a substance 
more like balm than myrrh, attains a height of ten feet, and has 
bright, shining, slightly dentated leaves. The myrrh, called Hofali, 
flows freely from any wound, in the form of a milky juice, possessing 
a perceptible acidity, which either evaporates or becomes chemically 
changed during the formation of the gum. The seasons for collect- 
ing it are in January, when the buds appear after the first rain ; and 
in March, when the seeds are ripe. Every passer-by transfers such 
portions of it as he may find to the hollow boss of his shield, and ex- 
changes it for a handful of tobacco with the next slave-dealer whom 
he meets on the caravan-route. The merchants also of the sea-coast, 
before returning from Abyssinia, send into the forests that gird the 
western bank of the river Hawash, and bring away considerable 
quantities of the Hofali, which is sold at a high price. The natives 
administer it to their horses in cases of fatigue and exhaustion. 

The shrub which produces the balm of Mecca, Balsamodendron 
Opobalsamum, is found on the opposite Arabian coast at Cape Aden, 
where it is called Beshcin, either the original of or a derivative from 
the word Balsam. It is the Balessan of Bruce, who did not meet 
with the true myrrh-tree. The balm flows copiously from any in- 
cision, and the aethereal oil speedily evaporating, a tasteless gum 

The Frankincense, Major Harris states, is found chiefly along the 
Somauli coast, in the neighbourhood of Cape Guardafui. At Bunder 
Maryah, twenty miles to the S.W. of Ras Feeluk, the mountains are 
three miles from the shore and attain a height of five thousand feet. 
Ascending a thousand feet a plain presents itself, bounded on every 
side by precipitous mountains, studded M'ith the Frankincense and 
Gum-Acacia trees, although looking bare from the total absence of 
under- wood. The frankincense-trees invariably grow from the bare 
and smooth sides of the white marble rocks, or from isolated blocks 
of the same scattered over the plain, without any soil whatever. 
From the base of the trunk, and about treble its diameter, a round 
thick substance is thrown out, of a nature between bark and wood. 

Jan. 16, 1844.] Linnean Society. 183 

adhering most firmly to the stone, and resembling at a distance a 
mixture of mortar and lime. The stem rises from the centre of this 
mass, and having first taken a bend outwards of several inches, rises 
straight to a height of forty feet. It throws out from the top short 
branches covered with a very bright green foliage, the leaves being 
narrow and rounded at the end, five or six inches in length by one 
broad, and crimped like the frill of a shirt, or rather like the sea- weed 
called by children on the English coast " the old gentleman's ruffles." 
The usual girth of the stem is from a foot to eighteen inches. The 
bark is perfectly smooth and consists of four distinct layers, the 
outermost of which is very thin ; the two next of a singularly fine 
texture, resembling oiled letter-paper, perfectly transparent, of a 
beautiful amber-colour, and used by the Somaulis to write upon ; 
and the innermost about an inch thick, of a dull reddish hue, tough 
and not unlike leather, but yielding a strong aromatic perfume. The 
wood is white and soft. On making a deep incision into the inner 
rind, the gum exudes profusely, of the colour and consistence of milk, 
but hardening into a mass by exposure to the air. The young trees 
produce the best and most valuable gum, the older merely yielding 
a clear glutinous fluid resembling Copal varnish and exhaling a 
strong resinous odour. During the S.W. monsoon the pastoral tribes 
in the neighbourhood of Ras Feeluk collect large quantities of frank- 
incense, which they barter with the Indian Banyans, of whom a few 
reside at the vjUages along the Abyssinian coast. Boats from Ma- 
cuUa and from other parts of the Arabian coast also come across du- 
ring the fine season and carry away the gums that have been accu- 
mulated, in exchange for a coarse kind of cotton cloth which is worn 
by the shepherds. 

January 16, 1844. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Thomas Harrison, Esq., M.D., Edward Hamilton, Esq., M.D., 
WiUiam Francis, Esq., Ph. D., Augustus W. Clement, Esq., M.D., 
and John Mussendine Camplin, Esq., were elected Fellows. 

Read an extract from a letter addressed by John Ashton Bostock, 
Esq., Assistant Surgeon in H.M. 3rd Buffs, to his father John Bos- 
tock, Esq., M.D., F.L.S. 

184 Linnean Society. [Jan. 16, 

The letter is dated Agra, Oct. 21st, 1843, and describes the oc- 
currences of a journey from Allahabad. The extract is as follows : 
" Between Cawnpore and this place I witnessed one of the extraor- 
dinary phBenomena peculiar to tropical climates, viz. a flight of locusts. 
The direction of the flight was nearly due east, and the rate four miles 
per hour ; and you will form some idea of the immense host, when I 
tell you, that travelling at the same rate and in the opposite direc- 
tion, I was between two and three hours in passing through them. 
During the whole time, the horizon, as far as the eye could reach, 
was darkened, and every nearer object was obscured. On looking 
directly upwards the appearance was that of a very heavy snow- 
storm, and the ground, which was covered by them, resembled the 
fields strewed by the dried leaves of the autumn. Several of them 
flew into my Palken. They were 2^ inches long, of a pink colour, 
marked with dark brown. The poor natives were shouting and en- 
deavouring to prevent their devouring the crops, to which they prove 
most destructive." 

Read also a continuation of the series of memoirs on the Radiata 
of the Eastern Mediterranean. By E. Forbes, Esq., F.L.S., Professor 
of Botany in King's College, London. 

The memoir now read relates to the order Echinidce, the Mediter- 
ranean species of which Professor Forbes states to amount in num- 
ber to between twelve and fifteen. Of these nine occur in the seas 
of the Egean Archipelago, at various depths, some being found as low 
as a hundred fathoms. They are enumerated as follows : — 

Fam. Spatangace^. 

Gen. Spatangus, L. 

Spatangus purpureus is rare to the east of the Morea, but more 
abundant and attaining a larger size on the coasts of Sicilj' and 
Malta. The Mediterranean specimens are in every respect identical 
with the British, and Spat, meridionalis of Risso is the same species. 

Gen. Brissus, Klein. 

Fragments of Sea-urchins belonging to this genus were repeatedly 
found in very deep water on several parts of the Archipelago and on 
the coast of Asia Minor, but too imperfect to admit of determination. 
One of these, probably belonging to a new form, -was taken in mud 
at the depth of from 100 to 140 fathoms. 

1844.] Linnean Society. 185 

Gen. Amphidetus, Agansiz. 
Of this genus Prof. Forbes describes a new species nearly related 
to Spat, cordatus of Pennant, which he characterizes as follows : — 

A. Mediterraneus, Aorso cor\vex\\.\sc\\\o ; depressione subplano; impi-es- 
sione scutiformi, extremitate anali truncaia iinpressa cauda prominenti 
acuminata, ventre piano ; area post-orali lanceolata. — Long, ly^ unc. ; 
lat. lTV;alt. IJ^. 

Of this species, which was taken in a few feet water in the Island 
of Paros by Capt. Graves, but which Prof. Forbes has dredged as 
deep as twenty fathoms, the author gives a detailed description ; and 
particularly notices the occurrence on each side of the madreporiform 
plate, obliquely behind the posterior ovarian foramina, of a minute 
perforation, surrounded by a circle of minute spiniferous tubercles. 
Similar perforations similarly encircled are seen between each of the 
ovarian foramina laterally and anteriorly, so that their total number 
is five. These, the author states, are the eye-sockets with their 
protecting spines or eye-lids. Their presence, he adds, is unnoticed 
in any description of the species of Spatangacece, though they are 
doubtless to be found in all. 

Fam. Clypeasteri^. 
Gen. EcHiNocYAMus, Leske. Fibularia, Lam. 
Echinocyamus pusillus is abundant throughout the Egean Sea, 
being thrown up in shell-sand and equally plentiful at all depths be- 
tween one and a hundred and ten fathoms. Dead specimens were 
even dredged at a depth of two hundred. Specimens taken alive in 
the European seas are undistinguishable from those found in the an- 
cient tertiaries of the Paris basin, in the miocene strata of Touraine 
and the Crag, and in the pliocene beds of the Mediterranean. Prof. 
Forbes regards Fibularia Tarentina, Lam., Fih. Ovulum and probably 
Fib. angulosa as synonyms of this species. 

Fam. CiDARiD^. 
Gen. Echinus, L. 

Echinus esculentus, L., was very rarely met with in the Egean Sea ; 
while, on the other hand, Ech. lividus. Lam., was most abundant, 
being always littoral and covering the rocks within a fathom of depth, 
but never, so far as Prof. Forbes has observed, boring into them. 

A living species which the author is unable to distinguish from 
the fossil Echinus monilis, Defr., was found very abundantly at the 
depth of between twenty and a hundred fathoms. It would appear 

No. XX. — Proceedings qv the Linnean Society. 

186 Linnean Society. [Feb. 6, 

to be the same with Ech. pulchellus, Risso, and a variety Ech. deco- 
ratus, Agass. It is also Ech. miliaris of Grube, but very distinct 
from the true Ech. miliaris. 

Gen. CiDARis, Lam. 
Species of Cidaris Hystrix, Lam., were frequently met with, but 
perfect specimens are not so common. They are occasionally, how- 
ever, found in considerable numbers and appeared to be gregarious, 
between thirty and forty living examples having been taken in a 
single dredge in seventy fathoms water off Cape Krio in Asia Minor, 
the site of the ancient city of Cnidos. The author gives a particular 
account of the differences between this species and Cid. papillaris of 
the British and Norwegian seas, and observes that it possesses the 
power of climbing up branching bodies by means of its spines alone. 
He thinks it possible that the perforated tubercles of this genus may 
have reference to this habit, the additional ligament giving additional 
firmness to the long spine. 

February 6. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read " Descriptions of the Nests of two Hymenopterous Insects 
inhabiting Brazil, and of the species by which they were constructed." 
By John Curtis, Esq., F.L.S. 

The materials for this paper were obtained by Mr. Curtis from a 
collection in the possession of Lord Goderich, to whom it was pre- 
sented by the Right Hon. Henry Ellis, on his return from his late 
special mission to Brazil. 

The first insect described belongs to the family of Tenthredinidce 
and to the genus Hylotoma of Klug. But this extensive grouj), as Mr. 
Curtis has already remarked, affording sufficient grounds for further 
generic subdivision, he has distinguished the present species by the 
following name and characters : — 

DiELocERus, Curt. 
AntenncE articulo S^io in mare furcato, piloso ; in foemina simplici. 
Tibice ante apicem espinosse. Clypeus profunde emarginatus. Labrum 
orbiculare: mandihulcE graciles, acuts, altera denticulo intevno mi- 

1844.] Linnean Society. 18? 

nuto : maxUlcs subiequaliter bilobfE ; palpi mediocres, 6-articulati, arti- 
culis tribus basalibus iequaiibus, secundo tertioque crassis, quarto 
paulo minore, quiiito omnium minimo quadrato, sexto gracili, baud 
reliquis longiore : mentum sub-semiovatum ; palpi tuberculis promi- 
nentibus affixi, breves, crassi, 4-articulati, articulo secundo latiore, 
tertio omnium gracillimo longitudine primi: labium latum, trilobum. 

This genus is most nearly related to Schizocenis, Latr. The 
s])ecies on which it is founded is named by Mr. Curtis Dielocerus 
Ellisii, and is described at length, and the distinctions pointed out 
between it and Hylotoma formosu, Klug, to which Mr. Curtis was 
at first inclined to refer it. Its economy is totally different from 
that of any other known species of Tenthredinida ; the caterpillars 
of the solitary saw-flies, especially the larger species, forming single 
oval cocoons of a very tough and leathery material attached to 
twigs ; and those even of the gregarious species placing their co- 
coons (which are oval cases of silk and gum) in an irregular manner 
with no unity of design. The caterpillars of Dielocerus Ellisii, on 
the contrary, which are evidently gregarious, unite to form on the 
branch of a tree, an oval or elliptical case, four or five inches long, 
narrowed superiorly, very uneven on its surface, and of a dirty 
whitish ochre in colour. The cells, thirty-eight in number in the 
nest examined, are placed at right angles to the branch, piled hori- 
zontally one above the other, unequal in size and irregular in form, 
those next the tree being pentagonal, the central ones hexagonal, 
and some of the outer ones nearly round or oval. In one of these 
cells Mr. Curtis found a dead female, and most of them had the 
exuviae of the caterpillars remaining, but no shroud of the pupae ; 
he thinks the smaller cells may have been occupied by the males. 
At the end of each cell is a circular lid, formed of the same leathery 
material as the rest of the comb, which being cut round by means of 
the sharp mandibles, leaves an opening through which the saw-flies 
make their way. In two of the cells were found the dead cater- 
pillars, which closely resemble those of the genus Hylotoma. 

The author observes upon the dissimilarity of the mode of forma- 
tion of this nest to that of any previously observed, the compound 
nidus (as far as hitherto known) being always the work of the parent 
insects for the protection of their young through the first three stages 
of their existence. In this case, hov/ever, it is formed by the larvse 
themselves for the purpose of their own metamorphosis. The nearest 
approach to this economy seems to be the nidus formed by the mag- 
gots of some of the Ichneumones adsciti, whose silken cells are placed 
regularly in rows. 

188 Linnean Society. [Feb. 6, 

Mr. Curtis then proceeds to describe two species of Schizocerus 
from his own cabinet with the following characters : 

S. nasicor7iis, $ niger, abdomine pallid^ ochraceo apice nigro, alis nebu- 

losis, pedibus fuscis ; femoribus 4 posterioribus ochraceis, capite antic^ 

S. ochrostigma, $ fusco-niger, alis obscure hyalinis : costS stigmateque 

flavis, pedibus ochraceis ; tibiis tarsisque posticis fuscis. 

The other nest brought home by Mr, Ellis is that of a wasp of the 
Fabrician genus PoUstes, but differing apparently from any of the 
species hitherto recorded as forming similar habitations. The insect 
by which it is constructed is thus characterized : 

Myraptera brunnea, sericeo-fusca, pedibus ochraceis, femoribus genubus 
tibiisque 4 posterioribus (nisi basi) fuscis, maculis duabus in genis 

The nest is attached to a twig not much more than an eighth of 
an inch in diameter. It is eight inches long and fifteen in circum- 
ference, pear-shaped, and having on its outer margin a hemispherical 
tubercle pierced with a circular hole a little more than half an inch 
in diameter. The materials of which the nest is composed are very 
substantial ; and the external undulations allow of the tracing of 
four layers of comb. Many of the neuters fell out on shaking, but 
neither males nor females were detected. The specimen being 
unique, Mr, Curtis has not cut it open, but he entertains no doubt 
that its structure is very similar to that of the nest of PoUstes nidulans, 
figured by Reaumur. The following characters are those of a nearly 
allied species, of which numerous neuters were contained in the 
same collection : 

Myraptera elcgans, scriceouigra, capite thorace abdomineque lineis cin- 
gulisque fulvis, tibiis tarsisque ochraceis. 

Mr. Curtis adds a list of the nine species referred to the genus 
PoUstes, and which should be distributed into four genera, distin- 
guished by the structure of the trophi ; no assistance being derivable 
from the form of the antennse or the neuration of the wings. They 
are as follows : 

I, Abdominis petiolo brevi sensim incrassato. 

1. PoUstes GalUca, L. 

2. ^ctcBon, Hal. The nest resembles the foregoing. 

3. Jfricana, Pal. de Beauv. 

II. Abdominis petiolo brevissimo, abrupte incrassato; thorace postice 


4. Ep'ipone nidulans, Fabr, 

5. Leeheyuana, Latr. 

1844.] Linnean Socieiy^, 189 

III. Abdominis petiolo elongate, clavato ; thorace abrupte truncate. 

6. Chartergus Morio, St. Farg, 

IV. Abdominis petiolo elongate, clavato ; thorace postice declivi. 

7. Myraptera sc.utellaris, White. 

8. • elegans. Curt. 

9. — — — ^ hrunnea, Curt. 

The paper was accompanied by a series of drawings illustrative of 
the insects and their nests. 

February 20. 
The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Read a further portion of Mr. Griffith's memoir on Root- Parasites 
and their allies, comprehending a description of Asiphotiia, a new 
genus of Asarince, and an account of Hydnora, Thb. 

March 5. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
Wm. Hopkins Milne, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a paper " On Spiranthes gemmipara." By Charles Cardale 
Babington, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. &c. 

Two specimens of this very rare plant were first found by Mr. 
James Drummond in or about the year 1810, near Castletown, Bear- 
haven, in the county of Cork, " opposite the western redoubt, grow- 
ing in a salt-marsh near the shore." One of these was communi- 
cated to Sir James E. Smith, who published it in his ' English Flora ' 
under the name of Neottia gemmipara, with a description furnished 
by Mr. Drummond. Within these few years the plant has been again 
discovered near to, but probably not in exactly the original spot, by 
Dr. P. A. Armstrong, who on the 30th of September 1843 con- 
ducted Mr. Babingtou and Mr. E. Winterbottom to the station, 
where they saw about twelve specimens, several of which had been 

190 Linnean Society. [March 19, 

destroyed by cattle, and all were in rather an advanced state of 

From the specimens then collected Mr. Babington gives a detailed 
description of the plant, which diiFers in a slight degree from that 
furnished to Sir J. E. Smith by Mr. Drummond. He thinks it may 
fairly be referred to the genus Spiranthes, although diff^ering from 
the other European species in some particulars ; the most remarkable 
of these differences consisting in the connexion of all the sepals with 
the two lateral petals. The difference in habit is considerable in 
consequence of the great density of the spike, and the arrangement 
of the flowers in three spiral lines*. 

A notice of a specimen of this plant, exhibited before the Society 
on the 7th of February 1843, by the Rev. WilHam Hincks, F.L.S. 
&c., will be found at p. 162 of the ' Proceedings.' 

Read also a continuation of Mr. Griffith's memoir, comprehending 
the parts relating to Cytinus and to Mystropetalon. 

March 19. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chuir. 
Thomas Bridges, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read the commencement of a " Monograph on the Class Myria- 
poda. Order CMlopoda ; with observations on the general arrange- 
ment of the Articulata." By George Newport, Esq., Fellow of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, President of the Entomological Society, 
&c. Communicated by the Secretary. 

* In a subsequent communication Mr. Babiiigton states that he has iden- 
tified the Irish plant with specimens o( Spiranthes certiua, Rich., from North 
America, in the herbarium of Sir W. J. Hooker. 

1844.] Linnean Society. 191 

April 2. 

R. BrowTi, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Robert Donaldson, Esq., M.D., and Joseph Exall, Esq., were 
elected Fellows. 

Read a continuation of Mr. Newport's " Monograph on the My- 
riapoda Chilopoda." 

AprU 16. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
John AUcard, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read the conclusion of Mr. Newport's " Monograph on the My- 
riapoda Chilopoda." 

Mr. Newport commences his memoir by remarking on the smaller 
degree of attention which has been paid to Myriapoda than to any 
other class of Articulata. His inability, from this circumstance, sa- 
tisfactorily to identify the specimens in the anatomical examination 
of which he was engaged, induced him to undertake a complete re- 
vision of the class, as far as the materials within his reach, and con- 
tained in the cabinets of the Rev. F. W. Hope, the British Museum, 
the United Service Museum, that of the Zoological Societj^ and in 
the Linnean and Banksian collections in the possession of the Society, 
would admit. 

After passing in review the characters of the class, and noticing 
the different views of authors with respect to its classification as a 
whole, Mr. Newport enters at length into the reasons which induce 
him, in accordance with Leach, Latreille and others, and in oppo- 
sition to Professor Brandt, to separate the Myriapoda from true in- 
sects, and to place them, as a class, immediately before the Annelida. 

He details his motives for preferring, with reference to the classi- 
fication of the Invertebrata, a system founded on the skeleton and 
organs of locomotion, together with the nervous svstem, to that 
which is usually adopted, based on the organs of nutrition. Guided 
by these views he proposes to place the sub-kingdom Articulata at 

192 Linnean Society. [April 16, 

the head of the Invertehrata, and (following in the steps of our di- 
stinguished countrymen Kirby and Spence^ to commence with the 
Hexajjods or true Insects, placing after these the Octopods or Arach- 
nida, and the Decapods or Crustacea, to be followed by the Myria- 
poda, the Annelida, and the remainder of the Articulata. 

The more important objections to this mode of arrangement are 
considered and answered ; and the author next proceeds to examine 
the division of the Myriapoda into tribes and genera, on which sub- 
ject he agrees, to a considerable extent, with Professor Brandt, 
whose plan he has followed closely in the formation of the families, 
sections and genera, and in the characters assigned to them, but 
whose division of the class into masticating and sucking Myriapoda 
he has been unable to adoj)t. 'i'he following is a synoptic table of 
the genera of the whole class : — 

Class MYRIAPODA, Leach. 
Ord. 1. CHILOPODA, Latr. — Caput latum, prominens. Corporis seg- 
menta inseqnalia ; singula par uiiicum pedum ad segmentorum latera 
insertorum gerentia. Maiidibulse pvominentes, acutce, falciformes. Or- 
ganorum sexualium apertura ad extremitatem analem. 

Trib. 1. ScHizoTARsiA, Brandt. — Antennas pluri-articulatae, graciles, 
corpore longiores. Tarsi longi, pluri-articulati, inaequales. Oculi 
compositi, pvominentes, globosi. 

Fam. 1 , CermatiidcB, Leach. — Scuta dorsalia 8 ; singida segmeuta 
2 ventralia obtegentia. Stigmata mediana. 

Gen. 1. Cermatia, IlUg. — Oculi pvominentes. Caput trans- 
versum. Scuta dorsalia emarginata. Stomatum latera in- 

Trih. 2. Holotarsia, Brandt. — Tarsi 3-articulati. Caput e segmentis 
2 mobilibus efFovmatum. Antennae corpore baud longiores, setaceas 
vel filiformes, 14 — 60-articulatEe. Oculi stemmatosi, aggregati, 
simplices vel nulli. 

Fam. 2. Litkoblidce, Newp. — Scuta dorsalia 15, subquadrata, in- 
aequalia ; angulis elongatis, acutis. Coxaa posteriores excava- 
tionibus ovatis. 

Gen. 2. Lithobius, Leach. — Ocelli numerosi. Caput latum, 
depressuni. Labrum denticulatum. 

Gen. 3. Heiucops, Newp. — Segmentum cephalicum latum; 
ocellorum pari unico. 

Fam. 3. Scolopendrldce, Leach. — Segmenta podophora 21 vel 23. 
Pedes posteriores incrassati; articulo primo vel secundo spinoso. 

1^44.] Ltmiedn Society. 193 

Gen. 4. Scolopendra, Z.— Segmentum cephalicuni cordatum, 
imbricatum. Ocellorum paria 4. Spiraculorum valvularium 
paria 9. 

Gen. 5. Cormocephalus, New^j. — ^egmeniixm cephalicum 
postic^ truncatum. Spiracula valvulavia. 

Gen. 6. Rhombocephalus, Newp. —?,egmer\t\xm cephalicum 
basilareque rhomboidea. Labium augustatum. 

Gen. 7. Heterostoma, 2V«<'^.—Segmen turn cephalicum trun- 
catum. Denies magni. Spiracula cribriformia, in paribus 10. 

Gen. 8. Scolopendropsis, Brandt.— ^egmentMm cephalicum 
truncatum. Pedum paria 23. 

Ge7i. 9, Theatops, NewjJ.—OceWi distincti. Antenna 17- 
articulata, subulatee. Pedes posteriores clavati. Labium 

Gen.lO. Cryptops, ZeacA.— Ocelli nuUi vel absconditi. An- 
tennae 1 7-articulat£e. Labium baud denticulatum. 

Fam. 4. Geophilidce, Leach.— Segments subsequalia, singula e 
subsegmentis 2 completis sed inaequalibus efformata. Segmen- 
tum anale pedibus brevibus styliformibus. 

Subfam. 1. Scolopendrellince, Newp, — Corpus breve, crassum. 
Antennae 14 — 20-articulat£e. 

Gen. 11. Scolopendrella, Gervais. — Pedum paria 10. 
Antennae moniliformes, 14 — 20-articulat£e. 

Subfam. 2. Geophil'mce, Newp.— Segmenta numerosa. An- 
tennge H-articulatse. 

Gen. 12. Mecistocephalus, Newp. — Segmentum cepha- 
licum angustissimum, elongatum. Corpus attenuatum. 
Labium latum, integrum. 

Geji. 13. Arthronomalus, Newp. — Segmentum cephali- 
cum subquadratum. Antennarum articuli inaquales. 
Labium angustum, emarginatum. 

Gen. 14, Gonibregmatus, Neivp. — Segmentum cephali- 
cum cordiforme, acutum. Antennae filiformes. Cor- 
pus lineare. 

Gen. 15. Geophilus, Leach. — Caput subtriangulare. 
Corpus depressum, gradatim incrassatum. Segmenta 
pedesque numei'osi. 

Ord. 2. CHILOGNATHA, Za^r.— Caput verticale, rotundatum ; mandi- 
bulas crassje, robustae, vel cum labio coalitse et elongatEe ; segmenta nu- 
merosa. Corporis segmenta insequalia. Pedes superficiei ventrali affixi. 
Organorum sexualium aperturae in segmenti 4'i et 7^1 superficie ventrali. 

194 lAnnean Society. [April 16, 

Ti-ih. 3. Pentazonia, Brandt. — Corpus ovale, in globum contractile, 
dorso valde convexo, ventre complanato. Pedes laminis liberis 
mobilibus affixi. 

Fam. 5. Glomeridcs, Leach. — Corpus leeve, in globum contractile. 
Oculi distincti. 

Gen. 16. Glomeris, Latr. — Ocelli 8, in linea laterali curvata. 

Segmenta 13. Pedum paria 17. 
Gen. 17. Zephronia, Gray. — Ocelli numerosi, aggregati. 

Antennae 6 — 7-articulatse, clavatse. Pedum paria 21. 
Gen. 18. Sphasrotherium, Brandt. — Ocelli aggregati. An- 
tennae 7-articulatse, clavatee. Pedum paria 21. 

Trib. 4. Monozonia, Brandt. — Corpus vermiforme, elongatum. Seg- 
ment! singuli dimidia pars anterior cylindrica, posterior lateribus di- 
latata; lamina ventrali duplici coalita pedum paria 2 gerenti. 

Fam. 6. Polyxenidce, Newp. — Caput arcuatum, prominens. Cor- 
pus latum. Pedes attenuati ; coxis maximis. Segmentum anale 
fasciculis longis. 

Gen. 19. Polyxenus, Latr. — Corpus breve, sqnamis parvis 
penicillatis vestitum. Pedum paria 13. 

Fam. 7. Polydestnidce, Leach. 

Subfatn. 1. Polydesmince, Newp. Oculi nulli vel obscuri. 

Gen. 20. Fontaria, Gray. — Corpus convexum. Segmenta 
imbricata ; laminis lateralibus deflexis. 

Gen. 21. Polydesmus, Latr. — Corpus depressum, subcon- 
vexum ; laminis lateralibus horizontalibus. 

Gen. 22. ^ivongyXosoma, Brandt. — Corpus cylindricum. Seg- 
menta tumida; laminis lateralibus rotundatis subnullis. 

Subfam, 2. Craspedosomince, Newp. Oculi distincti. 

Gen. 23. Craspedosoma, Leach. — Ocelli numerosi, aggregati. 
Corpus depressum ; laminis lateralibus prominentibus. 

Gen. 24. Platydesmus, Lucas. — Ocelli duo, magni, promi- 
nentes. Corpus depressum ; laminis lateralibus prominen- 

Gen. 25. Cambala, Gray. — Ocelli serie simplici curvata. 
Corpus cylindricum; laminis lateralibus brevissimis, in 
porcam simplicem desinentibus. 

Trib. 5. BizoNiA, Newp. — Corpus subcylindricum ; laminis nullis mar- 
giualibus. Antennae 7-articulatae, clavatae. Segmenta numerosa ; 
singula e subsegmentis 2 coalitis efFormata, pedumque pai-ia 2 ge- 

1844.] Linnean Society. 195 

Fam. 8. lulidae, Leach. — Coi-pus cylindricum ; laminis lateralibus 
nulJis. Segmenta e subsegmentis 2 coalitis efFormata. 

Subfam. 1. SynpodopetalitKE, Newp. Pedes laminis immobi- 
libus affixi. 

Gen. 26. Platops, Newp, — Caput parvum, complanatum 
vel concavum. Pedes graciles, elongati. Corpus pyia- 
midale, elongatum. 

Gen. 27. lulus, L. — Caput convexuni. Corpus cylindri- 
cum. Prothoracis latera triangularia. Antenna^ elon- 

Gen. 28. Unciger, Brandt. — Squama inferior analis mu- 
cronata. Corpus cylindricum 

Gen. 29. Spirobolus, Brandt. — Caput convexum. Oculi 
subtetragoni. Corpus subpyramidale. Prothoracis la- 
tera triangularia. Antennae breves. 

Gen. 30. Spiropoeus, Brandt. 

Gen. 31. Spirocyclistus, Brandt. — Antennae breves. Oculi 
elongati, triangulares. Thoracis latera brevia, triangu- 

Gen. 32. Spirostreptus, Brandt. — Antenna breves, arti- 
culis infundibulatis. Oculi transversi. Prothoracis la- 
tera elongata vel dilatata. 

Subfam. 2. Lysiopetalina, Newp. Pedes laminis mobilibus 

Gen. 33. Lysiopetalum, Brandt. — Frons dilatata. Pedes 
laminis liberis mobilibus affixi. 

Fam. 9. Polyzonidce, Newp. (Ommatophora, Brandt). — Ocelli 
conspicui, fronti inter antennas in seriebus transversis inserti. 

Gen. 34. Polyzonium, Brandt. — Ocelli 6parvi, in seriebus 
2 transversis. Corpus depressum. 

Gen. 35. Siphonotus, Brandt. — Ocelli 2, in serie simplici 

Fam. 10. Siphonophoridce, Newp. (Typhlogena, Brandt.) — Oculi 

Gen. 36. Siphonophora, Brandt. — Caput conicum, elonga- 
tum. Nutritionis organa rostriformia, elongata. 

The author then proceeds to treat at considerable length of the 
external anatomy of the Myriapoda, commencing with the composi- 
tion and mode of development of the segments and their appendages, 
and comparing them in these particulars with Insects. The variations 

196 Linnean Society. [May 7? 

in the several genera of Myriapoda are particularly noticed ; and the 
principles on which their development, in its various modifications, 
depends, are elucidated by numerous observations on their mode of 
growth. The structure and development of the head are next treated 
of in detail in the different families and genera of the Chilopoda ; and 
the organs of nutrition are especially examined with reference to their 
development and analogies. This branch of the subject is concluded 
by an appreciation of the relative value of the different parts of the 
skeleton in furnishing generic and specific characters. 

The systematic description of the families, genera and species of 
the Myriapoda Chilopoda completes the memoir ; which was accom- 
panied by a series of drawings, illustrative of their external anatomy 
and generic characters. 

May 7. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

M. Louis Agassiz, Professor of Natural History at Neufchatel, and 
Dr. M. J. Schleiden, Professor of Botany in the University of Jena, 
were elected Foreign Members. 

Hugh Falconer, Esq., M.D., and Mr. George Brettingham Sow- 
erby, Jun., were elected Fellows. 

Read " Descriptions of the Insects collected by Capt. P. P. King, 
R.N., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c., in the Survey of the Straits of Magellan." 
By John Curtis, Esq., F.L.S. &c., in continuation of a paper printed 
in vol. xviii. of the Transactions of the Society. 

The present paper, like the former, is devoted to Coleoptera, and 
the following are the new genera and species characterized in it : — 

Fam. HisTERiD^. 
Hister Mathewsii, violaceo-ater, capite thoracis margine elytrisque punc- 

tulatis nisi in elj'trorum disco ubi maculae 2 magnae violaceae striaeque 

tres basales breves. Long. If lin. ; lat. 1^. 
Hister furcatus, nitide virescenti-niger, thoracis lateribus brevi-canalicu- 

latis punctulatis, elytris stria sutm-ali curvata basali tribusque costam 

versus apicem baud attingentibus. Long. If lin. ; lat. If. 
Hister casta?ieus, Isevis niger, thoracis lateribus punctulatis, elytris pedi- 

busque castaneis ; illis stria suturali furcata duabus aliis aequilongis al- 

teraque humerali breviore. Long. If lin. ; lat. 1^. 

1844.J Limiean Society. 197 

Farti. Hydrophilid^. 
Hydrophilus chalyheatus, intense nitide cferuleus, elytris lineis tribiis 

punctulonim remotorum piliferorum, palpis antennisque ochreis apice 

nigris, pedibus subcastaneis; femoribus piceis. Long. 6 lin.; lat. 3. 
Hydrophilus ochripes, palpis antennis labroqiie basi ochreis apice nigres- 

centibus, pedibus tlioracis margine inferiore sternoque ferrugineo- 

ochraceis. Long. 4 lin. ; lat. 2\. 

Fain. ScAaAB5:iD^. 

Sect. CoPROPHAG^. 

Copris semisquamosa, nigra, cl)'peo magno bidentato cornu brevi emar- 

ginato armato, thorace brevi antice irregulariter truncate, elytris prc- 

funde striatis. Long. lOi lin.; lat. 6. 
Copris punctatissima, nigra, clypeo emarginato hand tuberculato, thorace 

magno punctatissimo tuberculato parvo antice armato, elytris profunde 

punctato-sti-iatis. Long. 8 lin. ; lat. 4|. 

Sect. GEOTRUPIDyE vel Arenicol.5. 

Acanthocerus muricatus, niger, punctulatus, elytris puiictato-striatis apice 

tuberculatis. Long. If lin.; lat. Ij. 
Sphaerosomus muricatus, Kirby MSS. 

Sect. Trogid-e. 

Trox huUatus, niger cinereo mixtus, thorace ineequali : angulis posticis 
sublobatis, elytris tuberculis minutis conspersis lineisque tuberculorum 
magnorum tribus parvonamque pluribus notatis. Long. 7i lin.; lat. 5. 

2Vox lachrymosus, cinereus nigro mixtus, thorace parvo inaequali, elytris 
aniplis elongato-ovatis punctato-striatis lineis tuberculorum magnorum 
4 parv'orum 5 notatis. Long. 5 — 6 lin. ; lat. 3 — 4. 

Trox trisulcatus, cinerasccnti-niger, capite Iffivi, thoracis sulcis 3 latis 
longitudinalibus, elytris striatis : intervallis fasciculatis. Long. 2i — 3 
lin. ; lat. U— H- 

Sect. ScARABiEiDiE vel XyLOPHILjE. 
Oryctomorphus pictus (Waterh.), piceus, clypeo bidentato, fronte tuber- 
culato, thorace impressione centrali, elytrorum areS scutellum cingente 
strigaque in singulo obliqua undulate nitide ferrugineis. Long. 10 
lin. ; lat. ultra 5. 

Sect. Phyllophag^. 
Gen. Tribostethes, Curt. 
Palpi iis Brachystemi similes, nisi quod maxillares longiores, labiales 
breves ; illorum articulus basalis minutus, 2dus Stiusque obovato- 
truncati, hoc breviore, 4tus longus, gracilis, fusiformis, extus sulco 
longo exaratus. Antennae 10-articulatae ; articulus basalis crassus, cla- 
No. XXI. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

198 Linnean Society. [May 7? 

vatus; 2dus parvus subglobosus; .'itius ellipticus; tres sequentes ob- 
longi ; 7mus cuneiformis; reliqui clavam ellipticam capitis longitudine 
efFormantes. Clypeus integer rotundatus, margine pauliim elevato, 
sutura transversali inconspicua. Thorax parvus, transversus ; scutel- 
lum mediocre, cordatum. Elytra thorace latiora, elliptica. Alae am- 
plse. Pectus villosissimus, sterno haiad producto ; pygidio nudo. 
Pedes longiusculi, haiid cfassi ; tibiae anteriores angustae, extus tri- 
dentatae, reliquae setosae suturis ordinariis ; tarsi graciles, articulis om- 
nibus subclavatis ; ungue simplici. 

Trihostefhes castaneus, pallide castaneus, capite thoraceque virescenti vel 
asneo tinctis. Long. 8 lin. ; lat. 4. 

Brachygaster castaneus, Laporte, Cours Compl. d'Hist. Nat. 

Gen. Callichi-oris, Dejean. 

Palporum niaxillarium articulus penultiinus niinutus, subglobosus ; ter- 
minalis crassior, longior, subfusifonnis, extus planus. Antennae 10- 
articulatse ; articulus basalis crassus, pyriformis ; 2dus subglobosus ; 
3tius 4tusque oblongi ; 5tus brevis ; 6tus cyathiforinis ; 7mus cunei- 
formis ; reliqui clavam gracilem fusiformem efFormantes. Labrum 
transversum, medio paulum angulatum. Clypeus transverse ovalis, 
medio fortiter reflexo. Femora gracilia : tibiae anticae versus apicem 
angustatae, extus tridentatae; reliquae subscabi'ae, apice pectinatae, cal- 
caribusque 2 brevib js armatae : tarsi anteriores articulis 4 basalibus 
brevibus, 3tio 4toque cyathiformibus ; omnium 5to intus emarginato ; 
imgiie longo, gracili, simplici, anteriore maxime inaequali. Sternum 
baud productum. 

CaUichloris perelegans, nitide flavo-virens punctatissimus, elytris punc- 
tato-striatis, subtiis pygidioque fernigineis antice pilis albidis villosis 
postice pubescentia concolori vestitis. Long. 7 lin. ; lat. 4. 

Leucothyreusi spurius, sine nitore fulvus, capite thoraceque minute punc- 
tulatis : hujus angulis posticis acutis, elytris singulis paribus 4 striarum 
inconspicuai'um notatis. Long. 8i lin. ; lat. 5. 

Leucothyreusi antennatus, ochreus, capite castaneo, antennarum clava 
longissima. Long. 6 lin. ; lat. 3. 

Gen. Serioides, Guer. Camptorhina, Kirby nee Schonh. 

Antennae 9-articulatae ; articulus basalis crassus, pyriformis ; 2dus obo- 
vatus; 3tius longior, gracilior ; 4tus gracilis baud 2do longior ; reliqui 
clavam gracilem, tenuiter 5-lamellatam, efFormantes. Clypeus rotun- 
datus. Labrum emarginatum. Palpi maxillares longi, graciles, 4?- 
articulati ; articulo basali minuto, sequentibus elongatis subasqualibus, 
terminali truncato : labiales 3-articulati, articulo tertio fusifermi. Ca- 
put semiorbiculare. Thorax transversus, basi supra scutellum elonga- 
tum emarginatus. Elytra longissima. Pedes longi, graciles : tibiae 
anticae breves, latae, extiis tridentatae ; reliquae spiuosae : tarsi similes, 


1844.] Linnean Society. 19.9 

longissimi, graciles, setosi; articulis subaequalibus : ungues oinnes sim- 

plices, longi, graciles. 
Serioides atricapillus, elongatus, violaceo-brunneus, punctulatus, eljtris 

rugosis lineatis. Long. 6 lin. ; lat. 3. 
Camptorhina atricapilla, Kirby. 
Serioides Reichii, Guir. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 301 ? 

Gen. Athlia, Erichs. 

Palpi maxillares parvi, setosi, 4-articulati ; articulo basali minute, 2do 
elongato-clavato ; 3tio obovato-truncato ; 4to longitudine primi sub- 
securiformi. Antennas minimae, 9-articulatge ; articulo basali crasso, 
clavato ; 2do 3tioque obovatis, illo crassiore ; 4to brevi ; 5to 6toque 
cyathiformibus ; reliquis clavam minutam, lobis crassis cyatbiformibus, 
efTormantibus. Clypeus reflexus, antice paulum angustatus, utrinque 
emarginatus. Caput latiusculum. Thorax transversus, convexus, la- 
teribus convexis, basi pariam sinuatus, angulis anticis magis acumina- 
tis : scutellum parvum ovatum. Elytra thorace multo latiora terque 
longiora, abdomen operientia, "postice latiora rotundata. Alag amplae. 
Pedes longi, baud graciles : tibiae anteriores profunda emarginatae tri- 
dentatae ; reliquas setosse : tarsi longissimi, subtus pubescentes ; ante- 
riores crassiores : ungues omnium bifidi. 

Athlia rustica (Erichs.), castaneus, punctulatus, pubescens, elytris sin- 
gulis striis 4: elevatis, antennis pedibusque pallida ferrugineis. Long. 
6i lin. ; lat. 3. 

Gen. Pacuvia, Curt, 

Palpi labiales minutissimi : maxillares graciles, 4-articulati ; articulo ba- 
sali minuto ; 2do 3tioque ovalibus ; 4to multo crassiore, parvo, ovato- 
lanceolato. Antennae parvae, 9-articulatae ; articulus basalis crassus, 
clavatus; 2dus magnus, globosus ; tres sequentes minores, subglobosi, 
5tus subcyathiformis ; 6tus cuneiformis ; reliqui clavam ovalem elFor- 
mantes. Caput trigono-truncatum. Clypeus reflexus, emarginatus. 
Thorax transversus, subhexagonus, lateribus prominentibus. Scutel- 
lum elongato-trigonum. Elytra thorace latiora, terque longiora, ellip- 
tica. Alae amplae, Pygidium nudum. Pedes longi, extensi : femora 
anteriora brevissima ; postica crassissima: tibiae anteriores breves, ex- 
tus bispinosse ; reliquae pilosse, medio spinosae : tarsi longissimi, subtus 
pubescentes ; 4 anteriorum articulo 2do 3tioque dilatatis ; omnium 
articulo basali 2do multo breviore, terminal! gracUlimo : unguibus lon- 
gis, gracilibus, bifidis. 

Pacuvia castanea, ochrea punctulata, capite thoraceque castaneis, elytrjs 
singulis striis 4 duplicatis. Long. 4i lin. ; lat. 2\. 

Gen. AcciA, Curt. 

Palpi nudi : labiales minutissimi ; maxillares parvi, 4-articulati ; articulo 
basali minuto; 2do elongato, clavato ; 3tio breviori, obovato; 4to 

200 Linnean Society. [May 7j 

omniuni maximo, elliptico-truncato. Antennae parvse, 9-articulatse ; 
ai-ticuli 2 basales crassi, Imo pyriformi, 2(lo globoso-pyriformi ; 3tius 
gracilis, longus ; 4tus ovalis ; 5tus 6tusque annuliformes ; reliqui 
clavam tenuem efFormantes. Clypeus rotundatus reflexus. Caput 
mediocre. Thorax transversus, basi sinuatus, margine anteriore ex- 
cavatus, angulis prominentibus. Scutellum elongato-trigonum. Ely- 
tra thorace fere quater longiora, elliptica, pygidium baud complete 
operientia. Alae amplae. Pedes longi, graciles : femora tibiasque an- 
teriores brevissim^ ; hae lalae, extus tridentatae ; 4 posteriores spinosae : 
tarsi longi, graciles, setosi, baud subtias pubescentes j articulo basali 
longitudine 2di : unguibus gracilibus, simplicibus. 

Accia lucida, nitide testacea minute punctulata, capite ferrugineo, elytris 

subcupreis striatis. Long. 4i lin. ; lat. 2. 
Colporhina bifoveolata, ferriiginea seneo tincta punctulata, squamis albi- 

dis in thorace elytrisque maculas efformantibus vestita. Long. 3 lin. ; 

lat. If. 
Macrodactylus marmoratus, subcastaneus pilis albidis vestitus, thoracis 

disco brunneo linea pilorum albidorum centrali, elytris fasciis irregu- 

laribus brunneis pubescentiaeque albidse maculis notafis. Long. 3^ 

lin.; lat. \\. 

Fam. LuCANIDyE. 

Dorcas riiffemoralis, cinereo-niger, capite thoraceque nitidis, elytris 
dense profundeque punctulatis : punctis ocbreo-papillatis, coxis femo- 
ribusque rufis. Long. ^ 10, ? 7^ lin.; lat. <J 3i, 5? 3. 

Dorcas rufifemoralis, Guer. ? 




Procris leevicosta, obscure zeneo-nigra, elytrorum margine inferiore hand 
punctulato, tarsis subferrugineis. Long. 4^ lin. ; lat. 2f . 

Fam. Blapsid^. 

Scotobius bullatus, obscure niger rugosus latus brevis, capite thoraceque 
punctatissimis : hujus angulis posticis acutis, elytris punctato-striatis : 
porcis in intervallis nitidis granulatis ad apicem tubercula distincta effor- 
mantibus : seriebus 2 costalibus remote tuberculatis. Long. 6i lin. ; 
lat. 3i. 

Leptynodej'us tuherculatus, lutosus, capite trituberculato, thorace tubercu- 
lato, elytris porcis 5 acutis e quibus 2 dorsalibus fortioribus. Long, fere 
6 lin. ; lat. 2\. 

Emalodera multipunctata, nitide nigra punctatissima, thorace obovato- 
truncate, elytrorum punctis lineas numerosas duplicatas efformantibus 
margine extus apiceque tuberculatis. Long. b\ — 6\ lin. ; lat. 3 — 3^. 

Nyctelia cawrfaio^ nitide atra, elytris (nisi in area suturali) oblique eras- 

1844.] Litmeun Society. 201 

seque sulcatis : apice in caudain semiciiculareni dilatatis. Long. 8i — 

13 lin. ; lat. b—7\. 
NycteUa undatipennis, leevis nigra, elytris sulcis 7 brevibus latis trans- 

versis in margine exteriore. Long. 8 lin. ; lat. ^4^, ? 5^. 
NycteUa Fitzroyi, lasvis nigra, elytris hemisphoericis caudatis, antenn's 

pedibusque nitide ferrugineis. Long 10 lin. ; lat. 71. 
NycteUa granulaia, lasvis nigra, elytris latissimis ovatis orbicularibusve 

rugosissimis : rugis suturani versus liiieas longitudinales efformantibus. 

Long. $ 8 lin., ? 9 ; lat. A\—Q. 
NycteUa Bremii, nitide nigra, elytris suborbicularibus caudatis lineis ele- 

vatis suturam versus obliquis ad marginem exteriorem curvatis pro- 

funde insculptis. Long. 9 lin. ; lat. 5i. 
Nyctelia Bremii, Waterh. in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, vol. xiii. p. 48. 
NycteUa ? cornigala, nitide nigra, thoracis lateribus rugosis, elytris trans- 

versim undulato-canaliculatis : sutura depressa bistriata. Long. %\ lin. ; 

lat. 5. 
Mitragenius araneiformis, niger, thorace subtilissinie verniiculato prope 

basin angulato, elytris cinereis cupreo tinctis subscabris nigro-macu- 

latis : singulis porcis 2 ante apicem coalitis. Long. 8^ — 9 lin. ; lat. A\ 


Epipedonota niarginepUcata, nigra nitida, tborace concavo in disco longi- 
tudinaliter in niarginibus transverse striate, elytris porcis 2 exteriore 
fortiore : intervallo banc inter marginemque exteriorem regulariter 
transverse canaliculato. Long. 11 lin.; lat. 6. 

Nycterinus rugiceps, obscure niger, capite punctulato ad basin granulate, 
thorace Isevi, elytris punctato-striatis. Long. 8 lin. ; lat. 3. 

Oplocephala quadritnbercidata, piceo-nitida, tropins antennis pedibus 

subtusque ferrugineis, capite 4-tuberculato. Long. 3^ lin. ; lat. li. 
Alphitohiiosl punctatus, ellipticus subconvexus, virescenti-niger, puncta- 
tissiraus, elytris piceo-brunneis striato-punctatis, trophis antennis pedi- 
busque castaneis. Long. 2. lin. ; lat. 1. 
Epilasium rotundatum (Dcj.), ovale, nigrum, punctatissimum, pube pal- 
lide brunneft vestilum, elytris punctato-striatis. Long. 4 lin. ; lat. 2^. 

Fam. TENEBRioNiD.f;. 
JEpitragus <Bneo-hrunneus, ferrugineus aeneo-tinctus, undique punctatus, 

capite punctatissimo, elytris minute striato-punctatis. Long. lin. 4 ; 

lat. 1|. 
Epitragus semicastaneus, castaneus, minute punctatissimus, capite the- 

raceque piceis, elytris inconspicue punctato-striatis. Long. 3^ lin. ; 

lat. If. 

Fam. Helopid^. 

Prostenusi hirsutus, nitide aeneus vel cupreus, pilis longis vestitus, punc- 

202 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

tulatus, antennis nigris, ely tris subcastaneis punctato-striatis, femorib us 
basi rufis. Long. 2i lin. ; lat. l^. 


Mordella Tachyporiformis, nigra minute et crebre punctulata, supra pu be 

brevi brunne^ vestita. Long. 3 lin. ; lat. ultra 1 . 
Mordella argentipunctata, sericeo-nigra, thoracis margine antico elytro- 

rumque basali maculis 4 aculeisque basalibus argenteo-albis. Long. 

fere 2 lin.; lat. |. 

Fam. Cantharid^. 
Epicauta conspersa (Germ. ?), nigra pube cinere&, punctis nigris minutis 

sparsim conspersa. Long. 5 lin. ; lat. 2. 
Tetraonyx l-guttatus, niger supra aurantiacus, capitis thoracisque ma- 
cula elytrorum maculis 4 basalibus fasciaque postmediana irregulari 

nigris, femoribus basi rufis. Long. 5\ lin. ; lat. 2\. 
Tetraonyx cinctus, nitide niger pubescens punctulatus, elytris subscabris 

sutuva margineque exteriore ochraceis. Long. 4 lin. ; lat. li. 

Fam. CEoEMERiDiE. 
Nacerdes ? alternans, pallide ocbreus, oculis thoracis lined inconspicud ely- 

trorumque strigis 2 longis pallid^ fuscis. Long. 3f lin. ; lat. 1. 
The paper was accompanied by drawings of many of the new 

Anniversary Meeting. 
May 24. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair, 

The President opened the business of the Meeting, and the num- 
ber of Members whom the Society had lost during the past year 
having been stated, the Secretary proceeded to read the following 
notices of some among them. 

The deaths among the Fellows have amounted to eight. Among 
these the first name is that of 

William Allen, Esq., a gentleman more distinguished by his inves- 
tigations in experimental philosophy than by the pursuit of natural 
history, and still more by that active and unwearied benevolence 
which has identified his name with almost every recent eiFort for the 
amelioration of the condition of mankind. Of such a man we cannot 


1844.] Linnean Society. 203 

but feel a pleasure in recording that he was for forty-two years a 
Fellow of this Society, and that, however occupied in other pursuits, 
he never ceased to take a warm interest in botanical investigations. 
His business being that of a chemist, Mr. Allen's attention was 
naturally directed to that science ; and in conjunction Avith Mr. Pepys 
he published several valuable chemical papers in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions ' of the R oyal S ociety, of which he became a Fellow in 

1807. The first of these, " On the quantity of Carbon in Carbonic 
Acid and on the Nature of the Diamond," was published in 1807 ; and 
was succeeded in 1808 and 1809 by two papers " On the changes 
produced in Atmospheric Air and Oxygen Gas by Respiration," and 
in 1829 by another " On the Respiration of Birds," — subjects which 
he and his friend Mr. Pepys illustrated by a series of the most deli- 
cate experiments. 

The only paper contributed by Mr. Allen to our own Transactions 
was read in May 1805, and contains an account of some experiments 
made by him on a substance called Dapeche, sent to Sir Joseph Banks 
from South America by M. de Humboldt, Avhich, although very dif- 
ferent in external appearance, he determined by analysis to be a mere 
modification of Caoutchouc. 

Mr. Allen was for several years a veiy popular Lecturer on Ex- 
perimental Philosophy at the Royal Institution ; and for more than 
twenty years (viz. from 1804 to 1827) he filled the office of Lecturer 
on the same subject at Guy's Hospital. In 1807, cooperating with 
the late Mr. Joseph Fox, he first directed his energies to assist in the 
struggle which Joseph Lancaster was then making to establish his 
system of mutual instruction ; and from this period, his time and at- 
tention were by degrees almost wholly devoted to that great under- 
taking. His death occurred in the 74th year of his age, at Lind- 
field in Sussex, where he had resided for many years for nearly 
half his time, occupied in the superintendence of some important 
experiments for the promotion of an improved condition of the work- 
ing classes in agriculture by means of education and allotments of 
land, on which subject he published several interesting essays. 

Richard Forester Forester, Esq., M.D., President of the Derby 
Philosophical Society, and for five-and-forty j-ears a Fellow of the 
Linnean Society, died on the 5th of December last, in the 73rd year 
of his age. He was at the head of his profession in the town of 
Derby, and took a leading part in most of the useful and benevolent 
institutions of his neighbourhood ; being also the senior magistrate 
of the county, and an alderman and a magistrate of the borougli. He 
was distinguished for classical attainments and a refined taste ; and 

204 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

had formed a collection of fossils which he bequeathed to the Museum 
of the Derby Society. To the Arboretum so nobly presented to the 
town by the late Mr. Joseph Strutt (and the formation of which is 
regarded as one of the most successful labours of another of our Fel- 
lows, whom it will be my duty presently to notice more particularly). 
Dr. Forester bequeathed the sum of 300/., besides several consider- 
able legacies to charitable institutions. 

James Barlow Hoy, Esq., who for several years represented the 
borough of Southampton in Parliament, was much attached to orni- 
thology, and at the time of his melancholy death was on a tour in 
the Pyrenees, with the object of collecting rare birds. His death, 
which took place on the 13th of August last, at the Hospice de 
Vieille, was occasioned by the bursting of his gun while engaged in 
his favourite pursuit. 

John Claudius Loudon, Esq., v^as born at Cambuslang, in the county 
of Lanark, on the 8th of April 1783. He was the eldest son of a 
respectable farmer in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh ; and his 
mother being left a widow with a large family, his exertions were 
early called forth to assist in providing for their support. At the age 
of twenty he came to England, and began to practise as a landscape 
gardener, the profession for which he had been educated, and which 
he afterwards cultivated with so much success. In 1806 he became 
a Fellow of the Linnean Society, and in 1809 resided in Oxfordshire, 
where he had taken an extensive farm. He subsequently made 
several tours on the continent, visiting Sweden, Russia, Poland and 
Austria in 1813, 1814 and 1815, Italy in 1819, and France and 
Germany in 1828. During the latter years of his life he resided at 
Bayswater, in the neighbourhood of London. 

Soon after his first arrival in England he was a severe 
attack of inflammatory rheumatism, which disabled him for two years 
and terminated in an anchylosed knee and a contracted left arm. 
During a subsequent attack in 1820 his right arm was broken in the 
operation of shampooing, and not having properly united was again 
broken in 1825, when its amputation became necessary. At the 
same time the thumb and two of the fingers of his left hand were 
rendered useless. He afterwards suffered frequently from attacks of 
illness, and died on the 14th of December 1843, of the effects of 
severe and long-continued disease of the lungs. 

Such V7ere the adverse circumstances under which Mr. Loudon 
commenced and pursued a career of literary labour of no ordinary 
extent, of much variety of subject, and requiring intense severity of 
application. His first essay was pubHshed in 1803, and for forty 

1844.] Linnean Society. 205 

years he continued almost without intermission the pubhcation of a 
series of works, original and compiled, chiefly devoted to agriculture, 
horticulture and rural architecture, and of a highly useful and prac- 
tical character. The number and magnitude of these M'orks, the in- 
cessant labour required in their production, and the anxieties neces- 
sarily attendant on the large outlay of money involved in them, were 
sufficient to undermine a constitution of far greater strength ; but 
his energy and enthusiasm supported him through every difficulty, 
and did not desert him even on his death-bed. He has left a widow 
and one child, a daughter ; the former well known by various publi- 
cations, and especially by her ' Ladies' Flower- Garden' and ' Ladies' 

The following is a list of Mr. Loudon's princijDal works : — 

1. Observations on Laying out Public Squares. 1803. 

2. Observations on Plantations. 1804. 

3. A Treatise on Hothouses. 4to, 1805. 

4. A Treatise on forming and managing Country Residences. 
2 vols. 4to, 1806. 

5. An Account of the Paper Roofs used at Tew Lodge, Oxon. 
8vo, 1811. 

6. Designs for Laying out Farms and Farm-buildings in the Scotch 
style ; adapted to England. 4to, 1811. 

7. Remarks on the Construction of Hothouses. 4to, 1817. 

8. Sketches of Curvilinear Hothouses. 4to, 1818. 

9. An Encyclopaedia of Gardening. 8vo, 1822. Ed. 2, 1825. 

10. The Greenhouse Companion. 

11. Observations on Laj'ing out Farms. Fol. 

12. An Encyclopaedia of Agriculture. 8vo. 1825. Ed. 2, 1831. 
Supplement to ditto. 1834. 

13. The Gardener's Magazine, cpmmenced in 1826, and continued 
to the day of his death. 

14. The Magazine of Natural History, commenced in 1828, car- 
ried on for many years, and now incorporated with Taylor's ' Annals.' 

15. The Encyclopaedia of Plants. 8vo, 1829. 
First Additional Supplement to ditto. 1840. 

16. A Manual of Cottage Gardening and Husbandry. 8vo, 1830. 

17. Illustrations of Landscape- Gardening and Garden Architec- 
ture, in Eng., French and German. Fol. 1830-31. 

18. Hortus Britannicus. 8vo, 1830. 
Supplement to ditto. 1832. 

Second Additional Supplement (prepared by W. H. Baxter). 

206 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

19. The Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture 
and Furniture. 4to, 1833. 

First Additional Supplement to ditto. 

20. Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum. 8 vols. 8vo. Com- 
pleted in 1838. 

21. The Architectural Magazine, commenced in 1834. 

22. The Suburban Gardener and Villa Companion. 8vo, 1838. 

23. Hortus Lignosus Londinensis. 1838. 

24. A new edition of Repton's Landscape-Gardening. 1839. 

25. An Encyclopaedia of Trees and Shrubs ; abridged from the 
Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum. 8vo, 1842. 

26. The Suburban Horticulturist. 8vo, 1842. 

27. On Cemeteries. 1843. 

He was also Editor of the ' Gardener's Gazette' in 1840 and 1841 ; 
and contributed various articles to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
and to Brande's ' Dictionary of Science.' 

James Macartney, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. &;c., was born in Armagh in 
March 1770, and was educated in the country. He was not origi- 
nally destined for any profession; but in 1794 he apprenticed him- 
self to Dr. Hartigan, then Professor of Anatomy to the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons in Ireland. In 1798 he removed to London, where 
he became Demonstrator of Anatomy in St. Bartholomew's Hospital; 
and two years afterwards commenced lecturing on Comparative 
Anatomy and Physiology. This course, of which he published a 
Prospectus in 1806, was continued until 1810. In the following year 
he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society ; and having returned 
to Ireland was in 1813, on the death of his former teacher Dr. Har- 
tigan, elected Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in Trinity College, 
Dublin, which office he filled for four-and-twenty years. He died 
of apoplexy on the 6th of March 1843. 

Both as a comparative anatomist and an improver of the practice 
of surgery. Dr. Macartney is entitled to honourable mention. The 
more important of his contributions to Comparative Anatomy were 
published in Rees's ' Cyclopaedia,' in which the principal articles on 
that subject were written by him. To the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' he contributed some valuable " Observations upon Luminous 
Animals," published in the volume for 1810, and "An Account of 
an Appendix to the small Intestines of Birds," in that for 1811. A 
memoir " On the Anatomy of the Brain of the Chimpanzee " ap- 
peared soon after his death in the ' Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy,' of which he had long been an active Member, and to 
whose Transactions he had previously contributed an essay " On the 

1844.] Linnean Society, 207 

Curvatures of the Spine." He also made several minor commu- 
nications to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
and to the Academic de Medecine of Paris, of which he was a 
Foreign Member. Of the Linnean Society he became a Fellow in 
1814, but he has no paper in our Transactions. 

As a lecturer it is stated of him, that " though his manner was un- 
adorned by the arts of verbal eloquence, he became highly popular 
from the ideas which he imparted, and the distinct and logical lan- 
guage in which they were clothed : his classes were always very 
large, and by his means the reputation of the Medical School of the 
University of Dublin was materially elevated." !His introductory 
Lecture to the Anatomical Course of 1824 was published in 1826 ; 
and the substance of his Lectures on Inflammation, the most import- 
ant and original part of his Surgical Course, are given in his ' Trea- 
tise on Inflammation,' published the year after he resigned his Pro- 
fessorship. This volume contains an exposition of his views on the 
proximate cause of inflammation, and of his mode of administering 
steam fomentations and applying water dressings, now so universally 
and beneficially adopted in surgical practice. 

Charles Saville Onley, Esq. 

Simon Stephenson, Esq. 

George William Wood, Esq., was the eldest son of the Rev. Wil- 
liam Wood of Leeds, an early Fellow of the Society, and the inti- 
mate friend of our founder and first President. He was bom in 1 781, 
and became connected at an early age with one of the largest esta- 
blishments in Manchester, of which he continued to be a partner until 
its dissolution, when he retired from business with a handsome for- 
tune. At the general election for 1832 he was returned to Parlia- 
ment for the Southern Division of the county of Lancaster, and in 
1837 for the borough of Kendal, which he continued to represent tQl 
his death. Although endowed with an hereditary fondness for botany 
and with a strong attachment to geology, the active pursuits of busi- 
ness and the conscientious discharge of his public duties left him 
little leisure for their cultivation ; but he was ever ready to promote 
the views of those who were more actively engaged in the prosecu- 
tion of science, and to render them such services as his position en- 
abled him to perform. Of this disposition we have a striking proof 
in the Bill introduced by him and carried through Parliament in the 
course of the last Session, the efi^ect of which is to exempt scientific 
societies from local taxation ; a bill for which we have ourselves 
reason to feel grateful, as relieving our funds from a burthen of 
some importance. The circumstances of his death may also be re- 

208 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

ferred to as connected with his attachment to science ; it occurred 
suddenly in the rooms of the Literary and Philosophical Society of 
Manchester, of which he was one of the Vice-Presidents. While 
engaged in an animated conversation on the progress of the Ordnance 
Survey, his breathing was observed to become difficult, and the mo- 
ment after he was found to be dead. 

Among our Foreign Members we have to commemorate 
Don Jose Pavon, a botanist of considerable merit, and the colleague 
of Ruiz in the memorable botanical expedition dispatched to Peru 
by the Spanish Government in the year 1777, from which were ob- 
tained such important results both in collections and publications. 
On the recommendation of Ortega, then Professor of Botany at 
Madrid, the expedition was placed under the direction of Ruiz, who 
was accompanied by Pavon and by two artists, Brunete and Galvez. 
M. Dombey also, who had been dispatched from France on a similar 
mission, was allowed to accompany them ; and during a residence of 
ten years they visited many of the most interesting districts of Peru 
and Chile. In 1788 Ruiz and Pavon returned to Europe, bringing 
with them large collections of plants and an extensive series of bo- 
tanical drawings, and leaving behind them two of their pupils, Tafalla 
(afterwards Professor of Botany in the University of Lima), and 
Pulgar (an artist of merit), to continue their investigations. The 
collections thus made by themselves, and those which were subse- 
quently transmitted to them, formed the basis of a series of works on 
the botany of the Western Regions of South America, which, had 
they been carried on to completion, would have been indeed a mag- 
nificent contribution to science, and which even in their present in- 
complete state are of high importance. The first of these publica- 
tions appeared in 1794, under the title of ' Florae Peruvianse et Chi- 
lensis Prodromus,' and contains descriptive characters and illustrative 
figures of their new genera. This was followed in 1798 by the first 
volume of the ' Flora Peruviana et Chilensis,' two other volumes of 
which, extending as far as the class Oc^a««?n« of the Linnean system, 
were published in 1799 and 1802. The plates of a fourth volume, 
as well as many others intended for subsequent publication, were also 
prepared. In 1798 also was published the first volume of a smaller 
work without figures, entitled ' Systema Vegetabilium Florae Peru- 
vianae et Chilensis,' containing characters of all their new genera 
and of the species belonging to them, as well as of all the other spe- 
cies described in the first volume of their ' Flora.' 

Of the immense collections made by Ruiz and Pavon and other 

1844.] Linnean Society. 209 

botanists in the Spanish possessions in America, a large portion was 
purchased by Mr. Lambert between the years 1817 and 1824. These 
were dispersed at the sale of his herbarium in 1842 ; but a part of 
them was then obtained for the British Museum, where they are 
now deposited. Little is known of the latter years of Pavon ; his 
correspondence with Mr. Lambert appears to have ceased in 1 824, 
and even the exact date of his death has not been ascertained. 

The President also announced that 19 Fellows, 2 Foreign Mem- 
bers, and 1 Associate had been elected since the last Anniversary. 

At the election which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop of 
Norwich was re-elected President ; Edward Forster, Esq., Treasurer ; 
John Joseph Bennett, Esq., Secretary ; and Richard Taylor, Esq., 
Under-Secretary. The following five Fellows were elected into the 
Council in the room of others going out : viz. Francis Boott, M.D. ; 
Edward Forbes, Esq., Professor of Botany in King's College, Lon- 
don ; the Rev. WiUiam Hincks ; Daniel Sharpe, Esq. ; and William 
Spence, Esq. 

June 4. 
The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Sir Edward Ffrench Bromhead, Bart., Arthur Henfrey, Esq., and 
Jephson Potter, Esq., M.D., were elected Fellows. 

Read a continuation of Mr. Grifiith's memoir, being the portion 
relating to Sarcophyte. 

Read also the conclusion of Mr. Woods's " Attempt to arrange 
the Carices of Middle Europe." 

In this paper Mr. Woods passes in review the principal characters 
by means of which the species of Carices may be arranged into 
groups, and adopts with some modifications the system of Koch. 
His aiTangement is as follows : — 

A. Spica unica simplici. 

1. Dicecae ; stigmatibus 2. 

L C. d'loica; 2. C. Davalliana. 

2. Moiioecae ; stigraatibus 2. 

3. C. ptilicaris ] 4. C. Jecipieiis; 5. C. cnpitata. — 6. C. Suteri, which 

210 Linnean Society. [June 4, 

may belong to the following division, as the number of stigmas is 
not indicated. 
3. Monoecae ; stigmatibus 3. 

7. C. microglochin ; 8. C. pauciflora ; 9. C. Pyrenaica; 10. C. spicata, 
11. C. rupestris. 

B. Spicis capitatis involucratis. 
12. C. cyperoides; 13. C. Baldensis. 

C. Spicis compositis. 

1. Stigmatibus 3. 

14. C. curvula, 

2. Stigmatibus 2 ; floribus sterilibus in spicarum apice. 

15. C.fcetida; 16. C. stenophylla ; 17. C. lohata; 18. C. incurva; 19. 
C.schoenoides; 20. C. divisa; 21. C.chordorhiza; 22, C. vulpina; 
23. C. muricata ; 24. C. divulsa; 25. C. teretiuscula; 26. C. para- 
doxa ; 27. C. paniculata. 

3. Stigmatibus 2 ; spicis aliis fertilibus aliis sterilibus, v. floribus sterilibus 
in media spica, v. floribus sterilibus in aliis spiculis basalibus in aliis 

28. C.ludibunda; 29. C. intermedia; 30. C.modesta; 31. Carenaria; 
32. C. repens; 33. C. microstyla. 

4. Stigmatibus 2 ; floribus sterilibus in spicai-um basi. 

34. C. brizoides; 35. C.Schreberi ; 36. C Ligerica, Gay ; 37. C. stellu- 
lata; 38. C grypos; 39. C ovalis ; 40. C axillaris', 41. C. Bcen- 
ningliausiana ; 42. C remota ; 43. C. elongata ; 44. C lagopina ; 
45. C. heleonastes ; 46. C curfa; 47. C loliacea. 

D. Spicis distinctis, omnibus androgynis ; floribus sterilibus in apice spica- 

rum ; stigmatibus 3. 
48. C. Linkii ; 49. C. .Sarcfa. 

E. Spicis lateralibus ? ; terminali androgynS, floribus sterilibus apicalibus ; 

stigmatibus (nisi in C. bicolore) 3; fructu inconspicue rostrato. 
50. C. bicolor; 51. C, atrata; 52. C. aterrima; 53. C. nigra; 54. C 
Vahlii ; 55. C Buxbaumii. 

F. Spicis distinctis ; stigmatibus 2. 

1. Fructiis rostro complanato marginato. 

56. C. mucronata ; 57. C. microstachya. 

2. Fructus rostro parvo teretiusculo plerumque membranaceo. 

58. C. Grahami; 59. C. saxatilis; 60. C. Goode7iovii; 61. C rigida; 
62. C. ccBspitosa ; 63. C. trinervis ; 64. C aquatilis ; 65. C acuta', 
66. C Mcenchiana. 

G. Spica mascula unica, foeminea unica vel pluribus; stigmatibus 3. 
1. Spicis plerisque vel omnibus in apice culmi approximatis subsessilibus ; 
fructus rostro baud complanato vel bifido. 
67. C.supina; 68. C. platystachya; G9. C. macrolepis; 70. C.gyno- 

1844.] Linnean Society. 211 

basis; 71. C. Griolctti; 72. C. tomentosa ; 73. CprcEcox; 74. C. 
mollis; 75. C. reflexa; 76. C umbrosa; 77. C. pilulifera ; 78. C 
montana ; 79. C. ericeiorum. 

2. Spicis plerisque vel omnibus in apice ciilmi approximatis subcorymbosis, 
foemineis pedunculatis masculce subasqualibus ; fructu glabro, rostro 
parvo membranaceo vel nullo. 

80. C. rarijlora; 81. C. limosa; 82. C. irrigua; 83. C, pallescens ; 84. 
C. ustulata; 85. C. capillaris ; 86. C. nitida ; 87. C aZ6a. 

3. Characteres ut in G. 2 ; sed fructu pubescente. 

88. C. digitala ; 89. C. ornithopoda. 

4 . Spicis cylindricis densissimis corymbosis ; fructus rostro vobusto profunde 

90. C. pseudo-cyperus. 

5. Spicis in apice culmi racemosis, summa sessili, reliquis exserte peduncu- 
latis ; fructus rostro bidentato margine scabro. 

91. C.fuliginosa; 92. C.frigida. 

6. Spicis plerisque in apice culmi sessilibus, vel incluse breviter peduncu- 
latis ; fructu nisi in margine glabro, rostro complanato bifido. 

93. C. extensa; 94. C.flava ; 95. C. Jilairii ; 96. C. (Ederi. 

7. Spicis racemosis per culmi longitudinem descendentibus, superioribus 

sessilibus vel breviter incluse pedunculatis, inferioribus subexserte pe- 
dunculatis ; fructus rostro complanato bidentato. 
97. C. Hostiana; 98. C.fiilva; 99. C. Hornschuchiana; 100. 

nervis; 101. C.lcBvigata; 102. C. distans ; 103. C. punctata ; 104. 

C. MichcUi; 105. C.brevicollis; 106. C. depauperata; 107. C. syl- 

vatica ; 108. C. tenuis. 

8. Characteres ut in G. 7 ; sed fructus rostro incerto. 

109. C.ferruginea ; 110. C. geniculata; 111. C. brevifoUa; 112. C. 
spadicea; 113. C. sempervirens ; 114. C.firma; 115. C. refracta; 
116. C.Jimbriata. 

9. Spicis racemosis ; fructu pubescente. 

117. C. clandestina. 

10. Spicis laxe racemosis ; fructus rostro teretiusculo brevi, vel membra- 
naceo V. nullo. 

118. C. panicea; 119. C. vaginata; 120. C.pilosa; 121. G. sfrigosa. 

1 1 . Spicis longis densis pendulis. 

122. C. pendula; 123. C. microcarpa. 

H. Spicis masculis pluribus ; stigmatibus 3. 
1. Fructu vix rostrato, aliquando superne scabro sed baud undique pubes- 
124. C. glauca; 125. C. claviformis ; 126. C. Genuensis; 127. C.lasio- 
cMcena; 128. C. lanceolata ; 129. C. acuminata; 130. C. longi- 
aristata; 131. C. hispid a. 

212 Linnean Society. [June 18, 

2. Fructu pilosissimo ; rostro bifido. 

132. C.filiformis; 133. C. evoluta; 134. C. hirta. 

3. Fructu hand piloso ; rostro bifido. 

135. C. secalina; 136. C. hordeiformis ; 137. C. vesicaria; 138. C. am- 

■pullacea; 139. C.riparia; 140. C. SoleiroUi; 141, C. nutans; 

142. C: paludosa. 

On many of these species, and on other named species which Mr. 

Woods regards merely as varieties of one or other of the foregoing, 

the paper contains numerous observations. Of the folio w^ing species 

the descriptions are not sufficiently complete to allow of the author 

placing them: C. alopecurus, Lap. ; C.juncoides, Presl ; C. costata, 

Presl ; C.furcata, Lap.; C. manostachys, Spr. ; C.fusca, All.; C. 

nesliaca, Suter ; C. Bastardiana, DeC. ; and C. hadia, Pers. 

June IS. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

John Hutton Balfour, Esq., M.D., Regius Professor of Botany in 
the University of Glasgow, was elected a Fellow. 

Read a notice " On the Economy of the Order Strepsiptera." By 
John Curtis, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Read also a memoir " On the Muscles which move the Tail and 
Tail-coverts of the Peacock." By G. C. Heming, Esq., M.D., 
F.L.S. &c. 

Dr. Heming first refers to the mechanism by which the elevation 
of the feathers of birds in general is effected, either by a contractile 
power of the cutis vera, or by various modifications of subcutaneous 
muscles analogous to the panniculus carnosus of certain Mammalia ; 
and then proceeds to the more immediate subject of his paper, the 
motions of the tail and train of the peacock, in which the apparatus 
for this purpose is far more complicated than in any other bird. This 
apparatus consists of two parts ; the one intended for raising' the 
caudal vertebrae and the feathers inserted into the groove of the last 
vertebra, and the other confined to the movements of the upper tail- 
coverts. As regards the former, Dr. Heming adopts, with little mo- 

1844.] Linnean Society. 213 

dification, the description of the muscles of the tails of birds given 
by Cuvier ; the latter he describes in the following terms : — 

" Upon the sacro-coccygeal muscle, which is exceedingly large and 
powerful in this bird, there is placed a mass of cellular substance some- 
what of a triangular shape, measuring about five inches at the base, 
and each lateral line extending from the base to the apex about six 
inches ; the base is situated towards the tail, and extends in this di- 
rection almost as far as the last caudal vertebra ; thus there is not 
the space of an inch between the quills of the upper tail-covert and 
those of the true tail, while the apex of the triangular mass extends 
nearly to the lumbar extremity of the sacrum ; it is wider than the 
muscle upon which it lies, and extends over it at each side full half 
an inch. This triangular mass is much thicker below than above : 
here it is full three-quarters of an inch thick, whilst at the apex it is 
not half this thickness. It is covered on its sacral surface by a 
thin fascia, and is connected to the muscle beneath it by loose cel- 
lular texture, which can be easily broken down by the handle of a 
scalpel ; but it has a membranous and closer connection, and towards 
its base it is more intimately attached by muscular fibres proceeding 
from the elevator muscles beneath, which are lost in the fascia cover- 
ing its sacral surface. 

" The quills of the upper tail-covert are inserted obliquely into this 
triangular mass of cellular substance, each quill having its peculiar 
capsule, which seems to be formed of condensed cellular membrane : 
between each quill there are small muscles, the fibres of which run 
in parallel lines extending from one quill to the other ; and besides 
these muscles there are other small ones, the fibres of which run ob- 
liquely in such a direction as somewhat to resemble the letter V; the 
interstices of these muscles are filled with cellular substance, 

" By the powerful action of the sacro-coccygeal and the sacro-su- 
pracaudal muscles, the true tail is elevated, and at the same time the 
upper tail-covert is raised perpendicularly and supported by the pro- 
per tail, and perhaps the swelling of these muscles in their contrac- 
tion exerts some influence in spreading the feathers of the upper tail- 
covert. The principal agents in this office are the small muscles 
situated between each quill, by the contraction of which the quiUs 
are brought closer together, and consequently the opposite ends of 
the feathers are proportionately separated from each other. The 
small muscles of which the fibres diverge have not only the power of 
contributing, by their contraction, to the spreading of the feathers 
of the upper tail-covert, but they exert considerable influence in 
raising the feathers perpendicularly. There can be no doubt also. 

No. XXII. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

214 Linnean Society. [June 18, 

tbat the slips of muscular fibres coming from the sacro-coccygeal and 
sacro-supracaudal muscles exert their influence in the same office. 

" Although these small muscles are very powerful, they would be 
quite inadequate, alone, to the office of raising perpendicularly, 
spreading the feathers and maintaining them for any considerable 
time, were it not that the feathers of the upper tail- covert are partly 
raised and maintained in this position by the elevation of the true 

The paper was accompanied by coloured drawings, representing 
in detail the muscular apparatus in the tail of the Peacock. 

Read also a memoir " On the Solid Vegetable Oils." By Edward 
Solly, Jun., Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Mr. Solly commences his paper by referring to the usual division 
of oils into three classes, the fat, the drying and the volatile. The 
fat oils vary in their properties according to the relative propor- 
tions which they contain of Elaine or fluid oil and of Stearine or 
solid oil ; those which contain much of the former being fluid at 
oi'dinary temperatures, while those which contain a larger quantity 
of stearine ,are solid under ordinary circumstances and constitute 
the class of Tallows or Butters. Of these the vegetable kingdom 
afibrds a very considerable number ; and Mr. Solly having recently 
received specimens of several, has collected in the present paper a 
large amount of information concerning them, to which he has added 
his own observations. He arranges the Vegetable Butters or Tallows 
according to the botanical affinities of the plants by which they are 
produced, and enumerates the principal among them as follows : — 

1. Theohroma Cacao, L., and several other species of Theohroma. 

2. Valeria Ind'ica, L. 

This tree (the Tallow-tree of Canara) is remarkable for producing 
at the same time an excellent resin resembling copal and a solid fat 
or tallow, suitable for the manufacture of candles. Mr. Solly has 
examined several specimens of the oil, which aU agree in general 
characters with Dr. Babington's description, published in 1825, but 
diff'er in some minor points. The peculiar fracture described by him 
does not always appear, and is probably modified by the rate of cool- 
ing and other circumstances. 

3. Pentadesma hutyracea, G. Don. 

4. Carapa Touloucouna, Guill. and PeiTott. 

5. Guianensis, Aubl. 

6. Stillingia sehifera, Mich. 

For seeds of the Stillingia and specimens of the tallow prepared 

1844.] Linnean Society. 215 

from it, Mr. Solly is indebted to W. V. Hillyer, Esq., who i-eceived 
them from Mr. Lay, Her Majesty's Consul General in China. The 
tallow is pure white, has little or no smell, is harder than common 
tallow, melts at 100°, and consists of 70 parts of soHd and 30 of fluid 
oil. Mr. Solly has found the seeds to contain two oils ; one a tallow 
resembling that just described, which is contained in the white cel- 
lular envelope of the seed ; the other a colourless or pale yellow oil, 
which exists in the kernel and is readily obtained by expression. 
This oil is fluid at all common temperatures, and it is evident that 
the properties of the tallow will vary greatly according as only one 
or both of these oils may be expressed. 
7. Bassia butyracea, Roxb. 

Of the Choree Butter, the produce of this tree, Mr. Solly has ex- 
amined two specimens, the first presented to the Royal Asiatic So- 
ciety by Sir R. Colquhoun in 1826, and the second brought over by 
Mr. Traill in 1834. Both samples were of a pure white colour and 
of the consistence of tallow, the older being rather harder and having 
a disagreeable rancid smell, while that brought over by Mr. Traill 
is at the end of ten years perfectly sweet and free from rancidity. 
The former contained 8^ parts of stearine and 18 of elaine ; the latter 
60 parts of stearine, 34 of elaine, and 6 of vegetable impurities. Both 
were easily saponifiable, forming beautiful white soaps. 

8. Bassia longifolia, L. 

9, latifolia, Roxb. 

10. ?? Parkii, G. Don. 

Mr. Solly has examined a specimen of the butter of this tree pre- 
sented by Dr. Stanger to Mr. Ward. It is of a white colour having 
a slight tinge of gray, and has hardly any taste or smell. Its con- 
sistence is nearly that of common butter ; it melts at 97° of Fahren- 
heit, and consists of 56 parts of solid and 44 of §uid oil. 

11. Laurus nohilis, L., and other species oi Laurus. 

12. Tetranthera sehifera, Nees. 

13. Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Nees. 

14. Myristica moschata, L. 

15. Virola sehifera, Aubl. 

16. Cocos nucifera, L., and probably other species of the genus. 

17. Elceis Guineensis, Jacq., and other Palms, such as Euterpe oleracea, 

Mart., and (Enocarpus distichus, Mart. 
Besides these Vegetable Tallows, obtained in considerable quan- 
tity and of known origin, Mr. Solly mentions two of unknown ori- 
gin, the Minna Batta described by Dr. Thomson, and a green solid 
oil received by him from Bombay under the name of Kinknail ; and 

216 Linnean Society. [June 18, 

enumerates various plants from which solid oils have heen procured 
in small quantities, and the list of which might probably be enor- 
mously increased. 

Read also the conclusion of Mr. Griffith's memoir " On the Root- 
Parasites referred by authors to Rhizanthece, and their Allies." 

This extensive memoir, or series of memoirs, commences with 
" An Attempt to analyse Rhizanthea," as established by Prof. End- 
licher and by Prof. Lindley, from which the author deduces the in- 
ference, " that in the construction of the group called Rhizanthece, a 
remarkable diversity of characters has been sacrificed to an appear- 
ance resulting from parasitism on roots, and to an assumed absence 
of any ordinary form of vegetable embryo." 

In arriving at this conclusion, his line of argument is summed up 
as having especial reference to the three following points : "In the 
first place," he says, " I have endeavoured to extend the objections 
urged by Mr. Robert Brown, founded on the presence of a vascular 
system, and the absence of any abstract peculiarity in the embryos 
of these plants. I have also attempted to show that these plants are 
not similar in their parasitism, and that even in those which I have 
examined, there would appear to be two remarkably different types 
of development of the embryo. Secondly, I have alluded to the op- 
position presented, as it seems to me, by Rhizanthece to the system of 
Nature, a chief point of the plan of which seems to me to consist in 
an extensive interchange of characters, either positively by structure 
or negatively by imitation of structure. Thirdly, I have adverted to 
a want of uniformity in opinion of the founders regarding its rank 
or value, incompatible, as it appears to me, with any group of the 
system of Nature. And in conclusion, I beg to add that my impres- 
sion is that RhizantheeB are an entirely artificial group, not even 
sanctioned by practical facility, which is the only merit of an arti- 
ficial association, and that its adoption is a retrograde step in the 
course of philosophical botany." 

To the family of Rafflesiacece, Mr. Griffith adds a new genus with 

the following characters : — 


Char. Gen. — Flores dioici. Perianthium duplici serie 5-partitum, aesti- 
vatione imbricativum ; faux corona forata clausa ; tubus intus 20-cari- 
natus. Mas : Antherce 20, uniseriatitn infra caput columnae fungiforme 
verticillatae, discretae, 2 — 3-loculares, apice poi'osae. Ovarii cavitas 
nulla. Fcem : AnthercB castratse. Ovarium 1-loculare ; placentae inde- 
finitfe, pavietales ; ovula indefinita. ColumncB apex fungoideo-dilatatus 
(e medio conum verrucosum exserens, disco piloso). Fructus . 

1844.] Linnean Society. 217 

Planta parasitica, habitu Rafflesise. Flos magnus, carnis colore, odore 


Hab. in Jugi Himalayani Montibus Mishmee Assamise Superioris ad lat. 
Bor. 27° 50', long. Orient. 96° 27', altit. pedes 3000—5000. 

The description of this plant is accompanied by observations on 
its mode of parasitism, on its vascular structure, on the plicae of the 
inside of the tube of the perianthium (which the author suggests may 
perhaps be considered to represent a second series of stamina), on 
the inner membrane of the cells of the anthers, on the obstacles to 
independent impregnation, and on the natural relations of the ge- 
nus, and the characters by which it differs from Rafflesia and Brug- 
mansia, between which Mr. Griffith places it, 

Mr. Griffith next proceeds to offfer some observations on Cytineee, 
and on the genera Hydnora and Cytinus. He believes that the dif- 
ference in the direction of the nuclei of the ovula in Cytinece and 
Rafflesiacece may perhaps be of some use in discriminating them ; 
but thinks it necessary to observe that in Nepenthes distillatoria of the 
Calcutta Botanic Garden, the most marked instances of ovula ana- 
tropa and antitropa are to be met with in the ovaria at their mature 
state, to which circumstance he attributes the discrepancies in the 
accounts of the direction of the radicle of the ripe seed of that genus. 
His observations on Hydnora were made on specimens of H. Africana 
both in the dry state and in pyroligneous acid sent to him by Mr. 
Harvey from the Cape of Good Hope. He regards the anthers as 
indefinite, and describes the stigma as " discoideum, trilobum, e la- 
mellis plurimis in placentas totidem pendulas undique ovuliferas pro- 
ductis," a structure which, if correctly determined, appears to him 
to present another objection to the placentary hypothesis of M. 
Schleiden. He also notices the apparent opposition of the lobes of 
the stigma to the lobes of the staminal column. In regard to the 
composition of the pistillum he hesitates between regarding it as 
highly compound and analogous to Papaver and Nymphcea, the space 
between each lamella corresponding with a carpellary leaf, and each 
lamella itself being compound, or considering it as made up of only 
three parts, to which latter opinion his own observations and those 
of Mr. Harvey would lead. 

Mr. Griffith's observations on Cytinus are derived from specimens 
of C. dioicus, Juss., also sent to him from the Cape of Good Hope 
by Mr. Harvey. He follows Jussieu and Endlicher in referring the 
Cape species to the genus Cytinus. He regards the terminal teeth 
or lobes of the staminal column as productions of the connectivum. 

218 Linnean Society. [June 18, 

and not as rudiments of stigmata ; and believes the anthers to be 

To his remarks on Cytinea Mr. Griffith appends an account of two 
Asarineous plants, natives of Malacca, Thottea, Rottb., dcadi Asiphonia. 
To the description of the former of these given by Rottboll from 
Koenig's MSS. he adds several particulars. Of the latter, discovered 
by himself, he gives the following generic character : — 


Perianthium aequale, rotatum, tripartitum, tubo nuUo. Stamina 8 — 10, 

uniseriata; filamentis nullis. Stigma discoideum, sinuoso-lobatum. 

Pericarpium siliquffiforme, 4-locuIare, 4-valve, polyspermum. Semina 

trigona, rugoso-papillosa. 
Frutex suhscandens, facie Piperis fruticosce cujusdam ; articuUs tumidis. 

Folia venatione melastoinaceo-piperoided. Corymbus terminalis ; spicis 

paucijloris ; floribus sursiim secundis hibracteolatis. 


Hah. in Pi-ovincia Malacca, ad margines sylvarum piimaevarum, copiose 
versiis Ayer Punnus Rhim. 

Mr. Griffith points out the near relationship of this genus to Bra- 
gantia. Lour., from which it is chiefly distinguished by the absence 
of any tube to the perianthium, its cordate sessile anthers, and dis- 
coid sinuate stigma. He suggests, however, that it may possibly be 
regarded as only a subordinate modification of that genus, and gives 
an arrangement of the known species in conformity with that view. 

In connexion with these genera Mr. Griffith gives his views of the 
nature and composition of the stigma, which are essentially similar 
to those published by Mr. Brown in the second part of Dr. Horsfield's 
' Plantse Javanicse Rariores,' to which work Mr. Griffith refers in a 
note stating that he did not become acquainted with it till several 
months after his own observations were written. He defines the stigma 
to be " the external communication of the conducting tissue, which 
itself communicates with the placentae, and is in several cases at least 
(as in Trewia nudiflora) manifestly a continuation from them." Of 
its theoretical origin he desires to speak with caution, but notices 
two distinct cases of monstrosities affecting two Leguminous plants, 
in which the stigmatic surface is evidently a continuation of the pla- 
cental margins of the carpellum. The ordinary relations may, he 
thinks, be obscured by several causes ; such as separation of parts 
usually cohering, cohesion of parts usually distinct, division of the 
stigmatic part of the style, and division of the style of the simple 
carpellum. The stigmata of each carpellum may be distinct from 
each other or from those of the next carpellum ; or adhesion may 

1844.] Linnean Society. 219 

take place between stigmatic surfaces ordinarily distinct, whereby 
the stigmata so resulting appear to alternate with the styles. In- 
stances of the former occur in Euhalus ; of the latter in Orobanche, 
if the author's observations are correct, in Papaveracece, and perhaps 
in all cases in which the stigmata, being apparently equal in number 
to the placentae, are said to be opposite to them. 

The succeeding portion of Mr. Griffith's memoir relates to Mystro- 
petalon, Harv., referred by Sir Wm. J. Hooker to the order Rhizan- 
theee, group Balanophoreee. Mr. Griffith, on the contrary, who de- 
scribes the Mystropetalon Thomii from specimens obtained from Mr. 
Harvey, regards it as a plant sui ordinis, having no relation to any 
other plant admitted into Rhizanthece except Cynomorium, to which 
it seems to him to present considerable resemblance in the structure 
of the stamen and of the female flower. It also offers, he thinks, 
curious agreements with Loranthacece, and he would at present con- 
sider it (doubtfully) as the homogeneous- embryo form of that order 
which he takes to include Proteacete, SantalacecB, &c., and which 
nearly agrees with Prof. Lindley's alliance Tubiferce. 

Sarcophyte also is described from specimens transmitted by Mr. 
Harvey. Mr. Griffith regards its affinities as very obscure ; he ob- 
jects to its being placed either in CytinecB, Cynomoriacece, or Bala- 
nophore(B, and suggests that on the whole the general tendency of the 
plant is towards Urticece. 

Mr. Griffith next examines the family of Balanophoreee, and gives 
distinctive characters of Balanophora, Langsdorffia, Phaocordylis, 
Helosis and Scyhalium. The following are the characters which he 
assigns to Balanophora and Phmocordylis : — 

Balanophora, Forst. 

Sexus diclines, rarissime monoclines. Flares masculi bracteati. Perian- 
thium 3 — 5-sepalum, sestivatione valvatum. Stamina totidem opposita, 
monadelpha, bilocularia (in unica specie multilocularia). Flores foemi- 
nei : Ovaria stipitata, receptaculis apice incrassato-glandulosis affixa, 
nuda. Stylus setaceus, persistans. Stigma inconspicuum. Fructus 
pistilliformes, sicci. 

Ph.eocordylis, Griff. 

Sexus diclines. Flores masculi ignoti. Flores faeminei : Ovaria in axi 
sessilia, nuda, pilis paraphysiformibus immixta. Stylus filiformis, ex- 
sertus, deciduus. Stigma subcapitatum. Fructus compressi (striati) apice 

Of Balanophora he describes as new five species with the follow- 
ing characters : — 

B. BuRMANNicA, squamis laxe imbricatis, bracteis truncatis parum cana- 

220 Linnean Society. [June 18, 

liculatis, perianthio masculo extus carneo demum sanguineo, columna 

staminum elongata, antherarum locellis basi discretis. 
Hab. in Regno Burmannico, ad fl. Salueen. 
B, AFFiNis, squamis et bracteis praecedeiitis, floribus (masculis) pallidis, 

columna staminum brevi subrotunda, locellis antherarum basi conflu- 

Hab. in CoUibus Khasiyanis. 
Prfecedenti minor ; an vere distincta ? 
B. ALVEOLATA, squamis arete imbrieatis, bracteis profunde canaliculatis 

inter se favi instar dispositis, columna staminum subrotunda. 
B. dioica, R. Br. in Royle, Illustr. p. 330. t. 99? 
Hab. in Collibus Khasiyanis. 
B. picTA, squamis distantibus laxis (luteis), spied foeminei obscure san- 

Hab. in Montibus Mishmee jugi Himalayani. 

B. (Polypletia) polyandra, columna staminea brevi lata, antheris inde- 

finitis 1-locularibus. 
Hab. in Collibus Khasiyanis. 

With reference to these species Mr. Griffith enters at considerable 
length into their anatomical and external structure, and in the course 
of his observations directs attention to the resemblance of the pistilla 
to the pistilla of Musci, and more especially to those of some evaginu- 
late Hepatica, and to the effects produced by the action of the pollen 
on the styles. " Indeed," he observes, " in the development of the 
female organ, the continuous surface of the style before fecundation, 
and its obvious perforation after, Balanophora presents a direct affi- 
nity to a group of plants, with which otherwise it has not a single 
analogy." On this ground he objects to the association of Balano- 
phorece with such highly developed families as Rafflesiacea and Cy- 
tinea. " As a mere hypothesis," he adds, " I would consider it as 
the homogeneous-embryo form of Urticince, forming a direct passage 
in one, and usually the more perfect, structure to Musci and Hepa- 

Of Phceocordylis (a name used by him to prevent confusion, as he 
has not sufficient knowledge of Dr. WalUch's plant to determine 
whether his genus is the same as that doubtfully proposed in Dr. 
Wallich's list under the name of Sarcocordylis) he describes and 
figures a single species, Phaocordylis areolatus, collected in the Kha- 
siya HUls. He compares its structure with that of Balanophora, no- 
tices several curious pecuharities, and adverts to the structure of the 
hairs in which the fruits are imbedded as presenting a remarkable 
analogy with the paraphysiform appendages of Drepanophyllum and 

1844.] Linnean Society. 221 

certain Neckerce, and also with the bodies which he suspects to be the 
male organs of Ferns. 

Lastly, Mr. Griffith adds the description of a new genus which he 
dedicates to the memory of Mr. Thomas Smith, referred to by Mr. 
Brown in terms of high commendation in his remarks on Kingia. 
This genus is characterized as follows under the anagrammatized 
name of 

Char. Gen. — Periantliium superum, canipanulatum (caducum), 6-parti- 
tum ; laciniis 3 exterioribus (brevibus) oblongis, 3 alternis interioribus 
(longissimis) subulatis ; fauce annulo seraiclausa. Stamina 6, fauci in- 
serta, perianthii laciniis opposita, deflexa insuper parietem tubi inter- 
num ; filamenta brevia, discreta ; antherae (maximas) secus margines 
connatae, membrana bilamellosa terminatae, biloculares, loculis parvis 
distantibus adnatis. Ovarium inferum, 1-Ioculare; placentae 3 parie- 
tales, supra medium ovuligerae ; ovula indefinita, anatropa. Stylus 
brevis. Stigmata 3 bifida. Fructus carnosus, truncato-tiu-binatus, apice 
pericarpii circumscisso dehiscens, 1-locularis. Semina indefinita, pla- 
centis 3 parietalibus demura liberis affixa. Embryo indivisus, homo- 
Ylsaidipusilla, aphyJla, radicum parasitica, aspectu cereaceo. Perianthium 

luteum, coccineo pictum. 
Thismia Brunonis. 

Hub. ad pedes Bambusarum in liumo ligno semiputrido farcto prope 
Palar Orae Tenasserim, ad grad. lat. bor. 12° 50', long, orient. 98° 20°. — 
Flor. et fruct. lect. Mense Octobris, 1834. 

Some observations follow on the mode of venation of the perian- 
thium, on the dehiscence of the fruit, and on the position of the plant 
in the natural system, which the author regards as intermediate be- 
tween TaccedE and BurmanniacecE. He adds that he is disposed to 
consider it as a Monocotyledonous form of the albuminiform homo- 
geneous embryo, and as the analogue of Rajfflesiacece and Cytinea of 

Associated with Thismia grew a species of Salomonia and a species 
of Burmannia, both having the ordinary appearance of plants para- 
sitic on roots. The former is characterized as 

Salomonia aphylla, parasitica, floribus pentandris. 

The paper was accompanied and illustrated by an extensive series 
of coloured drawings. 

No. XXIII. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

222 Linnean Society. [November 5, 

November 5. 
E. Forster, Esq., V,P., in the Chair. 

Joshua Clarke, Esq., presented specimens of Galium Vaillantii, 
DeC, gathered by himself at Saffron Walden, in the county of Essex. 

James Backhouse, jun,, Esq., and G. S. Gibson, Esq., presented 
specimens of Spergula stricta, Swartz, from Widdy Bank, Teesdale, 
Yorkshire, and of Equisetum Drummondii, Hook., from Winch Bridge, 
Teesdale ; both species gathered for the first time in England. 

William Borrer, Esq., F.L.S., presented specimens of Leersia ory- 
zoides, Sw., discovered by himself in Sept. 1844, fringing the ditches 
in Henfield Level, Sussex. 

Read, a memoir " On the Medusa proboscidalis of Forskahl." By 
Prof. Edward Forbes, F.L.S. &c. 

The author met with this Medusa on the coast of Asia Minor, and 
communicates the result of his examination of its form and structure. 
The umbrella of the specimen described measured two inches and 
three quarters in diameter, and was perfectly hemispherical and trans- 
parent. The margin had a pink border, from which sprung at regular 
intervals six very long extensile tentacula, at the base of each of 
which is a minute ocellus. Opposite and above the origin of each 
of these tentacula, and on the inner surface of the bell, is a phylli- 
form space, of a different tissue from the rest of the umbrella : these 
have hitherto been described as stomachs, but are in reality the ova- 
ries ; through the centre of each runs a narrow canal, and between 
each in the interspace are seven lanceolate, truncate markings. From 
the centre of the inferior surface springs a proboscis or peduncle, 
four inches in length, down which the gastric vessels run ; this pe- 
duncle is marked by six longitudinal bands of pinkish contractile 
tissue ; at its extremity it bears a hollow bell-shaped body, bordered 
by six triangular lips : the cavity of this is the true stomach ; the 
gastric vessels spring from it, and go to open into a circular vessel 
surrounding the margin of the umbrella. 

The author's observations, demonstrating the true position of the 
stomach and reproductive organs in this animal, do away with the 
anomalous definition formerly given of the genus Geryonia, to which 
it belongs, and require the substitution of a new generic character, 
which may be expressed as follows : — 

Geryonia, Eschscholtz. 

Umbrella hemisphaerica : ovaria plura phylliforinia in circuitu disci : 

1844.] Linnean Society. 223 

cirrhi raarginales distantes : ocelli nndi : pediinculus elongatus, pyra- 
midatus, veil trie ulum par vum in extremitate gcrens; ore lobato, fim- 
Type, Geri/onia proboscidalis. 

November 19. 
R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in- the Chair. 

Read a Note by William Griffith. Esq., F.L.S. &c., to his pajDer 
" On the Ovulum of Santalnm, Osyris, Loranthus, and Viscnm," 
printed in the last Part of the Society's Transactions. 

In this note Mr. Griffith states, that " having had opportunities, 
after my revised examination of Santalum album, of examining a 
Malacca species of Osyris (belonging to a section characterized by 
a quinary number of parts of the flower, a less tendency to separation 
of the sexes, and habit) , I find full grounds for believing that the 
mode of development of the ovulum of Osyris Napalensis is altogether 
like that of Santalum album, the only difference being the unim- 
portant one of the short anterior prolongation of the embryo-sac 
outside the nucleus. The minuteness of the ovulum, and the rapidity 
•with which the anterior exserted part above the septum becomes 
filled with albuminous tissue, during which the proper membrane of 
this part of the sac becomes incorporated with the albuminous tissue, 
must be my apologies for this additional and very important error. 

" I may tate this opportunity of stating, that this Malacca Osyris, 
deducting the great minuteness of the ovulum, has given me as good 
evidence as Santalum in my opinion has, of the non-existence of any 
cell or body of or in the embryo-sac, from which the embryo is de- 
rived, independent of the pollen-tube. The vesicle from which the 
embryo is to be derived does not appear to exist before the applica- 
tion of the pollen-tubes to the sac, it bemg in fact, so far as my 
means of observation enable me to go, the anterior extremity of the 
pollen-tube itself." 

Read also a paper " On the Development of the Ovulum in Avi- 
cewwm," by William Griffith, Esq., F.L.S. &c., containing a more 
detailed description of the process than the note referred to in the 
"Proceedings,' p. 170-171- 

224 Linnean Society. [November 19^ 

Mr. Griffith states that Avicennia has, like Santalum and Osyris, 
a free central placenta with pendulous ovula; the same posterior 
elongation takes place in the embryo-sac ; and the embryo is, at least 
when matured, external to the nucleus or body of the ovulum. The 
ovula of Avicennia appear to be nucleary ; their central tissue first 
becomes denser than the rest, and in this denser tissue, at a period 
antecedent to fecundation, is found the embryo-sac, having usually 
an enlarged apex or head and a subcylindrical body. Subsequent to 
the application of the pollen-tubes to the apex of the sac, and the 
formation of cellular tissue, the head of the embryo-sac acquires a 
short prolongation posteriorly in the direction of the axis of the ovu_ 
lum, and its subcylindrical body is also prolonged posteriorly within 
the inner side of the same organ. While the albuminous tissue in 
the head of the sac increases in bulk, and the rudiment of the future 
embryo is developing, the head enlarges and passes out of the apex 
of the ovulum, and the prolongation of the subcylindrical body con- 
tinues to increase in length. At a subsequent period there is formed 
on the anterior surface of the albuminous mass, now become external 
to the ovulum, a curved furrow or groove, corresponding with the 
points of the cotyledons of the young embryo ; and the posterior 
prolongation of the body of the sac passes backwards into the pla- 
centa, within which it is divided in a digitate irregular manner. In 
the next stage the points of the cotyledons protrude through the 
groove, and as the embryo increases in size they become more and 
more exposed, the part of the ajbumen situated between the inner 
cotyledon and the body of the ovulum becoming at the same time 
enlarged and flattened, and increasing in length equally with the 
cotyledons themselves. In the mature embryo the radicle alone re- 
mains imbedded in the albuminous tissue, the cotyledons being quite 

" It is curious," Mr. Griffith observes, " that this prolongation 
[of the embryo-sac] has only been observed in association with a 
particular form of the free central placenta. So far as I know," he 
adds, " it is the only instance of an embryo-sac prolonged posteriorly, 
it may be said, from two points of its surface." And further : " In 
all the really analogous instances in which the albumen is exterior 
to the ovulum, it is always exterior, that part of the embryo-sac in 
which it is developed being protruded long before any albuminous 
tissue has been developed*." 

* In a Memoir by M. Planchon, published at Montpellier, 1844, " Sur les 
developpements et les caracteres des vrais et des faux arilles, suivi de con- 

1844.] Linnean Society, 225 

In conclusion, IVIr. Griffith refers to the observations of Mr. Brown 
on the ovula of Avicennia in the ' Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandise/ 
and in Dr. Wallich's ' Plantse Asiaticae Rariores,' and states that 
the most important difference between this last account and that 
which he has given is, that he finds the embryo only to be erect. 
" The embryo, in its earlier stages of development, undergoes a degree 
of change of direction, but only sufficient to enable it to pass up out- 
side the ovulum in the same direction it would have maintained had 
it been ordinarily developed." 

The paper was illustrated by a series of coloured drawings. 

December 3. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
Walter Ewer, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read, some " Remarks on Vegetable Physiology." By Mr. James 
Main, A.L.S. 

Mr. Main's object in the present paper appears to be the reproduc- 
tion before the Society of the leading ideas on vegetable growth con- 
tained in his ' Illustrations of Vegetable Physiology,' published in 
1833, and to state his objections to some received, theories on that 

siderations sur les ovules de quelques Veroniques et de V Avicennia," it is 
shown that in two species of Veronica {V. hederafolia and V. Cymbalaria) 
(and consequently in plants with the ordinary form of placenta) the nucleary 
ovula are furnished with embryo-sacs, acquiring during the progress of their 
growth two tubular prolongations, one from near each extremity, the upper 
of which passes into the placenta, and there becomes digitately divided. In 
these plants also the albuminigerous portion of the embryo-sac becomes, 
during the progress of its development, external to the nucleus. In other 
species of the same genus {Ver. agrestis and V. arvensis) the ovula are 
equally reduced to a nucleary form; but the embryo-sac is much less de- 
veloped at its extremities, and a tegument derived from the nucleus con- 
tinues to enclose it up to the complete maturity of the seed. Comparing 
these observations on Veronica with the description given in 1818 by M. A. 
de St. Hilaire of the development of the ovulum of Avicennia, M. Planchon 
comes to the conclusion, that " II devient impossible de ne pas considerer, 
avec Brown, comme I'ovule lui-meme le corps oblong pris [par M. A. de 
St. Hilaire] pour un cordon ombilical, et de ne pas voir dans le tubercule 
arrondi qui sort de lafente du corps oblong, un sac embryonnaire analogue a 
celui de la Veronique, et destine, comme ce dernier, a accomplir, hors du 
fiucelle, toutes ses Evolutions." — Secr. 

226 - Linnean Society. [December 17? 

important subject. He denies the descent of the sap, and asks, " Who 
has met with sapless branches in winter, or surcharged roots at the 
same season?" He states that "the spring movement of the sap 
begins (and necessarily must begin) at the top of the tree, and its 
fluxion is generated gradually downwards until the whole is in mo- 
tion." It is by means of this descending fluidity, and not by any 
descent of the sap itself, that he explains the callosities or swellings 
observed above a ligature, on the upper edge of a wound, and in 
various other circumstances. Instead of attributing the formation of 
the tissues of the plant to the organizable property of the elaborated 
sap, he believes that the membranes and every other organic part or 
constituent of the plant have rudimental existence and identity before 
development. He regards the cambium as the seat of vegetable life 
and the origin of all vegetable growth. From this living body (which 
lie calls the indusium or vital membrane) he believes that the axis of 
wood is annually enlarged in diameter, and the bark is thickened ; 
from this, and this only, buds and roots are produced ; and wounds 
are healed by its gradual extension. The paper concludes by a 
reference to the opinions of Bonnet, DeCandoUe, Mirbel, and Du- 

December 17. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Dr. Lankester, F.L.S., exhibited a specimen of an Agaric in which, 
gills were developed on a portion of the surface of the pileus, directly 
over the stipes, resulting apparently from an extension of the growth 
of the stipes, and a rupture of the external membrane of the pileus, 
throwing up the internal or gill-producing membrane. 

Read, " Additional Remarks on the Spongilla fluviatilis." By John 
Hogg, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

In this paper Mr. Hogg commences by claiming a priority to M . 
Laurent in the discovery of the locomotive germ-like bodies of Spon- 
gilla, and in comparing them with the spontaneously moving spo- 
rules of Ectosperma clavata of Unger. In proof of this priority he 
refers to his memoir, published in 1 840, in the eighteenth volume of 

1844.] Linnean Society, 227 

the Society's Transactions, in the first part of which, read before the 
Society on the 18th of December 1838, those bodies are described 
as having been observed by him in August 1838, and are compared 
with the locomotive sporules of the Ectosperma. An abstract of this 
part of Mr. Hogg's memoir appeared in the ' Proceedings ' of the So- 
ciety at the beginning of 1839, and was reprinted in the number of 
the ' Annals of Natural History' for March 1839. Of these several 
publications Mr. Hogg states that no notice is taken by M. Laurent 
in his recent work entitled ' Recherches sur I'Hydre et I'Eponge 
d'Eau douce,' Paris 1844, in which the discovery of the locomotive 
germs of the freshwater sponge is apparently claimed by the author 
as his own. 

Mr. Hogg then proceeds to remark on the discrepancies of authors 
with regard to the existence of cilia on these bodies, and on the 
spores of the Ectosperma. He accounts for his having overlooked 
them in the Spongilla, on the supposition that the germs which he 
observed under a very high power of the compound microscope had 
reached the period when, as M. Laurent states, " ils perdent leurs 
cils pour toujours," and notices that it appears, from M. Thuret's 
recent observations, that the same circumstance occurs in the spores 
of the Ectosperma. This resorption or disappearance of the cilia 
after a certain period will readUy account for the denial of their ex- 
istence by practised microscopical observers. 

The existence of cilia subservient to locomotion is far from deter- 
mining, in Mr. Hogg's opinion, the question of the animal nature of 
the bodies to which they belong, although the zoocarpic theory, 
which he regards as most improbable, appears to be still gaining 
ground. He believes the motive power of the cilia of the sporules 
of Spongilla and the Algee, as also of the Sea- Sponges, to be depen- 
dent on some peculiar organization not connected (as in the loco- 
motive gemmules of a zoophyte) with any muscular apparatus ; un- 
less indeed, as he has before suggested, mere endosmosis and exos- 
mosis should be found sufficient to produce it. 

For these and other reasons which are detailed in his paper, Mr. 
Hogg still believes both the River and Sea-Sponges to be vegetable 
productions, and thinks that " until they shall be discovered to pos- 
sess a stomach or a gastric sac, no zoologist can possibly consider 
them to belong to the Animal Kingdom." 

228 Linnean Society. [February 4, 

January 21, 1845. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

John Daniel Vittoria Packman, Esq., M.D., and Edward Frederick 
Leeks, Esq., were elected FeUows. 

A Note was read, addressed to the Secretary, by John Curtis, Esq., 
F.L.S. &c., containing the description of a cocoon of the Emperor 
Moth (SaturniaPavonia-minor), which on being longitudinally divided 
was found to have internally, in place of the chrj-salis, a series of 
cells so analogous to those represented by Mr. Curtis in the nine- 
teenth volume of the Society's 'Transactions,' plate xxxi. fig. 5, as 
to leave no doubt on his mind that the woolly masses there exhibited 
are the cocoons of some large South American Bombyx, and that the 
substance of the caterpUlar has been converted into cells by the larva 
of the Tenthredinidous insect. But although the theory of the nest 
there figured having been constructed by an insect of that family is 
thus set aside as erroneous, it is only to make evident a still greater 
anomaly in its economy, viz, that its larvae are parasitic. In the 
present instance Mr. Curtis was unable, after the most rigid scrutiny, 
to find any vestige of a perfect insect. A dried and broken maggot 
was all that could be perceived, and its fragments on being put to- 
gether bore more resemblance to the larvae of the Ichneumonidce than 
to those of the Tenthredinidce. 

Mr. Curtis states that the cells most analogous to these are those 
formed by the Microgaster alvearia, which are as regular as those of 
a honey-comb, and adds that it appears from a notice in the ' Trans- 
actions of the Entomological Society,' vol. iii. p. 35, that the pupae 
of the Eggar-moths are also infested by parasitic Ichneumonidce. A 
sketch of the cocoon of the Emperor Moth and of the cells formed by 
its parasitic inhabitants accompanied the note. 

Read also, " Some Notes on the Natural History of Norfolk 
Island," extracted from the papers of Capt. Alexander Maconochie, 
R.N., late Lieutenant-Governor of the island. 

February 4. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

George Robert Gray, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

1845.] Linnean Society. 229 

Read the commencement of a paper " On the Nervures of the 
Wings in Lepidopterous Insects ; and on the genus Argynnis of the 
' Encyclopedie Alethodique.' " By Edward Doubleday, Esq., F.L.S. 
&c. &c. 

Read also " Observations on the immediate causes of the Ascent 
of the Sap in Spring." By Arthur Henfrey, Esq., F.L.S. &c. &c. 

Mr. Henfrey thinks that none of the causes generally stated, viz. 
1. Endosmosis ; 2. Capillary Attraction ; and 3. Evaporation, are suf- 
ficient to determine the first start of the sap. He objects to attri- 
buting to the two first-named causes (endosmosis and cajjillary at- 
traction) a primary part in the production of this phccnomenon, that 
they cannot act where there is no outlet above, and where conse- 
quently no current can take place. As regards evaporation, he is 
inclined to believe that it does not come into operation until a cer- 
tain quantity of the sap has been absorbed and assimilated to the 
new tissues. He refers to the precaution taken in the autumn to 
cover up those portions of the plant which are ex2)osed to the atmo- 
sphere so as to protect them from its action, and to the fact that 
buds burst forth, not from evaporation, but on the contrary, from 
being gorged with moisture, as proofs that evaporation cannot be re- 
garded as giving the primary impulse to the current of the sap. The 
true cause of the ascent of the sap must, he thinks, be looked for in 
the chemical changes which take place in the materials stored up in 
the cells during the autumn. The insoluble grains of starch are con- 
verted into soluble substances (dextrine and sugar) which are dis- 
solved by the water always present in the tissues. A current is thus 
produced by two concurrent circumstances, viz. the exhaust arising 
from the syrup occupying less space than the materials from which 
it was derived, and the endosmosis resulting from the increased den- 
sity of the fluid contents of the cells. This chemical change Mr. 
Henfrey believes to be brought about by the increase of temperature, 
but whether it is immediately efi'ected through the action of diastase 
or other substances he is not at present prepared to give an 

No. XXIV. — Proceedixgs of the Linxeax SociExy. 

230 Linnean Society. [February 18, 

February 18. 

W. H. Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

John Walton, Esq., was elected a Fellow, and Mr. Thomas Hall 
an Associate. 

Read a memoir " On Agaricus crinitus, L., and some allied spe- 
cies." By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., F.L.S. &c. &c. 

Mr. Berkeley refers to the Fungi of the Linnean herbarium as few 
in number but in good condition, and comprising some remarkable 
forms. Among these not the least interesting is the Agaricus cri- 
nitus, which, together with a few allied species, it is the object of the 
paper to illustrate. 

1. Lentinus crinitus, pileo late infundibuliformi repando badio-rufo fibris 
innatis apice liberis vix fasciculatis regulaviter striato margine reflexo, 
stipite sequaU pallida sericeo-farinoso, lamellis acutis integris rigidius- 
culis subdistantibus glandulosis decurrentibus postice anastomosan- 

Agaricus crinitus, L. Sp. Plant, ed. 2. p. 1644. 

Hab. in ligno in Americil Australi, Rolander in Herb. Linn. 

The Agaricus crinitus of Swartz and Fries (figured and described 
under the same name by Mr. Berkeley in the ' Annals of Natural 
History ') is very distinct, and has since been named by Mr. Berkeley 
Lentinus Swartzii. 

2. Lent, tener, pileo tenui regulari late infundibuliformi repando cervino 
fibris fasciculatis subcrispis vestito subtiis sericeo-striato margine sub- 
sulcato, stipite gracili aequali pallido granulato-furfuraceo, lamellis 
subdistantibus pallido-ligneis opacis lato-denticulatis glandulosis decur- 
rentibus postic^ vix anastomosantibus. 

Lent, toner, Klotzsch ; Fries Syn. Lent. p. 6, Epicr. p. 389 ; Berh, in Hook. 

Lond. Journ. of Bot. ii. p. 362. 
Hab. in ligno, in Mont. Organ, Gardner; ad Novum Aureliam, Klotzsch. 

3. Lent. Schomburgkii, pileo tenui late infundibuliformi repando cervino 
floccis mollibus fasciculatis leviter crispatis vestito demum medio sub- 
glabrescente sericeo-striato, stipite aequali sublurido parce furfuraceo 
apice sericeo, lamellis confertis tenuibus decurrentibus postice anasto- 
mosantibus pallide cervinis eglandulosis acie denticulatis. 

Hab. in ligno sicco, in Guiana Britannica, Schomburgk. 


Linnean Society. 


4. Lent, nigripes, Fries. 

On the synonymy of this species, as well as of the two preceding, 
Mr. Berkeley makes some obsen'ations. 

5. Lejif. Leveillei, pileo tenui late infundibuliformi repando explanato 
rigidiusculo floccis crispatis subfasciculatis rarioribus vestito, stipite 
aequali nigro-furfuraceo, lamellis confertis fuscatis decurrentibus glan- 
dulosis ochraceis acie granulato-dentatis postice vix anastomosantibus. 

Ifab. ad Surinam. 

The paper was illustrated by a series of drawings from the pencil 
of Mr. J. De C. Sowerby, F.L.S. &c. 

March 4, 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

James Scott Bowerbank, Esq., Francis Plomley, M.D., and David 
Price, Esq., were elected Fellows. 

Read the commencement of "An Enumeration of the Plants of 
the Galapagos Islands." By J. D. Hooker, Esq., M.D., F.L.S. &c. 

Read also some Additions and Corrections to his " Monograph of 
the Myriapoda Chilopoda " read during the last Session. By George 
Newport, Esq. Communicated by the Secretary. 

These additions have reference chiefly to the characters and habits 
of the family Lithohiidce, and to the genus Scolopendrella of M. Ger- 
vais. This genus Mr. Newport had in his Synopsis Generum, pub- 
lished at p. 193, proposed to refer as a subfamily to Geophilidce ; but 
on a closer examination of its characters, he finds that they indicate 
a much higher type of development and approximate it very nearly 
to LithobiidcB. He proposes therefore to establish Scolopendrellidee 
as a separate family, and to place them next after Lithobiidie. 


Linncan Sociefy. 

[March 18 

March 18. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
Edward Doubleday, Esq., Surgeon, was elected a Fellow. 

A compound Microscoije for the use of the Society was presented 
by the following Fellows : — 

Eilwavd Forster, Esq., V.P. 
Tliornas Bell, Esq. 
J. J. Bennett, Esq. 
F. Boott, Esq., M.D. 

E. Doubleday, Esq. 
J. A. Hanke)-, Esq. 

J. D. Hooker, Esq., M.I). 
J. Janson, Esq. 

F. H. Jinson, Esq. 
T. C. Janson, Esq. 
W. H. Lloyd, Esq. 

J. Milne, Esq. 

F. G. P. Neison, Esq. 

D. Sharpe, Esq. 
R. H. Sollv, Esq. 

E. Solly, Esq. 
W. H. Solly, Esq. 
N. B. Ward, Esq. 
A. White, Esq. 

J. E. Winterbottoni, Esq. 
W. Yarrell, Esq. 

Read " Remarks on the Examination of some Fossil Woods which 
tend to elucidate the structure of ceitain tissues in the recent Plant." ' 
By Edwin John Quekett, Esq., F.L.S. &c. &c. 

The structures which Mr. Quekett proposes to elucidate are the 
fibres of spiral vessels and the dots of the woody fibres of Coni/erce. 

On the first head he states, that in the examination of a specimen 
of fossil Palm- wood, he observed that a portion of it readily broke 
down into minute fragments, which, on examination under the mi- 
croscope, were seen to be composed of cyhnders more or less elon- 
gated and min-ute rounded granules. Round the cylinders was wound 
a perfect screw (mth either a single or compound helix) undoubt- 
edly fashioned from the interior of the spiral vessel, and affording 
the most satisfactory evidence that the spiral fibre is really formed 
in the interior of the vessel, as most recent observers have main- 

On the second point, the nature of the dots on the woody fibres 
of Coni/erce, Mr. Quekett's observations derived from fossils filso 
confirm the views now most generally entertained by microscopic 
observers of the recent structures. In a specimen of fossil wood from 
Fredericsberg in Virginia, received from Prof. Bailey, which was 
easily broken into minute fragments in the direction of the woody 
fibres, he found a beautiful example of casts of woody tissue with 
numerous spirals traversing the interior. At various parts were seen 

1845.] Linnean Society. 233 

arranged the ordinary coniferous dots, to the outside of which (pro- 
jecting beyond the outUne of the fibre when seen obliquely) adhered 
small bodies of the same size which bore the precise representation 
of the coniferous disc, and were evidently casts of cavities existing 
in the original plant : some of these were also seen detached. These 
appearances, Mr. Quekett states, prove the correctness of the mo- 
dern belief, that the discs are formed by depressions on the outside 
of the walls of two contiguous fibres, giving rise to cavities of a len- 
ticular form. 

Mr. Quekett concludes his paper with some observations on the 
process of silicification in its various stages and modifications ; and 
endeavours thereby to account for the readiness with which some 
silicified woods break down into separate portions, exhibiting perfect 
casts of the organs within which the siliceous matter was deposited, 
while others are cemented into a mass incapable of organic sepa- 

Read also " Notes on the Variations of Structure in the British spe- 
cies oi Eurytomid(B." By Francis Walker, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

In this paper Mr. Walker enumerates the variations in each seg- 
ment of the British Eurytumidce, and comes to the conclusion that, 
in grouping the species of a genus of this family, the primary divi- 
sions may be formed from the variations of the thorax, and the secon- 
dary divisions from the variations of the abdomen, of the antennae, 
and of the nervures of the wings. He regards Eurytoma as the ty- 
pical genus of the family ; and believes that the three genera Isosoma, 
Systole and Decatoma converge towards it by as many radii. An un- 
described genus, to which Mr. Walker gives the name of Porcia, is 
nearly allied to Decatoma, and is thereby connected wich Eurytoma. 

Mr. Walker takes a summary view of the three genera Eurytoma, 
Isosoma and Decatoma, noticing under each the peculiar characters 
of the genus and the modifications to which they are subject. He 
points out the number of variations which occur in the British spe- 
cies in the structure of their segments, and gives arranged lists of 
the species, commencing with those which are most characteristic of 
the genus, and ending with those which are least so. 

Read also the conclusion of Mr. Doubleday's " Remarks on the 
genus Argynnis of the ' Encyclopedic Methodique,' especially in re- 
gard to its subdivision by means of characters drawn from the neu- 
ration of the wings." 

Mr. Doubleday commences by referring to the successive attempts 

234 Linnean Society. [March 18, 

made by Jones, by M. Boisduval, and by M. Lefevre to apply the 
characters drawn from the neuration of the wings to the arrangement 
of Lepidoptera ; and to the use of characters derived from the same 
source in the works of M. de Haan, Dr. Rambuhr, and Mr. West- 
wood. In the present paper he endeavours to test the value of the 
neuration of the wings in subdividing a large natural group, for which 
purpose he selects the genus Argynnis of the ' Encyclopedic Metho- 

After stating generally the theory of the wing proposed by M. 
Lefevre, Mr. Doubleday proposes an amended theory as follows : 
" That the structure of the wings in insects is to have two distinct 
sets of air-vessels or nervures, three belonging to the anterior half of 
the wing, three to the posterior ; that in those species in which the 
wings are in the most truly normal condition these nervures are all 
fuUy developed and all subserve to their true functions ; that in de- 
scending from these we first find some of the nervures less developed, 
but still subserving to their functions, then becoming gradually atro- 
phied, and at last disappearing altogether ; and that this gradation de- 
pends partly on the rank which the species hold in the true system of 
nature, and partly on their oeconomy ." The three upper nervures exist, 
Mr. Doubleday states, in the anterior wings of a large portion of the 
Heterocera ; but the lowest or discoidal one is often wanting, though 
its nervules remain : in the Rhopalocera it is always wanting, and its 
nervules are united either to the subcostal or median nervures. 

Admitting the correctness of the above views, we have in the 
Rhopalocera a median nervure with constantly three nervules, above 
which are the two discoidal nervules, and then the subcostal nervure, 
generally offering five nervules, but sometimes only three. Various 
modifications in the number and connexion of these nervules are in- 
dicated in different genera. 

The genus Argynnis, Godart, always offers five subcostal nervules, 
never, as Mr. Doubleday believes, anastomosing with the costal ner- 
vure. Removing from it three species, Arg. Alcandra, Aceste and 
Lucina, and perhaps Arg. Metea, and adding to it some of the Ce- 
thosice, it becomes a most natural group. Of the subdivisions pre- 
viously made in it Mr. Doubleday takes a brief review, and then pro- 
ceeds to point out the sections into which he proposes to divide it, 
which are founded in a great degree on the position of the subcostal 

The first of these is Agraulis properly so called ; the second com- 
prehends Argynnis Thais, Clagia and their allies ; Arg. lole forms 
the type of a third ; the fourth is formed by the genus Phalanta of 

1845.] Linnean Society. 235 

Dr. Horsfield, including some species not previously referred to it ; 
the fifth has for its type Arg. Egesta ; the sixth includes the genus 
Clothilda of M. Blanchard ; the seventh M. Boisduval's section Ma- 
jores, with the addition of Latho?iia and some other species ; the 
eighth comprises his Minoi'es, with the exception of one or two spe- 
cies ; and the remaining species compose the genus Melitcea properly 
so called. In all these sections Mr. Doubleday describes at length 
the structure of the nervures and their nervules, and notices the 
geographical distribution of the species. 

The paper was accompanied by a series of figures illustrative of 
the neuration of the wings of various species. 

April 1. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Arthur Hill Hassall, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read " Observations on two Malayan species of Senuiopithecus." 
By Theodore Cantor, M.D., Civil Surgeon, Prince of Wales's Island. 
Communicated by T. Horsfield, M.D., V.P.L.S. 
, The Semnopitheci which form the subject of Dr. Cantor's paper are 
Semn. cristatus, Horsfield, and a new species which Dr. Cantor names 
and characterizes as follows : — 

Semnopithecus halonifer, nitide cinereo-nigrescens, crista occipitis cana, 
abdomine subalbido, cauda subcinerea, facie auribus manibus pedibus 
tuberibusque ischiatieis nigris, palpebris labiisque lacteis veluti halo- 
nibus circumdatis : tarsis palpebrarum nigris, pbalangibus digitorum 
primis membvana inter se junctis. 
Juvenis : Pallidior, crista occipitis cinerea, facie nigro-caerulescenti. 
Neonatiis : nitide fulvus. 

Of this species, which inhabits the jungle in troops of from five to 
twenty. Dr. Cantor gives a detailed description, with an account of 
its habits both wild and in a state of captivity, and details of the dis- 
section of a young male, particularly as regards the stomach, which 
presented, with some modifications, the same highly developed struc- 
ture as the other species of the genus which have been examined. 
It appears to be most nearly allied to Semn. Maurus, Horsf. 

Semn. cristatus, Horsf., is also a native of Prince of Wales's Island 
and the opposite part of the Malayan Peninsula. Dr. Cantor com- 

236 Linnean Society. [April 15, 

pares it with the foregoing species and gives some particulars of its 
habits in captivit}'', and of the dissection of a young female. 

The paper was illustrated by figures of Semn. halonifer and of its 
stomach and csecum, and of the head of Semn. cristatus, its stomach 
and gall-bladder. 

April 15. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Frederick Staines, Esq., of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, was elected 
a Fellow. 

Read the commencement of a paper, entitled " Some Observations 
upon the Structure of two new species of Hectocotyle parasitic upon 
Tremoctopus violaceus, DeUe Chiaje, and Argonauta Aryo, L. ; with 
an exposition of the hypothesis that these Hectocotyle are the malefe 
of the Cephalopoda on which they are found." By Albert Kolliker, 
Professor of Physiology and Comparative Anatomy in the University 
of Zurich. Communicated by R. Brown, Esq., V.P.L.S. 

Read also a " Description of the Wild Dog of the Malayan Penin- 
sula." By Theodore Cantor, M.D., Civil Surgeon, Prince of Wales's. 
Island. Communicated by Dr. Horsfield, V.P.L.S. 

Chrys^us soccatus, ore vulpino, superne ferriigineo-fulvus pilis dorsi 
nigro apiculatis infra subfulvus, rostro naso labiis palpebris striaque ob- 
liqua carpali nigris, caucUe peiidulae vulphiEe besse apicah nigro, digitis 
(anticis 5 posticis 4) pilis longioribus occultis veluti soccatis. 

This species, of which Dr. Cantor gives a detailed description, ap- 
pears, he states, to form an intermediate link between Chryseeus Su- 
matrensis. Ham. Smith, and Chrys. Javanicus of the same author. But 
in the former of these two species all the feet are pentadactylous ; 
neither of them has the feet hairy ; and the second tubercular tooth 
of the lower jaw is present in both, but absent in Chrys. soccatus. A 
pair of the last-named species were captured in Malacca and brought 
to Prince of Wales's Island, where they died a few days after their 
arrival. Dr. Cantor states, on the authority of Wm. Lewis, Esq., 
Assistant Resident Councillor at Penang, that they hunt deer and 
antelopes in troops of from thirty to fifty or more. He gives also 
some particulars of their anatomy, and a figure of the species. 

1845.] Linnean Society. -237 

May 6. 

ITie Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Benjamin Clark, Esq., was elected a Fellow ; and II Cavaliere 
Giambattista Amici, M. G. P. Deshayes, and Prof. Karl Friedrich 
von Ledebour, Foreign Members. 

Read the conclusion of Prof. KoUiker's memoir on the Hectocotyla 
of TVemoctopus violacens and Argonauta Argo. 

In this paper Prof. Kolliker gives a detailed description of the 
external form and anatomical structure of two remarkable parasites 
referable from their characters to the genus Hectocotyle of Cuvier, 
and bearing much resemblance to the Hect. Octopodis of that author. 
Of one of these, that which is parasitic on the Argonaut, Delle Chiaje 
has given an unsatisfactory account in his Memoirs on Comparative 
Anatomy, under the name of Trichocephalus acetabularis ; and Costa 
has endeavoured, in the sixteenth volume of the second series of the 
' Annales des Sciences Naturelles ' to prove that it is only a separated 
portion of the animal on which it is found. But this opinion is, ac- 
cording to Prof. Kolliker, quite erroneous, all its characters indica- 
ting beyond a doubt that it is a distinct animal. The two species 
described were found by Prof. Kolliker at Messina, and are severally 
named by him Hect. Treinoctopodis and Hect. Argonautce, from the 
animals on which they parasitically live. 

Prof, Kolliker enters into a particular statement of the reasons 
which have induced him to believe that these Hectocotyla are in 
reality the males of the Cephalopods on which they are found ; of 
which reasons he gives the following summary : — 

1. The Hectocotyl(E have arteries and veins, a heart and branchiae ; 

and hence it is improbable that they should be Epizootic 

2. Hect. Argonauta and Hect. Tremoctopodis bear a close relation to 

the Cephalopoda in general, and more especially to the genera 
on which they are found ; inasmuch as they have — 

a. The same spermatozoa ; 

b. Contractile pigment-cells ; 

c. Similarly formed and similarly organized suckers ; 
No. XXV. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

23& Linnean Society. [May 24, 

d. The same remarkable arrangement of the muscular fibres 
— the Hectocotylce in the muscular envelope of the body, 
the Cephalopoda in their arms. 

3. Among 280 Argonauts examined not a single male was found. 

4. Nevertheless the males must be very numerous, inasmuch as 

nearly all the Argonauts carry impregnated ova. 

5. The Hectocotylee live in the neighbourhood of the female sexual 

organs of their Cephalopods, and are all males. 

6. The eggs of the Argonaut contain, according to Madame Power 

and Maravigna, embryos perfectly similar to the Hect. Argo- 
naut ce. 
If this last statement be correct, adds Dr. KoUiker, there can be 
no doubt that the Hect. Argonauts is the male of the Argonaut. 

Read also a continuation of Dr. J. D. Hooker's " Enumeration of 
the Plants of the Galapagos Islands." 

Anniversary Meeting. 
May 24. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

The President opened the business of the Meeting, and the list of 
the Members whom the Society had lost during the past year having 
been first read, the Secretary proceeded to read the following notices 
of some among them. 

The deaths among the Fellows amounted to thirteen. The first 
name is that of 

Francis Baily, Esq., who was the son of a banker at Newbury in 
the county of Berks, and was born at that place on the 28th of April 
1774. At the age of fourteen he was sent to London, where he re- 
mained in a mercantile house till his twenty-second year, and then 
travelled for a year or two in the United States. About the year 1801 
he entered into business as a stock-broker ; and soon afterwards 
distinguished himself as a mathematician and accountant by a series 
of highly useful and important works on the Purchase and Renewal 
of Leases and the Doctrine of Interest, Annuities and Insurances. 

In the year 1811 he commenced his astronomical career by the 

1845.] lAnnean Society. 239 

publication in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' of a memoir on the 
Solar Eclipse said to have been predicted by Thales ; and from this 
time appears to have formed the resolution, which on his retirement 
from business in 1825 he fuUy carried out, to devote himself wholly 
to mathematical, physical and astronomical pursuits. He was one of 
the founders and the first Secretary of the Astronomical Society, of 
which he was afterwards four times President ; and in everj'thing 
connected with that Society and with its objects he took a leading, 
an active, and a most efficient part. His labours in these depart- 
ments were multifarious, and demanded both intense thought and 
incessant application. They are too little connected with natural 
history to admit of detailed consideration here ; but a summary of 
them has been given by Sir John F. W. Herschel in an eloquent me- 
moir of their author, published in the " Monthly Notices of the Royal 
Astronomical Society," which contains an ample record of the life, 
character and labours of this eminent man. 

Mr. Baily became a Fellow of our Society in 1817 : he was also 
a Fellow of the Royal , Geological and Geographical Societies, an ^" 
Honorary Member of the Royal Irish Academy, and a Correspondent 
of the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of France and of various 
other Foreign Academies. In 1835 the University of Dublin con- 
ferred on him the honorary title of D.C.L., and the same honour 
was awarded to him by that of Oxford in 1844. He died on the 30th 
of August last in the 71st year of his age. 

Charles Cordeaiix, Esq., M.D. 

The Very Rev. Edmund Goodenough, P. P., F.R.S ., Dean of Wells, ^-' 
was the son of the Right Rev. Samuel Goodenough, Bishop of Car- 
lisle, an original Member of this Society, for many years one of its 
Vice-Presidents, and well-known by his memoirs on British Carices 
and British Fuci, published in early volumes of our ' Transactions.' 
Dr. Goodenough the son was himself much attached to the study of 
natural history : he was for many years head-master of Westminster 

William Griffith, Esq., the youngest son of the late Thomas Grif- 
fith, was born on the 4th of March 1810, at his father's residence at 
Ham Common, near Kingston- upon-Thames, in the county of Surrey. 

He was educated for the medical profession, and completed his 
studies at the London University, where he became a pupil of Prof. 
Lindley, under whose able instructions, assisted by the zealous 
friendship of Mr. R. H. Solly, and in conjunction with two fellow- 
pupils of great scientific promise, Mr. Slack and Mr. Valentine, he 
made rapid progress in the acquisition of botanical knowledge. The 

240 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

first public proofs that he gave of his abilities are contained in a mi- 
croscopic delineation of the structure of the wood and an analysis of the 
flower of Phytocrene gigantea, in the third volume of Dr. Wallich's 
* Plantse Asiaticse Rariores' ; and in a note on the development and 
structure of Targionia hypophylla, appended to M, de Mirbel's Disser- 
tation on Marchantia polymorpha, both published in 1832. So highly 
were his talents as an observer appreciated at this early period, that 
Dr, Wallich speaks of him as one " whose extraordinary talents and 
knowledge as a botanist entitle him to the respect of all lovers of the 
science ;" and M. de Mirbel characterizes him as " jeune Anglois, tres 
instruit, tres zele et fort bon observateur." 

His note on Targionia is dated Paris, April 2nd, 1832, and in the 
month of May of the same year, having finished his studies at the 
London University with great distinction, he sailed from England for 
India, which was destined to be tlie scene of his future labours. He 
arrived at Madras on the 24th of September, and immediately re- 
ceived his appointment as Assistant-Surgeon in the service of the 
East India Company. 

His first appointment in India was to the coast of Tenasserim ; but 
in the year 1835 he was attached to the Bengal Presidency, and was 
selected to form one of a deputation, consisting of Dr. Wallich and 
himself as botanists, and Mr. MacClelland as geologist, to visit and 
inspect the Tea-forests (as they were called) of Assam, and to make 
researches in the natural history of that almost unexplored district. 

This mission was for Mr. Griffith the commencement of a series of 
journeys in pursuit of botanical knowledge, embracing nearly the 
whole extent of the East India Company's extra-peninsular posses- 
sions, and adding large collections in every branch of natural history, 
but especially botany, to those which, under the auspices of the In- 
dian Government, had previously been formed. He next, under the 
directions of Capt. Jenkins, the Commissioner, pushed his investiga- 
tions to the utmost eastern limit of the Company's territory, tra- 
versing the hitherto unexplored tracts in the neighbourhood of the 
Mishmee Mountains which lie between Suddiya and Ava. Of the 
splendid collection of insects formed during this part of his tour, some 
account has been given by Mr. Hope in the Transactions of the En- 
tomological Society and in the eighteenth volume of our own Trans- 

His collection of plants was also largely increased on this remark- 
able journey, which was followed by a still more perilous expedition, 
commenced in February of the following year, from Assam through 
the Burmese dominions to Ava, and down the Irawaddi to Rangoon, 

1845.] Linnean Society. 241 

in the course of which he was reported to have been assassinated. 
The hardships through which he passed during the journey and 
his excessive application produced, soon after his arrival in Calcutta, 
a severe attack of fever, on liis recovery from which he was appointed 
Surgeon to the Embassy to Bootan, then about to depart under the 
charge of the late Major Pemberton. He took this opportunity of 
revisiting the Khasiya Hills, among M'hich he formed a most exten- 
sive collection ; and having joined Major Pemberton at Goalpara, tra- 
versed with him above 400 miles of the Bootan country, from which 
he returned to Calcutta about the end of June 1839. In November 
of the same year he joined the army of the Indus in a scientific ca- 
pacity, and penetrated, after the subjugation of Cabool, beyond the 
Hindoo Khoosh into Khorassan, from whence, as well as from AfF- 
ghanistan, he brought collections of great value and extent. During 
these arduous journeys his health had several times suffered most 
severely, and he was more than once reduced by fever to a state of 
extreme exhaustion ; but up to this time the strength of his consti- 
tution enabled him to triumph over the attacks of disease, and the 
energy of his mind was so great, that the first days of convalescence 
found him again as actively employed as ever. 

On his return to Calcutta in August 1841, after visiting Simla and 
the Nerbudda, he v/as appointed to the medical duties at Malacca ; 
but Dr. Wallich having proceeded to the Cape for the re-estabiish- 
ment of his health, Mr. Griffith was recalled in August 1842 to take, 
during his absence, the superintendence of the Botanic Garden near 
Calcutta, in conjunction with which he also discharged the duties of 
Botanical Professor in the Medical College to the great advantage of 
the students. Towards the end of 1844 Dr. Wallich resumed his 
functions at the Botanic Garden. In September Mr. Griffith mar- 
ried Miss Henderson, the sister of the wife of his brother. Captain 
Griffith, and on the 11th of December he quitted Calcutta to return 
to Malacca, where he arrived on the 9th of January in the present 
year. On the 31st of the same month he was attacked by hepatitis, 
and notwithstanding every attention on the part of the medical of- 
ficer who had officiated during his absence and who fortunately still 
remained, he gradually sunk under the attack, which terminated 
fatally on the 9th of February. " His constitution," says his at- 
tached friend, Mr. MacClelland, in a letter to Dr. Horsfield, " seemed 
for the last two or three years greatly shattered, his energies alone 
remaining unchanged. Exposure during his former journeys and 
travels laid the seeds of his fatal malady in his constitution, while 
his anxiety about his pursuits and his zeal increased. He became 

i242 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

care-worn and haggard in his looks, often complaining of anomalous 
symptoms, marked by an extreme rapidity of pulse, in consequence 
of which he had left off wine for some years past, and was obliged 
to observe great care and attention in his diet. In AfFghanistan he 
was very nearly carried off by fever, to which he had been subject in 
his former travels in Assam. No government ever had a more de- 
voted or zealous servant, and I impute much of the evil consequences 
to his health to his attempting more than the means at his disposal 
enabled him to accomplish with justice to himself." 

The most important of Mr. Griffith's published memoirs are con- 
tained in the Transactions of the Linnean Society. Previous to 
starting on his mission to Assam, he communicated to the Society 
the first two of a series of valuable papers on the development of the 
vegetable ovulum in Santalum, Loranthus, Viscum, and some other 
plants, the anomalous structure of which appeared calculated to 
throw light on this still obscure and difficult subject. These papers 
are entitled as follows : — 

1. On the Ovulum of Santalum album. Linn. Trans, xviii. p. 59. 

2. Notes on the Development of the Ovulum of Loranthus and Vis- 

cum ; and on the mode of Parasitism of these two genera. Linn. 
Trans, xviii, p. 71. 

3. OatYi^OYVilnrQ. oi Santalum, OsyriSyLoranthtis^n^Viscum. Linn. 

Trans, xix, p. 171. 

Another memoir, or rather series of memoirs, " On the Root- Pa- 
rasites referred by authors to Rhizanthece, and on various plants re- 
lated to them," occupies the first place in the Part of our Transac- 
tions which is now in the press, with the exception of the portion 
relating to Balanophoreae, unavoidably deferred to the next following 
Part. In this memoir, as in those which preceded it, Mr. Griffith 
deals with some of the most obscure and difficult questions of vege- 
table physiology, on which his minute and elaborate researches into 
the singularly anomalous structure of the curious plants referred to 
will be found to have thrown much new and valuable light. 

In India, on his return from his Assamese journey, he published in 
the ' Transactions of the Agricultural Society of Calcutta,' a " Re- 
port on the Tea-plant of Upper Assam," which, although for reasons 
stated avowedly incomplete, contains a large amount of useful infor- 
mation on a subject which was then considered of great practical im- 
portance. He also published in the ' Asiatic Researches,' in the 
' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,' and in the ' Transactions 
of the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta,' numerous valuable 
botanical papers ; but the most important of his Indian publications 

1845.] Linnean Society. 243 

are contained in the ' Calcutta Journal of Natural History,' edited 
jointly by Mr. MacClelland and himself. Of these it may be suffi- 
cient at present to refer to his memoir " On Azolla and Salvinia," 
two very remarkable plants which he has most elaborately illustrated, 
and in relation to which he has entered into some very curious spe- 
culations ; and his still unfinished monograph of " The Palms of Bri- 
tish India," which promises to be a highly important contribution to 
our knowledge of a group hitherto almost a sealed book to European 

But the great object of his life, that for which all his other labours 
were but a preparation, was the publication of a General Scientific 
Flora of India, a task of immense extent, labour and importance. To 
the acquisition of materials for this task, in the shape of collections, 
dissections, drawings and descriptions, made under the most favour- 
able circumstances, he had devoted twelve years of unremitted ex- 
ertion. His own collections (not including those formed in Cabool 
and the neighbouring countries) he estimated at 2500 species from the 
Khasiya Hills, 2000 from the Tenasserim provinces, 1000 from the 
province of Assam, 1200 from the Himalaya range in the Mishmee 
countr)', 1 700 from the same great range in the country of Bootan, 
1000 from the neighbourhood of Calcutta, and 1200 from the Naga 
Hills at the extreme east of Upper Assam, from the valley of Hook- 
hoong, the district of Mogam, and from the tract of the Irawaddi 
between Mogam and Ava. Even after making large deductions from 
the sum-total of these numbers on account of the forms common to 
two or more of the collections, the amount of materials thus brought 
together by one man must be regarded as enormous. The time was 
approaching when he believed that he could render these vast col- 
lections subservient to the great end which he had in view. He 
had some time since issued an invitation to many eminent botanists 
in Europe to co-operate with him in the elaboration of particular 
families ; and he purposed after a few years' additional residence in 
India to return to England with all his materials, and to occupy 
himself in giving to the world the results of his unwearied labours. 
But this purpose was not destined to be fulfilled, his collections 
have passed by his directions into the hands of the East India Com- 
pany, and there can be no doubt, from the well-known liberality of 
the Directors, which this Society in particular has so often expe- 
rienced, that they will be so disposed of by that enlightened body as 
to fulfil at once the demands of science and the last wishes of the 
faithful and devoted servant by whom they were formed. It is hoped 
too that the most important of his unpublished materials, both in 

244 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

drawings and manuscripts, will be given to the world in a manner 
worthy of the author and oLthe rank in science which he filled. 

John Lewis Guillemar<C Esq., -wsls -well known to this Society as a 
very amiable and worthy man, who took considerable interest in the 
pursuits of science. In early life he resided in America, and was 
chosen as their umpire by the British and American Commissioners 
for the arrangement of the debts due by American citizens to British 
subject^. He died at his house in Gower-street in December last at 
a very advanced age. 

Robert Hills, Esq., was an artist of great and original talent, 
especially in the delineation of deer and antelopes j and some of his 
labours in this department of his art have ornamented our own 
Transactions and those of the Zoological Society. 

Joseph Hurlock, Esq. 

Sir John Jamison, M.D. 

John Leonard Knapp, Esq., one of the oldest Fellows of the Society, 
was bom at Shenley in Buckinghamshire, of which parish his father, 
the Rev, Primatt Knapp, was rector, on the 9th of May 1767. He 
was educated at the grammar-school of Thame in Oxfordshire, but 
being destined for the navy, left school at an early age. The sea, 
however, disagreeing with his health, he left the navy and after- 
wards served both in the Hereford and Northampton Militia, in the 
latter of which he commanded a troop. Previous to the death of his 
father he resided principally at Powick near Worcester, from which 
place he usually made botanical excursions during the summer 
months, one of which extended into Scotland, where, in company 
with the late Mr. George Don, he collected several of the rarer 
grasses figured in his ' Gramina Britannica, or Representations of 
the British Grasses, with Remarks and occasional Descriptions,' pub- 
. lished in4to in 1804. This volume contains coloured figures of 119 
species or remarkable varieties ; and offers many useful observations 
on the agricultural and other properties of the grasses figured. It 
was printed by Bensley, and the whole impression, with the ex- 
ception of 100 copies in the hands of the binder, was destroyed by 
the fire which consumed the establishment of that printer soon after 
its completion. To this accident Mr. Knapp alludes in a poem, en- 
titled " Progress of a Naturalist," printed at the end of the third 
edition of his ' Journal of a Naturalist,' and in the preface to a new 
edition of the ' Gramina Britannica,' which he issued in 1842, with 
little alteration of the original text and no addition of species. 

In 1818 Mr. Knapp published anonymously a poem in 8vo, en- 
titled " Arthur, or the Pastor of the Village," and between 1820 and 

1845.] Linnean Society. 245 

1830 he contributed a series of articles called " The Naturalist's 
Diary" to 'Time's Telescope.' In 1829 he also published with- 
out his name a little work entitled ' The Journal of a Naturalist,' 
which gives a pleasing idea of the pursuits by which a country gen- 
tleman imbued with a taste for natural history may amuse his leisure. 
Of this work a second and a third edition have since appeared. 

In 1804 he married Lydia Frances, the daughter of Arthur Free- 
man, Esq., of Antigua, by whom he had seven children, three only 
of whom, two sons and a daughter, survive. Shortly afterwards he 
took up his residence at Llanfoist near Abergavenny, where he con- 
tinued until 1813, when he removed to Alveston in the neighbour- 
hood of Bristol, at which place he died on the 29th of April in the 
present year. His latter years were spent almost entirely in the 
pursuit of his favourite study of natural history and in the cultiva- 
tion of his garden. His unpublished drawings of British Fungi oc- 
cupy five 4to volumes. He became a Fellow of the Linnean Society 
in the year 1 796, and was also a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 

The Earl of Mountnorris (more generally known by the title of his 
youth, Lord Valentia) was born at Arley Castle, Staffordshire, on 
the 7th of December 1770, and educated at Oxford. In 1789 he 
visited France and Germany ; and in 1802, accompanied by Mr. Salt 
as his draughtsman and secretary, he commenced the interesting 
joui'ney, of which he subsequently published an account, in three 
volumes 4to, under the title of ' Voyages and Travels in India, the 
Red Sea, Abyssinia and Egypt,' 1802-6. He sat for a short time 
in parliament, and succeeded to the earldom on the death of his 
father in 1816. His own death took place at the seat of his birth 
on the 23rd of July last, in the 74th year of his age. 

His lordship became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1796, and 
of the Roy al^Society also in the same year. During his travels he 
paid some attention to natural history and made a small botanical 

The Marquis of Sligo. 

John Smirnove, Esq.^- ^^"^' 

John Wedgewood, Esq., of Seabridge, Staffordshire, was conversant 
with various branches of natural history, and especially botany. He 
was also much attached to chemistry and horticulture, and contri- 
buted several papers to the ' Transactions of the Horticultural So- 
ciety,' and the ' Gardener's Chronicle.' Mr. Wedgewood was held 
in great esteem as a man of high moral worth and amiable and ge- 
nerous disposition. He was born about March 1766, and died on 
the 26th of January 1844. 

246 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

'ITie Society has also lost by death three of its Foreign Members. 

Richard Harlan, M.D., was of Quaker parentage and born in the 
city of Philadelphia about the year 1795. He studied medicine under 
Dr. Joseph Parrish, one of the surgeons of the Pennsylvania Hospital, 
whose anatomical assistant he became, dissecting extensively him- 
self and directing the dissections of the younger pupils. In 1 817, at 
which time he was settled in practice, he had already commenced 
the study of comparative anatomy with zeal and success ; and there 
is reason to believe that his devotion to natural history interfered 
greatly with the brilliant prospect that was opened to him as a me- 
dical practitioner. But he had made his choice, and was quite pre- 
pared to sacrifice fortune and professional eminence to his favourite 
pursuit. As early as 1819 he delivered a course of lectures on Com- 
parative Anatomy at the Philadelphia Museum (Peale's), where he 
had amassed a considerable stock of materials for demonstration, but 
the attendance was small, and he gave up lecturing in disappoint- 

About this period the return of MacLure to the United States, 
accompanied by Lesueur, gave a new stimulus to the cultivation of 
natural history, and the complete establishment of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia under the Presidency of MacLure 
brought together the most distinguished names in the science that 
America had produced. Among Dr. Harlan's claims to remembrance, 
not the least are derived from his zeal in the early constitution of 
this Society, and from his example of sedulous devotion to its pur- 
suits. To the pages of its Journal he contributed numerous valu- 
able papers. 

In 1825 he published his ' Fauna Americana ; being a Description of 
the Mammiferous Animals inhabiting North America,' a work partly 
compiled from Desmarest's ' Mammalogie ' and from other less- 
known publications, but containing in addition much useful original 

In 1832, when the Asiatic cholera made its first appearance at 
Quebec and Montreal, considerable apprehension was excited in the 
public mind, and Dr. Harlan was appointed by the City Councils of 
Philadelphia one of a Commission of three, consisting of himself, Dr. 
Jackson and Dr. Meigs, to proceed to Canada, " to inquire into the 
origin, nature, progress, &c. of the prevailing epidemic." After making 
extensive inquiries, the Commission returned to Philadelphia with 
such a mass of information on the subject as enabled them to give to 
the people of that city ample warning of the nature of the premonitory 
symptoms and of the precautions to be adopted, and thereby greatly 

1845.] lAnnean Society. 247 

to mitigate the severity of the disease and to reduce the number of 
its victims. For his tripartite share in this service Dr. Harlan re- 
ceived a handsome gratuity from the municipal authorities, together 
with a piece of silver plate bearing an inscription in record of its 
object ; and he was also appointed to the charge of one of the local 
hospitals, in the conduct of which he was most successful. 

He subsequently married the daughter of a Quaker merchant in 
Philadelphia, by whom he had several children. His first visit to 
England was made about this time ; but he afterwards returned to 
Europe with the design of establishing himself in practice in Paris. 
In this object, however, he was disappointed, and he once more 
sought refuge in his native city. Here again he was doomed to dis- 
appointment, and he was at length led to believe that a better chance 
of success was opened for him at New Orleans, in which city he fell 
a victim to disease when there was just reason for thinking that he 
was on the point of meeting with that success which his talents and 
acquirements so well deserved. He became suddenly hemiplegic, and 
died in the course of a few days from the time of his attack in the 
autumn or late summer of 1844. 

He was elected a Foreign Member of the Linnean Society in 1835 ; 
and in the same year he collected his various scattered memoirs into 
an 8vo volume, entitled ' Medical and Physical Researches ; or Ori- 
ginal Memoirs in Medicine, Surgery, Physiology, Geology, Zoology 
and Comparative Anatomy.' The greater part of this volume con- 
sists of papers previously published ; but it also contains several not 
before given to the world. Those relating to natural history occupy 
a very considerable portion of the work, and contain much valuable 

Etienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire was bom at Etampes on the 15th of 
April 1772, and destined for the ecclesiastical profession; but an 
early introduction to Haiiy, whose pupil he became, entirely changed 
the character of his pursuits, and for a time he gave himself up almost 
entirely to the study of mineralogy. When, in consequence of the 
events of the 10th of August 1792, Haiiy was thrown into prison, 
and placed, in common with so many others, in extreme peril of his 
life, young Geoffroy ardently exerted himself to procure the libera- 
tion of his teacher, which he succeeded in accomplishing, and was 
repaid for his exertions by the zealous friendship of the great mine- 
ralogist. On the warm recommendation of Hatty, Daubenton pro- 
cured for him on the 13th of March 1793 the appointment of Assist- 
ant Keeper and Demonstrator of the Museum of Natural History, 

248 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

vacated by the resignation of Lacepede ; and on the 10th of June in 
the same year, when the Jardin des Plantes was re-organized in con- 
formity with a decree of the Convention, Geoffroy, then only 21 years 
old, was appointed to the Professorship of Zoology for the Verte- 
brated Animals, the duties of which he afterwards shared with La- 
cepede. From this period he devoted his whole attention to zoology, 
and several valuable papers which he published in the ' Decade Phi- 
losophique ' and ' Magazin Encyclopedique ' attest the rapidity of his 
progress in his new pursuit. 

In 1798 he was appointed one of the scientific Commission which 
accompanied the French army into Egypt, and whose labours have 
added so much celebrity to that expedition. Of these labours M. 
Geoffroy contributed an important share, and to his firmness science 
in all probability owes their preservation. When the French army 
were about to evacuate the country, the papers and drawings belong- 
ing to the Commission were demanded by the English general ; but 
a resolute intimation of their determination to commit the whole to 
the flames, if the demand were persisted in, delivered through the 
mouth of M. GeoiFroy, had its proper effect — Lord Hutchinson with- 
drew his orders, and the Commission were left in possession of the 
fniits of their researches. 

On his return to Paris from this expedition M. Geoffroy resumed 
his lectures at the Jardin des Plantes, and occupied himself assi- 
duously in adding to the zoological collections of the museum and 
in improving their arrangement. He was elected a Member of the 
Institute in 1807 ; and in 1810 was again despatched on a mission 
to Portugal. After encountering great dangers on his road through 
Spain, arising from the excited state of the country, he arrived in 
Portugal, where he succeeded in accumulating large collections of 
minerals and animals, chiefly obtained from the cabinets of the Palace 
of Ajuda and of the Academy of Lisbon. In pursuance of the capi- 
tulation for the evacuation of Portugal by the French, the restora- 
tion of these collections was demanded by General Beresford and 
Lord Proby ; but M. Geoffroy claiming them as his private property, 
and the conser^'ators of the collections from which they were ob- 
tained declaring that they had been given to him in exchange for 
other specimens and in return for services, he was suffered to retain 
them, and in 1815 they were not reclaimed by Portugal. In this 
last-named year M. Geoffroy was elected Member of the Chamber of 
Deputies for his native town. He had been a Member of the Legion 
of Honour from the establishment of the order ; and became gra- 

1845.] Linnean Society. 249 

dually associated with a large number of scientific Societies through- 
out the world. His election as a Foreign Member of the Linnean 
Society took place in 1824, and he died on the 19th of June 1844. 
A mere list of his zoological writings would occupy a considerable 
space. Besides a number of important papers in the ' Annales ' and 
• Memoires du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle,' in the ' Bulletin de la 
Societe Philomathique,' in the ' Annales des Sciences Naturelles/ in 
the ' Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles,' and in other scientific 
miscellanies, he published separately several works which have con- 
tributed in no small degree to the progress of zoological and anato- 
mical science. Among these the most important is his ' Philosophic 
Anatomique,' in two vols., published in 1818 and 1823 ; the first en- 
titled ' Des Organes Respiratoires sous le rapport de la determina- 
tion et de I'identite de leurs pieces osseuses,' the second ' Des Mon- 
struosites Humaines.' In this work he endeavours to demonstrate 
throughout the animal kingdom a uniform plan of organization, re- 
cognizable by the existence, not of the same organs, but of the mate- 
rials of the same organs in all. From the period of the publication 
of his ' Philosophic Anatomique,' this " unity of composition " be- 
came the leading idea of all his writings. It was the subject of a 
lengthened discussion between him and Cuvier ; and presides over 
his ' Systeme Dentaire des Maminiferes et des Oiseaux,' published 
in 1824, his ' Considerations Generales sur les Monstres,' in 1826, 
his ' Cours de I'Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes,' of which only 
one volume appeared in 1829, as well as over numerous notes and 
memoirs on the structure of Marsupialia and Monotremata, published 
at various times. To him, conjointly with Cuvier, France is indebted 
for the elevated position in zoology which she has occupied for the 
last half century. Following up with equal zeal and success the 
career of anatomical investigation opened for them by Daubenton, 
Vicq d'Azyr and others, and adding to the habits of minute inves- 
tigation of those excellent observers a spirit of philosophical genera- 
lization, these two great zoologists created a school in which the 
study assumed a really scientific character. From this school have 
emanated the most valuable contributions that zoology has received 
in our times, and it will long continue to exercise a salutary influ- 
ence over the labours of succeeding generations. 

Karl Bernhard von Trinius was born at Eisleben on the 7th of 
March 1778. He devoted himself at an early age to the study of 
botany, and especially of the grasses, on which he published nume- 
rous highly important works. Of these the principal separate pub- 
lications are : ' Fundamenta Agrostographiae, sive Theoria construe- 

250 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

tionis Floris Graminei, adjecta Synopsi Generum Graminum hucus- 
que cognitorum,' 8vo, Viennae, 1820 ; ' Clavis Agrostographiae Anti- 
quioris,' Coburgi, 1822; ' De Graminibus unifloris et sesquifloris 
Dissertatio Botanica,' 8vo, Petropoli, 1824 ; and ' Species Graminum 
Iconibus et Descriptionibus illustratae,' in three vols, folio, Petropoli, 
1828, 1829 and 1836. His contributions on the same subject to the 
Memoirs of the Academy of St. Petersburgh were numerous and im- 
portant, including a revision of the genera and species of Panicea in 
the restricted sense of that tribe, of Stipete, of Bambusece, &c. 

In these works he propounded a theory of the structure of the 
gramineous flower, which although supported with much ingenuity, 
has met with little acceptation among botanists. But his systematic 
labours on the family have contributed in no small degree to its elu- 
cidation, and his patient and elaborate investigations will ensure him 
a distinguished position among that valuable class of observers who 
devote themselves to the study of a single famUy of large extent. 

M. Trinius had long been resident at St. Petersburgh, where he 
became a Corresponding Member of the Academy in 1810, and an 
Effective Member in 1823. He was also for many years Director, 
as indeed he was in a great degree the founder, of the Botanical 
Museum; with which in 1843 he incorporated his own collection of 
grasses, estimated by M. Meyer to contain from 35,000 to 40,000 
specimens belonging to 5000 species. These numbers may well be 
regarded as enormous, when we reflect that M. Kunth's Enumera- 
tion of the family, hicluding a great number of doubtful species, 
scarcely exceeds 3000. With such vast resources at his disposal, 
we may expect from M. Ruprecht, who has been associated with 
M. Trinius in several of his later memoirs, and who has attached 
himself particularly to the study of the Grasses, large contributions 
to our knowledge of this important family. 

M. Trinius was, as we are informed, an intimate friend of Chamisso, 
and like him mingled a genius for poetry with his botanical pursuits. 
He was admired for his varied accomplishments and for his depth of 
intellect, and loved for his amiable disposition and agreeable manners. 
He died at St. Petersburgh on the 12th of March 1844. 

And lastly we have to lament the death of one Associate. 

Thorms Charles Hope, M.D., F.R.S., V.P.R.S.E. S^c, Professor of 
Chemistry in the University of Edinburgh, was the son of Dr. John 
Hope, for many years Professor of Botany in the same University, 
and was bom at Edinburgh on the 21st of July 1766. On the death 
of his father in 1786 he became a candidate for the vacant chair, but 

1845.] Linnean Society. 251 

failed in obtaining it, and then directed his attention towards che- 
mistry, on which he was appointed Lecturer at Glasgow in the fol- 
lowing year. He continued at Glasgow until 1795, in which year 
he delivered a course in Edinburgh conjointly with Black, whose de- 
caying health allowed him only to deliver the lectures on Caloric. 
In the year 1796 he succeeded Black in the Chemical Chair in the 
University of Edinburgh, which he continued to fill for nearly half a 
century. During the whole of this lengthened period he maintained 
the character of a most popular and able lecturer, and obtained a 
high reputation in chemical science, without individually contribu- 
ting much to its progress. 

His earliest contribution to the Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh was " An Account of a Mineral from Strontian, and of 
a peculiar species of Earth which it contains," published in the third 
and fourth volumes. But his most important researches were on the 
subject of Heat, and on the Phaenomena of Freezing, an object which 
occupied his attention almost to the period of his death, his last com- 
munication to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, read on the 1st of 
May 1843, being "An Attempt to explain the Phsenomena of the 
Freezing- cavern at Orenburg." On the 3rd of April in the same 
year he had laid before the same Society a paper entitled " Chemical 
Observations on the Flowers of the Camellia Japonica, Magnolia 
grandiflora and Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum ; and on three proxi- 
mate principles which they contain," thus connecting his plater che- 
mical with his earlier botanical pursuits. 

Dr. Hope was the oldest surviving Member of the Linnean Society, 
having been elected an Associate on the 18th of March 1788. In 
the same year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, and in 1810 of the Royal Society of London. In 1843, he 
found himself unequal to the continuance of his lectures, which were 
delivered for him by Dr. Traill, and he shortly afterwards resigned 
the Chemical Chair. He died on the 13th of June 1844, having nearly 
completed his 78th year. 

The Secretary also announced that 16 Fellows, 3 Foreign Mem- 
bers, and 1 Associate had been elected since the last Anniversary. 

At the election which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop of 
Norwich was re-elected President ; Edward Forster, Esq., Treasurer ; 
John Joseph Bennett, Esq., Secretary ; and Richard Taylor, Esq., 
Under-Secretary. The following five Fellows were elected into the 
Council in the room of others going out : viz. C. C. Babington, Esq., 
Secretary of the Cambridge Philosophical Society ; Thomas Bell, 

252 Linnean Society. [June 3, 

Esq., Professor of Zoology in King's College, London ; Bracy Clark, 
Esq. ; Edwin John Quekett, Esq. ; and Richard Horsman Solly, Esq. 

June 3. 

Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read a paper entitled " Descriptions of some unpublished species 
of Plants from North- Western India." By M. Pakenham Edgeworth, 
Esq., F.L.S., Bengal Civil Service. 

This paper contains characters and descriptions of 142 species of 
Phsenogamous plants presumed to be new to science. Several are 
described as forming new genera, which are characterized as fol- 
lows : — 


Trib. AmminejE. 

Gen. Acro7iema, Falc. MSS. 

Calych margo obsoletus. Petala lanceolata, in apiculum filiformem rec- 
tum acuminata. Stylopodium bifidum, dilatatum. Styli divergentes, 
apice deflexi. Fructus subovatus, a latere compressus, subdidymus ; 
mericarpia basi gibba, apice angustata, jugis 5 sequalibus tenuiter fili- 
formibus, omnino evittata ; carpophorum liberum, integrum, apice bi- 
dentatum. Semen teres convexum, antice plaiiiuscuhim. 

A. tenerum. — Sison?tener, Wall. List; Helosciadium ? tenenun, DeC. 
Prodr, iv. p. 1 06. 

Gen. Petrosciadium. 

Calycis limbus obsoletus. Petala ovata, integra ; lacinula inflexa. Fruc- 
tus a latere compressus, oblongus, stylopodio pidvinato stylisque diver- 
gentibus reflexis coronatus; mericarpia 5-juga, jugis filiformibus aequa- 
libus, valleculis 1-vittatis, commissura bivittata; carpophorum biparti- 
tum, adnatum. Semen planum, oblongum, basi angustatum. 

P. ccespitosum. 

Trib. Angelice^. 
Gen. Oreocome. 

Ca///C2s limbus 5-fidus, laciniis subulatis. Petala ovata, apiculo inflexo 
plus minus emarginato. Fructus a dorso compressus, stylopodio sty- 
lisque reflexis coronatus ; mericarpia 5-juga, jugis alatis marginantibus 
amplis, valleculis univittatis, marginalibus quandoque bivittatis, com- 

1845.] Linneun Society. 253 

missura 2- — 4-vittata. Semen antice planum, vel subconcavum, dorso 
sub valleculis sulcatum. Carpophorum liberum, bipartitum. 

1. O. elata, foliis 4 — 5-pinnatisectis; caulinis superioribus 3-pinnatisectis : 
pinnis primariis ad vaginas apicem sessilibus : laciniis inciso-dentatis 
acutis, involucelli foliolis linearibus, valleculis dorsalibus 1— margina- 
libus 1 — 2-vittatis ; commissura 4-vittata, semine antice piano. 

2. O. fllkifolia, foliis inferioribus 4 — 5-pinnatisectis; superioribus 3-pin- 
natisectis : pinnis omnibus petiolatis : segmentis pinnatifidis : lobis an- 
gustis lanceolatis acutis mucronatis, involucelli foliolis biformibus lan- 
ceolatis pinnatifidisque, valleculis dorsalibus 1 — marginalibus 1 — 2- 
vittatis ; commissnrd 4-vittata, semine antice subconvexo. 

To this genus are referable Selinum CandolUi, DeC. Prodr. iv. p. 165, 
Peucedanum WalHchianum, DeC. Prodr. iv. p. 181, and Pleurosper- 
mum cicutarium of Royle's Illustrations. 

Trib. CaucalinejE. 
Gen. Psammogeton. 
Calycis limbus obsoletus. Petala obcordata ; lacinula ex fissura orta in- 
flexa. Styli basi conica subrecti. Fructvs teres ; mericarpia jugis 
5 primariis filifonnibus setas glocbidiatas gerenlibus, secundariis sim- 
plici serie setosis, valleculis sub jugis secundariis 1-vittatis, commissure 
bivittata plana. Semen albumine leviter excavato. Carpophorum bi- 
partitum, liberum. 

Subord. CcELOSPERME^. 

Gen. Schaphespermnm. 
Calycis margo 5-dentatus, dentibus subulatis cadncis. peialcf obovata 
Integra, apiculo inflexo. Stylopodium tumidum, depressum. Styli 
longi, reflexi. Fructus subglobosus ; mericarpia 5-juga, jugis filifor- 
mibus aequalibus, valleculis 1-vittatis, commissure 2 — 4-vittata ; carpo- 
phorum liberum, bipartitum. Semen aniich longitudinaliter concavum, 
doi"so leviter sub valleculis sulcatum. 

S. trilobum. 

Ord. COMPOS IT/i:. 


Gen. Stictopliylluni. 
Capitulum multiflorum, liomogamum. Involucrum oi^oideum, squamis 
regulariter imbricatis ex ovato-oblongis exappendiculatis. Recepfaculi 
fimbrillas in squamas integras furcatasve setosas productas. Corolla 
5-fida, subregularis, fauce sensim ampliata 5-nervi, basi incrassata bul- 
bosa. Staminum filamenta papillosa ; antheres appendice acuta, caudis 
2 brevibus sublaceris. Pollen globosum, echinulatum. Stylus basi bul~ 
bosus, corona epigyna denticulata ad nodum penicillatus ; ramis bre- 
vibus extias puberulis ; lirieis stigniatosis filiformibus marginantibus. 
Jchenium areola terminali central!, basilar! lateral!, incurvum, angu- 
latum, costatum, glabrum, laeve, annulo integro brevi superatum ; pap- 
No. XXVI. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society, 

254 Linnean Socieiif. [June 3, 

pus pluviserialis, pilis insequalibus plumosis basi liberls persistentibus. 
— Folia punctata. 


Gen. StreptoUrion. 

Sepala 6, hyalina, persistentia, exteriora latiora, interiora linearia. Sta- 
mina 6, perfecta ; filamentis supra medium barbatis ; antheris bilocu- 
laribus, loculis brachiatim divavicatis apice dehiscentibus. Stylus erec- 
tus ; stigmate capitato, puberulo. Ovarium 3-loculare ; loculis biovu- 
latis ; ovulis ad medium placentae centralis aflfixis. Capsula chartacea, 
trilocularis, trivalvis, loculicide dehiscens. Semina in quoque loculo 
duo superposita, inferius pendulum, superius erectum, angulata, irregu- 
lariter rugoso-sulcata ; hilo lineari, papillS, (embryostega) parva de- 
pressa ei opposita. Embryo testa sub papilla producta latiovi circum- 
datus, in albumine carnoso subfarinaceo excavate nidulans. — Herba 
voluhiUs, hahitu et perianthio a Tradescantia d'lstinctissima, charactere 
carpolegico maxime affinis. 

S. volubile. 

Read a paper entitled " Caricis species novae vel minus cognitse." 
By Franri^ Boott, iM.D., F.L.S. &c. 

The species described in this paper are eighteen in number, and 
they are characterized as follows : — 

1. C. ALTA, spica composita elongata e spiculis basi masculis pluribus ob- 
longis simplicibus : supevioribus contiguis alternatis : inferioribus remo- 
tiusculis bracteatis, sligmatibus 2, perigyniis parvis ellipticis marginatis 
ciliato-serratis utrinque nervosis breviter rostratis bidentatis squamam 
pallidam ovato-acuminatam subsequantibus. 

Hab. in Insula Java, Dr. Horsjield. 
Affinis C. remotcB, L. 

2. C. sociA, spicis 8 v. 9 cylindricis solitariis geminatisqne ferrugineis 
concoloribus : terminali mascula breviori erecta; fcemineis 7 v. 8 apice 
masculis pendulis : supevioribus appvoximatis geminatis : inferioribus 
remotis solitariis : omnibus evaginatis bracteatis, stigmatibus 2, peri- 
gyniis orbiculatis abrupte brevi-cylindrico-rostratis ore integro enerviis 
squama lanceolata acuminato-cuspidata laevi brevioribus. 

Hab. in Insula Ceylon, Col. Walker {v. in Herb. Hooker). 
Affinis C. geminata, Scbk. 

3. C. ORBICULARIS, &picis 4 parvis congestis sessilibus ebracteatis ; termi- 
nali mascula oblonga fusco-fenniginea ; reliquis fcemineis apice mas- 
culis ovatis atro-purpureis, stigmatibus 2, perigyniis compressis orbicu- 
latis abrupte rostellatis ore iiitegris enerviis atro-purpureis basi pallidis 
squama lanceolata obtusa nigro-purpurea concolori vix longioribus tri- 
ploque latioribus. 

Hab. in India Oriental!, Prof. Royle. 
Affinis C. saxatili, L. {C.pullce, Gooden.) 


1845.] Linnean Society. 255 

4. C. PRUiNosA, spica mascula 1 subclavata ; fcemineis 4 cylindricis pe- 
dunculatis evaginatis erectis contiguis; superioribus apice masculis : 
inferioribus longissime bracteatis, stigmatibus 2, perigyniis ovatis ros- 
tellatis emargiuatis obsolete nervosis albo-tuberculatis squama lanceo- 
lata mucronata longioribus latioribusque. 

Hab. in Insula Java, Dr. Horsfield. 

C. glaucescenli, Ell. (quae tamen stigmatibus 3 gaudet) habitu et aspectu 

5. C. suBDOLA, spicis 5 — 7 C3lindncis erectis ferrugineopurpureis soli- 
tariis v. geminatis ; masculis 1 — 3 : terminali longiore longe peduucu- 
lata : infima cum spica suprema fceminea v. androgyna apice mascula 
geminata; fcemineis 3 — 4 stricte erectis solitariis v. supremis genicu- 
latis longissime bracteatis ; superioribus approximatis sessilibus : infima 
plixs minus remota vaginata vel radical! basi attenuata laxiflora longe 
exserte pedunculata, stigmatibus 2, perigyniis ovalibus rostellatis ore 
integro stipitatis nervosis stramineis squama oblonga emarginata his- 
pido-aiistata v. mutica obtusa ferrugineo-purpurea nervo lato \nridi 
longioribus latioribusque vel earn subaequantibus. 

Hah. in Nova Zealandia, Dr. J. D. Hooker. 
Primo aspectu C. Goodenovii, Gay, similis. 

6. C. DEciDUA, spicis 4 — 7 erectis ; suprema mascula vel androgyna basi 
V. apice basique mascula ; reliquis fcemineis : superioribus sessilibus con- 
tiguis oblongis : inferioribus cylindricis pedunculatis bracteatis evagi- 
natis rarius geminatis v. compositis : infima interdum subremota, stig- 
matibus 2, perigyniis oblongo-ovatis rostellatis ore integro iitrinque 
nervosis stipitatis pallidis deciduis squama oblonga obtusa atro-purpu- 
rea nervo pallido decidua longioribus latioribusque. 

Hab. in Insulis Falkland, Dr. J. D. Hooker ; in Fretu Magellanico, Port 
Famine, Anderson. 

Habitu C. Goodenovii, Gay, affinis. 

7. C. DURA, spica decomposita e spiculis 7 — 20 oblongo-ellipticis ferru- 
gineo-purpureis androgynis apice masculis : superioribus simplicibus con- 
fertis sessilibus : inferioribus subremotis pedunculatis bracteatis emar- 
ginatis basi compositis, stigmatibus 2, perigyniis obovatis rostellatis 
bidentatis atro-purpureis lucidis enerviis estipitatis squama lanceolate 
acuta apice ciliata v. hispido-mucronata nervo pallido brevioribus. 

Hah. in Columbia, Pillylum, ad alt. 13,000 ped., Jameson (v. iii Herb. 
Hooker) . 

Aspectus C. atratcB, L. 

8. C. Pichinchensis, spica decomposita e spiculis 20 — 35 ovatis v. ob- 
longo-cylindraceis ineequalibus fuliginoso-purpureis androgynis apice 
extreme masculis : supremis 8 — 12 congestis sessilibus simplicibus : re- 
liquis in spicas primrim simplices deinde deorsum magis compositas 
pedunculatas inferiores brevi-bracteatas subnutantes? insidentibus, stig- 
matibus 2, perigyniis (floriferis) glabris enerviis ovalibus cylindrico- 

256 Linnean Society. [June 3^ 

rostratis bidentatis stipitatis basi pallidis sqiiana lanceolata acuminata 
acuta niutica fuliginoso- purpurea concoloii brevioribus. 

C. Picbinchensis, Kunth. 

Hah. in montibus Quito, Hmnboldt, Jameson, no. 143 {y. in Herbb. 
Hooker et Lernann). 

Affinis C. LemannianeB. 

9. C. Lemanniana, spica decomposita e spiculis 20 — 40 C3lindricis inae- 
qualibus ferrugineo-purpureis androgynis apice extreme masculis : su- 
premis 6 — 12 congestis ses'silibus : reliquis in spicas 4 v. 5 alternas pe- 
dunculatas erectas* plus minus compositas foliaceo-bracteatas insiden- 
tibus, stigmatibus 2, perigyniis ovalibus brevi-cylindrico-rostratis sub- 
bifurcatis stipitatis nervosis viridibus superne ferrugineo-tinctis ad mar- 
gines aculeatis squama lanceolata longfe acuminata acuta vel rariias 
hispido-mucrouata purpureo-ferruginea nervo palUdo subduplo brevi- 

Hab. in locis Immidis Montis ignivomi Cotopaxi Columbiae, Hartweg, 
no. 1446 (Herb. C. M. Lemann) ; Columbia, Jameson, no. 220 (Herb. 

Affinis C. Pichincliensi, Kth. 

10. C. Mertens'ti, spiels 4 — 10 cylindricis androgynis basi masculis pe- 
dunculatis nutantibus approximatis : inferioribus remotis, stigmatibus 
?>, perigyniis ovatis acutis rostellatis ore integro tenuissimis compressis 
binerviis squama oblonga mutica v. mucronulata longioribus latiori- 

C. Mertensii, Prescott, Hook. Fl. Bor.-Amer. t. 217. 
C. Columbiana, Dewey. 

Hab. in Americas Ora Boreali-Occidentali, A. Menzies, Esq. ; ad fl. Co- 
lumbia, Dr. Scolder ; in Insula Sitcha, ex Bongard. 

11. C. CRiNALis, spicis 3 — 5 oblongis congestis sessilibus erectis olivaceo- 
ferrugineis : termiuali majore androgyna basi mascula : reliquis foemi- 
neis bracteatis evaginatis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis ellipticis triquetris 
conico-rostratis bifidis glabris striato-nervosis ferrugineis squama aequi- 
lata ovata obtusa v. acuta rarivis mucronulata longioribus. 

Hab. in Columbia prope Antisana, Hartweg, no. 1461 {Herb. Bentham) ; 
Pillylum, Jameson (Herb. Hooker). 
Affinis C. hirsiitcB, Willd. 

12. C. NIVALIS, spicis 4 atro-purpureis cuneatis v. ellipticis contiguis; su- 
perioribus androgynis basi masculis ; infima fceminea exserte pedun- 
culata subremota brevi setaceo-bracteata, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis el- 
lipticis erosiratis bidentatis superne ad margines scabriusculis enerviis 
compressis atro-purpureis basi albidis tenuissimis squama atro-purpurea 
lanceolata mucronata longioribus latioribusque. 

Hab. in India Orientali, supra Dhunrao, versus fauces Montium Himalen- 
sium Mana dictas, ad altitudinem 16,000 ped., M. P. Edgeworth, Esq. 
Facies C. atratce, L. ; C. coriophoree, Fisch. affinior. 

1845.] Linnean Society. 257 

13. C. ciNNAMOMEA, spici's 5 cjlindricis nutantibus basi attenuatis ferru- 
gineis concoloribus; terminali androgyna basi mascula reliquis fceniineis : 
superioribus coiitiguis sessilibus : inferioribus pedunculatis : infima re- 
mota longe exserte vaginato-bracteata basi composita, stigmatibus 3, 
perigyniis ovalibus bidentatis enerviis compressis ferrugiueis basi albi- 
dis superne marginibus pallidis scabriusculis squama oblouga acuta vel 
cuspidata ferruginea longioribus latioribusque. 

Hab. in India Orientali, Prof. Boyle. 
C. coriophorcE, Fisch. affinis. 

14. C. Banksii, spicis 3 — 7 oblongis ovatisque crassis atro-purpureis ex- 
serte pedunculatis nutantibus ; suprema basi mascula ; reliquis foemi- 
neis infima remota, stigmatibus 3 longis, perigyniis hyalino-tenuissimis 
late ovatis compressis leviter nervosis cylindrico-rostratis glabris ore 
obliquo bifido squama oblongo-spatliulata emarginata cristata breviori- 
bus latioribusque. 

C. atrata et C. Magellanica, Herb. Banks. 

Hab. in Terra del Fuego, Banks et Solander (v. etiam in Herbb. Henslow 
et-Hooker e eel. Darwin, sub num. 300 et 301). 

15. C. Walkeri, spica composita e spiculis pluribus androgynis apice 
masculis fasciculatis cylindricis laxifloris inaequalibus exserte setaceo- 
pedunculatis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis angustis triquetro-lanceolatis 
longe-rostratis bicuspidatis stipitatis nervosis marginibus superne ser- 
rato-scabris squama lanceolata cristata longioribus. 

C. Walkeri, Jrnott 3ISS. 

Hab. in Insula Ceylon {Herb. Arnott). 

C. validce, Nees proxima. 

16. C. HoRSFiELDii, glaucescens concolor, spicis 4 v. 5 decompositis 
erectis strictis alternis : inferioribus longe exserte pedunculatis remotis : 
terminali majore evaginata ; spiculis apice masculis oblongis alternis 
patentibus, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis triquetro-ellipticis acuminato- 
rostratis bidentatis oblique fissis arcuatim recurvis nervosis superne 
parce serrato-denticulatis squama ovata albo-membranacca hispido- 
aristata nervo viridi scabriusculo longioribus. 

Hab. in Insula Java, Dr. Horsjield. 
Affinis C. polystachijce, Willd. 

17. C. LEicANTHA, spica dccomposita e spiculis parvis androgynis apice 
masculis ; terminalibus et infra ad apicem pedunculorum congesto-ses- 
silibus axillaribus ; spicis partialibus 4^ — 6 alternis plus minus compo- 
sitis : inferioribus remotis elongatis exserte pedunculatis : superioribus 
approximatis abbreviatis sessilibus, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis trigono- 
ellipticis acuminatis rostratis alte oblique fissis striato-nervosis scabris 
squama ovata hispido-mucronata pallida nervosa duplo longioribus. 

C. leucantha, Arnott MSS. 

Hab. ad Courtallum, in Penins. Indiae Orientalis, Wight {Herb. Wight, 

258 Linnean Society. [June 17, 

2379 a, "July 1838, no. 993," juvenilis; 2379 b. var. composita; "Aug. 
1835, no. 992, 998," senilis). 

18. C. Jamesoni, spicis circiter 20 fusco-nigris cylindricis androgynis 
apice masculis inaequaliter longe pedunculatis bracteatis evaginatis pen- 
dulis simplicibus compositisque : extremis solitariis : reliquis geminatis 
ternatisve, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis lanceolatis uti'inque nei-vosis in 
rostrum breve attenuatis bidentatis glabris atro-purpureis squama lan- 
ceolata hispido-cuspidata fusco-nigra margine albo-membranacea bre- 
vioribus angustioribusque. 

Hah. in Montibus Columbise, ad altit. 13,000 ped., Jameson (Herb. 

Proxima C. Boryance, Schk. 

June 17. 

Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read a continuation of Dr. Boott's paper entitled " Caricis spe- 
cies novae vel minus cognitae." 

The species now described are fifteen in number, characterized as 
follows : — 

1. C. GuNNiANA, spicis 4 V. 5 oblongis v. cylindricis erectis; terminali 
mascula sessili ; foemineis 3 v. 4 superioribus sessilibus contiguis : infe- 
rioribus remotis foliaceo-bracteatis exserte pedunculatis, stigmatibus 3, 
perigyniis trigono-ellipticis subinflatis acuminato-rostratis bidentatis ad 
margines superne scabriusculis stramineis aequaliter utrinque nervosis 
squama late ovata mucronata v. hispido-cuspidata longioribus. 

Hah. in Insula Van Diemen, D. Gunn (Herhb. Hooker et Lindley). 
AflSnis C. laxijlorcB, Lam., et C. Icevigatce, Smith. 

2. C. coMosA, spicis 4 cylindricis densifloris ; mascula 1 erecta gracili 
bracteata; fcemineis 3 — 5 crassis demum nutantibus v. pendulis lon- 
gissime bracteatis : superioribus contiguis : infima remota longius pe- 
dunculata interdum plus minus vaginata, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis tri- 
quetro-lanceolatis longe rostratis alte bicuspidatis : laciniis elongatis 
patentissimis subrecurvis : stipitatis glabris nervosis demiim divergen- 
tibus retroflexisque squama lanceolate hirsuta ciliata nervosa longe 
hispido-aristata longioribus. 

C. furcata, Ell. {non Lapeyr.) 
C. pseudo-cyperus, Torr., Dew. {non L.) 

Hub. in Georgia et Carolina, Elliott ; Ohio, Sullivant ; Philadelphia et 
Utica, Torrey ; Boston, Boott. 

1845.] Linnean Society. 259 

Satis (Elliottio Nuttallioque monentibus) a C. pseudo-cypero, L., etiam 
Americse Septentrionalis incola, distincta. 

3. C. TRiQUETRA, spicis 3 V. 4 ; mascula 1 elliptico-cylindrica ; foemineis 
2 V. 3 approximatis laxis apice masculis : suprema ovatd sessili : infimS 
cylindrica basi attenuata longe vaginata incluse pedunculata, stigma- 
tibus 3, perigyniis ellipticis acute triquetris pubescentibus bidentatis 
sub-4-iierviis squama ovata mucronata ferruginea margine scariosa 

Hab. in California, Nutlall. 

Proxima C. gynoiasis, Vill. (C. alpestris, All.) 

4. C. GLOBosA, spicis 4 — 6 ; mascula 1 cylindrica ; foemineis 3 — 5 ovatis 
oblongisve erectis evaginatis laxe paucifloris : superioribus 1 v. 2 sub- 
sessilibus masculae approximatis : inferioribus remotis subradicalibus 
longe pedunculatis, stigmatibus 3, pei'igyniis globosis conico-rostratis 
ore membranaceo obliquo longe stipitatis hirsuto-scabris nervosis squa-' 
mam lanceolatam mucronatam subaequantibus. 

Hah. in California, Nuttall. 

AfRnis C. bispicata, Hook. (C longerostrata, Meyer, C. catnschatcense, 

5. C. Tweediana, spicis 8 cylindricis erectis; terminali mascula simplici; 
reliquis andi'ogynis apice masculis compositis : superioribus approxi- 
matis sessilibus : inferioribus pedunculatis evaginatis : infima remota 
longissime exserte pedunculata, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis ovatis acumi- 
natis brevi-rostratis bifurcatis basi abrupte productis quasi stipitatis 
scabris nervosis stramineis purpureo-maculatis vel olivaceis squamam 
ovatam pallidam hispido-aristatam trinervem subaequantibus. 

C. Tweediana, Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. ii. p. 398. 
Hab. ad Buenos Ayres, Tweedie {Herb. Fielding). 
Affinis C. hirtce, L., et C. Houghfonii, Torr. 

6. C. FALEATA, spicis 7 — 10 cyliudricis erectis ; masculis 2 — 4 sessilibus 
contiguis : infima bracteata ; foemineis 5 — 7 remotis foliaceo-bracteatis 
exserte pedunculatis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis triquetro-obovatis brevi- 
rostratis bifidis apice bispidis nervosis impresso-punctulatis squamam 
ovatam byalino-paleaceam hispido-cuspidatam subaequantibus. 

Hab. in Insula Juan Fernandez, Dr. Scouler {Herb. Hooker). 
Affinitas dubia. 

7. C. Langsdorffii, spicis 3 v. 4 oblongis ; mascula 1 ; foemineis 2 v. 3 
laxifloris bracteatis exserte pedunculatis : superioribus contiguis : in- 
fima subremota, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis triquetro-fusiformibus biden- 
tatis nervosis hirto-scabris squama lanceolata hispido-cuspidata brevi- 

C. Japonica, Fisch. in Herb. Boott. 

Hab. in Insula Nangasaki Japoniae, Langsdorff. A C. Japonica, Thunb. 

i{Schk. Car. t. W.W.) perigyniis scabris spicisque gracilibus distincta. 

260 Linnean Society. - [June 17? 

8. C Bong AUDI, spicis 4 cylindricis erectis alleinis stramineo-pallidis 
concoloribus ; mascula 1 pedunculala; fcemineis 3 ajjice masculis basi 
attenuatis laxe imbricatis : inferioribus exserte pedunculatis bracteatis, 
stigmatibus 3, perigyniis ellipticis stipitatis late rostratis bicuspidatis 
superne serrato-hispidis striato-nervosis squama oblonj^a emarginata 
hispido-avistata brevioribus angustiovibusque. 

Hab. ad Bonin Insul. Loo Choo, Bongard, no. 70 {Herb, Hooker). 
C. trichocarpce, Muhl. et afRnibus proxima. 

9. C. Jackiana, spic^ mascula 1 oblongo-cylindrica ; fcemineis 4 v. 5 : 
superioribus oblongis contiguis sessilibus : inferioribus vaginalis longe 
exserte pedunculatis : infima remotissima elongata laxifloia interdum 
composita, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis triquetro-lanceolatis acuminatis 
striato-nervosis emarginatis squama ovato-acuminata aristata longi- 

Hab. in Insula Java, Dr. Horsfield. 

Habitu et aspectu C. pubescenti, Muhl. affinis. 

10. C. ^thiopica, spicis 4 v. 5 cylindricis erectis castaneis concoloribus ; 
mascula 1 ; fcemineis 3 v. 4 : superioribus approximatis incluse reliquis 
exserte pedunculatis : infima remota, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis ovatis 
triquetris rostratis bifurcatis nervosis sanguineo-maculatis squama ovato- 
lanceolala emarginata hispido-aristata brevioribus angustioribusque vel 

C. ^thiopica, Schk. t. Z. f. 83. 

Hab. in Africa Australi ; CafFer-land, Dr. Gill (Herb. Hooker) ; Uiten- 
hage, Zeyher, no. 684 (^Herb. Hooker). 

11. C. Arnottian.a, spicis 5 cylindricis erectis contiguis; terminali mas- 
cula ; reliquis fcemineis : inferioribus vaginalis inserte pedunculatis : 
superioribus sessilibus ebracteatis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis subinflatis 
ellipticis acuminatis cylindrico-rostratis bidentatis nervosis glabris oli- 
vaceo-viridibus squama lanceolata aristata longioribus. 

C. Neesiana, ArnottMSS. (iion Endlich.) — (^Herb. Arnott). 
Hab. in Insula Ceylon, Dr. Wight, " 1836, no. 1295." 
AfRnitas cum C.paludosd, Gooden. 

12. C. Sinai, glauca, spicis cylindricis gracilibus erectis ; mascula 1 ; 
fcemineis 4 inferioribus remotis exserte pedunculatis, stigmatibus 3, 
perigyniis elliptico-lanceolatis triquetris nervosis brevi-rostratis bifidis 
apice hispidis squama ferruginea emarginata obtusa mucronata longi- 

C. distans, L. var., Unio Itin. no. 176, 1835. 

Hab. " in fontanis ad radices Montis Sinai," Schimper. 

C. dilutee, Bieb. affinis. 

13. C. ABBREviATA, birsuta, spicis 3 v. 4 oblongis approximatis sessilibus ; 
terminali mascula; reliquis fcemineis : inferioribus brevi-bracteatis eva- 
ginatis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis trigono-obovatis abrupte brevi-rostratis 

1845.] Liunean Society. 261 

ore integro nervosis squama ovata mucrouata fernigined marginc mem- 

branaced longioribus. 
C. abbreviata, Prescotl MSS. 

Hub, in Sibiria Altaica {Herb. Fielding, olitn Prescutl). 
Proxinia C. striatee, Br. 

14. C. Gebleri, spica mascula 1 v. 2 cylindrica; foemineis 2 v. 1 oblongis 
V. cylindricis remotis pedunculatis erectis evaginato-bracteatis, stigma- 
tibus 3, perigyniis ovatis brevi latiuscuieque rostratis bicuspidatis lu- 
cidis nervosis purpureis squama ovata mucronala v. bispido-aristata 
purpurea margine membranacea longioi-ibus. 

C. Gebleri, Prescolt MSS. 

Hab. in Sibiria Altaica? Gebler (Herb. Fielding). 

C. rotundatce, Wahlenb. similis. C. vesicariat Bunge MSS. e China Bo- 
reali difFert soliim perigyniis ellipticis, squamis masculis muticis {v. s. in 
Herb. Fielding). 

15. C. Darwinii, spica mascula pedunculata solitaria?; foemineis G — 10 
cylindricis elongatis nutantibus remotis foliaceo-bracteatis evaginatis 
inaequaliter pedunculatis geminatis (ernatisque : inferioribus solitariis, 
stigmatibus 2, perigyniis ellipticis stipitatis nervosis brevi-rostratis ore 
integro papilloso asperatis squama lanceolata acuminata ferruginea 
latioribus brevioribusque. 

Hab. in Archipelago Chonas Americse Australis, Darwin, no. 304 {Herb. 
Henslow) . 

Read also " Characters of undescribed species of British Chalci- 
dites." By Francis "Walker, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

The following are the characters of the species described : — 

1. Pteromalus acrotatus? , viridis, abdomine cupreo, antennis piceis, 
pedibus fulvis ; coxis femoribusque basi viridibus, alis fuscis. — Long. 
Corp. lin. 1 ; alar. lin. Ig, 

Hah. in Scotia, prope Lanark, mense Julio. 

2. Pteromalus suNiDES^et ? , viridis, abdomine teneo ; maris fulvo-ma- 
culato, antennis nigris, pedibus maris flavis foeminse fulvis ; femoribus 
fusco-variis, alis limpidis. — Long. corp. lin. \\; alar. lin. If — 2. 

Hab. in Scotia, prope Edinam, Dr. Greville. 

3. Pteromalus Odites $ , cupreus, abdomine basi viridi, antennis piceis, 
pedibus flavis, alis limpidis. — Long. corp. lin. 1^ ; alar. lin. 2. 

Hab. in Scotia, prope Edinam, Dr. Greville. 

4. Pteromalus Bubaris ? , aeneo- viridis, abdomine cupreo, antennis 
nigris, pedibus fulvis ; femoribus fusco-cinctis, alis limpidis. — Long, 
corp. lin. f ; alar. lin. l^. 

Hub. in Scotia, prope Edinam, Dr. Greville. 

5. Pteromalus Nestocles^ et ? , viridis, abdominis disco aeneo vcl 
No. XXVII. — Proceedings op the Lij(rNBAN Society. 

263 Linnean Society. [June 17, 

cupreo, antennis fuscis piceisve, pedibiis fulvis flavisve ; femoribus viri- 
dibus, alis sublimpidis. — Long. corp. lin. f — | ; alar. lin. 1 — 1^. 
Hab. in Scotia, prope Edinam, Dr. Greville, Rev. G. T. Rudd. 

6. Pteromalus CERciDES(?et? , viridis, abdoniine cupreo, antennis ni- 
gris, pedibus fulvis ; femoribus viridibus, alis limpidis. — Long. corp. 
lin. 1 ; alar. lin. li. 

Hab. in Cambria Boreali, mense Septembri captus. 
Feeminse abdomen ovale subtiis carinatum. 

7. Pteromalus EcTioN<?, viridis, scutello asneo-viridi, abdomine nigro- 
cupreo basi fulvo-maculato, pedibus fulvis ; femoribus piceis, alis fuscis. 
— Long. corp. lin. 1; alar. lin. IJ. 

Hab. in Scotia, prope Edinam, Dr. Greville. 

8. Pteromalus XanthE(?, viridis, abdominis disco seneo, antennis pi- 
ceis, pedibus fulvis ; femoribus piceis ; tarsis flavis, alis limpidis. — Long, 
corp. lin. \\; alar. lin. If. 

Hab. in Scotia, prope Edinam, Dr. Greville. 

9. Pteromalus AoLLius (J, viridis, scutello viridi-seneo, antennis fuscis 
basi viridibus, pedibus fulvis ; coxis femoribusque viridibus ; tibiis 
fusco-cinctis, alis limpidis. — Long. corp. lin. f — | ; alar. lin. 1 — 1^. 

Hab. in Cambria Boreali, meuse Septembri captus. 

10. Pteromalus Antho $ , viridis, abdomine purpureo, antennis nigris, 
pedibus piceis ; femoribus viridibus, alis sublimpidis. — Long. corj). lin. 1 ; 
alar. lin. If. 

Hab. in Anglia, Rev. G. T. Rudd. 

11. Pteromalus Learchusc?, viridis, abdomine seneo-viridi, antennis 
fulvis basi flavis apice piceis, pedibus flavis, alis limpidis. — Long. corp. 
lin. i ; alar. lin. f . 

Hab. in Scotia, prope Edinam, Dr. Greville. 

12. Pteromalus Antorides<^, viridis, abdomine purpureo flavo-macu- 
lato, antennis fuscis, pedibus flavis, alis limpidis. — Long. corp. lin. 1 J ; 
alar. lin. 2. 

Hab. in Anglia, Rev. G. T. Rudd. 

13. Pteromalus Saravus $ , viridis, abdomine cyaneo-viridi disco cupreo, 
antennis piceis, pedibus flavis ; femoribus viridibus, alis limpidis. — 
Long. corp. lin. 1^ ; alar. lin. 2. 

Hab. , ex Musseo Rev. G. T. Rudd. 

14. Pteromalus Anaxenor^, viridis, abdominis disco cyaneo-viridi, 
antennis nigris, pedibus fulvis fusco cinctis ; tarsis flavis, alis limpidis. 
— Long. corp. lin. If ; alar. lin. 3. 

Hab. , ex Musseo Rev. G. T. Rudd. 

15. Pteromalus Tedanius?, viridis, abdomine basi fulvo, antennis pi- 
ceis, pedibus flavis, alis subfulvis. — Long. corp. lin. 1 ; alar. lin. \%. 

Hab. — , ex Musaso Rev. G. T. Rudd. 

1845.] Linnean Society. 263 

16. Pteromalus Amyntor$, aureo-viridis, capite viridi, abdomine cy- 
aneo-viridi fasciis cupreis, antennis ferrugineis, pedibus flavis; femo- 
i-ibus viridibus, alis limpidis. — Long. corp. lin. 1 ; alar. lin. If. 

Ilab. , ex Mus£eo Rev. G. T. Rudd. 

17. Pteromalus Naubolus?, viridis, abdominis disco cupreo, antennis 
piceis, pedibus flavis ; fetnoribus viridibus, alis limpidis. — Long. corp. 
lin. 1— H ; alar- li"- U" 2- 

Hab. , ex Musaeo Rev. G. T. Rudd. 

18. Pteromalus Aglaus $ , viridis, abdomine cupreo basi viridi, antennis 
piceis, pedibus fulvis ; femoribus fusco cinctis, alis limpidis. — Long. 
Corp. lin. f ; alar, lin, 1. 

Hab. prope Londinum, mense Julio. 

19. Pteromalus Urgo? , cyaneo-viridis, abdominis segmentis basi pur- 
pureis, antennis piceis, pedibus flavis ; femoribus viridibus, alis limpidis. 
— Long. corp. lin. \\ ; alar. lin. 1|. 

Hab. , ex Musseo Rev. G. T. Rudd. 

20. Pteromalus Orinus $ , viridis, abdomine cupreo basi viridi, antennis 
fuscis, pedibus fulvis ; femoribus viridibus, alis limpidis. — Long. corp. 
lin. f ; alar. lin. 1^, 

Hab. prope Londinum. 

21. Scladerma Lalage?, viridis, abdomine cyaneo, antennis nigris, 
pedibus fulvis ; femoribus viridibus ; tibiis tarsisque apice fuscis, alis 
sublimpidis. — Long. corp. lin. l\ ; alar. lin. 2i.. 

Hab. in Scotia, prope Edinam, Dr. Greville. 

Read also a continuation of Dr. J, D. Hooker's Enumeration of 
the Plants of the Galapagos Islands, 

November 4. 
The^ Lord Bishop of Norvi'ich, President, in the Chair. 

Read a memoir " On the Ambrosinia ciliata of Roxburgh." By 
the late William Griffith, Esq., F.L.S. &c. Communicated by R. 
H. SoUy, Esq., F.R.S., L.S. &c. 

In this paper, written at Calcutta in the year 1835, Mr. Griffith 
enters into a lengthened examination of the characters and deve- 
lopment of the singular plant above named, to which he states his 
attention to have been first directed by-Dr. Wallich, who was pre- 

264 Linnean Society. [Nov. 4, 

viously acquainted with many parts of its structure. It forms, in 
conjunction with Ambrosinia spiralis, retrospiralis and unilocularis 
of Roxburgh, a genus of Aroidea, for which Mr. Griffith regrets his 
inability to adopt the highly appropriate name of Myrioblastus pro- 
posed by Dr. Wallich, inasmuch as M. Fischer had previously pro- 
posed the generic name of Cryptocoryne for the Ambr. ciliata and 
spiralis of Roxburgh, together with Caladium ovatum. Vent., in which 
latter, however, the structure of the fruit, as described by Rheede, 
appears to be somewhat different. 

The following are the amended characters of the genus, proposed 
by Mr. Griffith : — 

Ckvptocorvne, Fisch. in Schotl and Endl. Mel. Bot, fasc. 1. p. 6. 

Spaiha tubo brevi ad apicem septo obliquo incompleto sem'partit3 ; limbo 
eloiigato. Spudix basin versus ovaviis cincta, medio filiformis nuda, 
supra antherifera, apice conico nudo calloso spathse septo pilei instar 
tecto. ^«/Aer«biIociilares, transveisim dehiscentes. GlandidcB nwWss. 
Ovaria 5 — 7, coalita ; sfyli nulli ; stigmata 5 — 7, obliqua. Fructus nu- 
dus, 5 — 7-loculai-is (in imica specie 1-locularis) ; dehiscentia septicicla. 
Semina indefinita, adscendentia; testa cellulosa, tenuissimfi. Albuinen 
nullum. Plnmida polypliylla, liilo subopposita. 

Obs. Character ex Crypt, ciliaid omnino excerptus. 

Crypt, ciliata, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis, spathse limbo tubuloso-convoluto 
apice dilatato oblongo-lauceolato ciliato. 

Crypt, ciliata, Fiseh. I. c. 

Ambrosinia ciliata, Roxb. Coram. PI. t. 262. Fl. Indica, iii. p. 491. 

Hah. ad ripas limosas flumiiiis Hooghly sestubus alternis fere omnind 
submersa. Floret fructusque fert per totum fere annum. 

After a detailed description of the plant, and an indication of the 
errors into which Roxburgh and those who have followed him had 
fallen with reference to it, Mr. Griffith proceeds to trace the more 
remarkable anomalies from their origin through their various stages 
of development, with the view of reducing them to the ordinary 

The anthers, he states, may from a very early period be compared 
to two cups joined together by their contiguous margins, the wide 
and open mouth which they present in their mature state being ori- 
ginally clo! ctl by an extremely fine membrane, which also lines the 
cavity of the cup, in the interior of which the pollen is formed. As 
the anther enlarges this membrane assumes the form of a gradually 
lengthening cone, which at length becomes subulate and perforated 
at the apex. But this opening appears to be insufficient for the 
escape of the grains of pollen, and the membrane finally separates 


1845.] Linnean Society. 265 

from the edges of cup-shaped theca, leaving the grains of pollen free 
and uncovered. The agency of insects appears, however, to be gene- 
rally resorted to to ensure fecundation, the lower portion of the spa- 
tha being found during impregnation to contain many smedl flies, 
which have perished from inability to escape after the performance 
of their important duty. 

The ovula, at the earliest period of observation, are described as 
oblong bodies, having, a little below their points, a slight constric- 
tion, above which they are papilliform. At a somewhat later period 
the base of the papilliform nucleus is surrounded by an annulus, 
which Mr. Griffith describes as a growth from that part of the ovu- 
lum situated below the constriction, and which is the rudiment of 
the integument of the ovulum : it soon increases and forms a sort of 
cup, beyond which the nucleus at first projects considerably. This 
Mr. Griffith regards as a good example of the correctness of Mr. 
Brown's opinion as to the comparatively late origin of the integu- 
ments in the generality of ovula. As the development proceeds the 
nucleus becomes entirely enclosed in the cup, the mouth of which is 
gradually narrowed. After impregnation, the period of which is 
marked by the withering of the spatha, the centre of the nucleus be- 
comes more transparent, and is evidently excavated. The foramen 
is still visible, but soon afterwards becomes indistinct. The cavity 
of the nucleus gradually extends upwards to near the apex of that 
body and downwards towards the hilum ; its lower portion is occu- 
pied by cellular tissue, assuming the form of a sac, and quite free from 
adhesion inferiorly ; while the upper third contains an oblong cel- 
lular body with a conical apex, which constitutes the rudimentary 
embrj-o. A little later, the conical, originally rectilinear apex of the 
embryo has become somewhat oblique, and a depressed areola makes 
its appearance on one side of the head of the embryo. In the next 
stage the conical and rather oblique apex of the embryo protrudes 
through the apex of the nucleus, and its base has become enlarged 
and roundish. The conical apex and head of the embryo become 
still further protruded, and from the margin of the depressed areola 
are produced minute, oblong, obtuse, cellular bodies, which are the 
rudiments of the outer processes of the plumula. These gradually 
enlarge, and others are developed within them from the centre or 
disc of the areola ; and at the same time the conical apex of the 
embrj'o becomes more and more oblique. At this period the chief 
bulk and enclosed part of the embryo occupies about the upper 
two-thirds of the excavation of the nucleus, but does not as yet ex- 
tend into its lower globular portion ; and the enclosed part is firmly 

266 Linnean Society. [Nov. 4, 

embraced by the neck of the nucleus, the tissue of which has become 
more and more callous or indurated. Still later the testa becomes 
more enlarged and cellular, and its foramen more indistinct ; the 
nucleus is denser and more cellular, and the embryo extends down- 
wards into the globular portion of its cavity, displacing the sacci- 
form cellular tissue with which it was previously filled. The ex- 
serted portion of the embryo now ceases to elongate, but increases 
greatly in a transverse direction ; the area on which the processes 
of the plumula ar# developed is much enlarged, they become more 
numerous and elongate rapidly, and, as the testa does not increase 
with equal rapidity, their apices become recurved. The radicle in- 
creases much less rapidly, but becomes gradually more and more ob- 
lique, and is soon imbedded in the lax testa, which it finally perfo- 

The fully-developed seed is oblong, somewhat compressed, de- 
pressed on its inner, convex on its outer surface, and constricted 
towards the hilum, where it is of a brownish tint and hard to the 
touch. The testa closely embraces the plumula ; it is cellular to- 
wards its base and where it surrounds the dense internal globular 
body, membranous throughout the rest of its extent, and so thin 
that the processes of the plumula are visible through it and give it a 
greenish tint. The descending portion of the embrj'o, which con- 
stitutes the cotyledon, is clavate and nearly enclosed within the dense 
indurated nucleus, the enclosed part separating with the nucleus with 
great readiness, and about the time of the dehiscence of the fruit 
spontaneously. The exserted portion of the embryo consists, ex- 
clusively of the base of the cotyledon, of a fleshy plano-convex body, 
the plane surface of which is depressed towards the centre, where 
the cotyledon is attached, and gives origin on one side to the conical 
and acute radicle, which is always directed away from the placenta. 
The circumference of the convex surface is entirely occupied by the 
processes which constitute the plumula, and the outermost of which 
are about an inch in length. These processes are furnished with 
vessels, but their chief bulk is cellular, and they are (with the ex- 
ception perhaps of the outermost) furnished with stomata. After 
the spontaneous separation of the enclosed portion of the cotyledon, 
the testa is frequently found ruptured, but Mr. Griffith does not con- 
cur with Roxburgh in regarding this as the stage of germination, 
which he thinks cannot be said to take place until the radicle has 
elongated and the innermost of the plumulary processes become ex- 
panded. The axis contains the rudiments of additional radicles, 
which after germination become exserted. 

1845.] Linnean Society. 26% 

Mr. Griffith thinks that the whole of the anomalies existing in the 
structure of the embryo may be referred to the density of the tex- 
ture of the nucleus and to the shape of its cavity. The direction of 
the radicle appears at first sight to be an exception to a very general 
rule ; but this anomaly is proved to take place subsequently to the 
earlier stages of development, during which the apex of the radicle 
corresponds exactly with the apex of the nucleus and with the fora- 
men. He adds in a note that he would limit the expression of the law 
to " radicle pointing or corresponding to the apex of the nucleus," 
since there are exceptions to its correspondence with the foramen. 

The perforation of the testa by the radicle is explained by the 
anomalous direction of the radicle in the later period of its deve- 
lopment ; and the separation of the chief part of the cotyledon by 
the constriction exercised upon it by the indurated apex of the nu- 
cleus. Mr. Griffith is inclined to believe from this and some other 
instances that there is no absolute necessity for a cotyledon, but that 
its presence may be supplied by a highly developed plumula ; the 
enormous development of the plumula in the present case being evi- 
dently adapted to correct what would otherwise be a destructive 

Finally, the author adduces the examination of this plant as a 
striking proof of the advantages to be derived from tracing anoma- 
lous forms back to the earliest period of their development. Going 
back to the period immediately before the conical apex of the radicle 
projects through that of the nucleus, we arrive at a stage when the 
form of the embryo closely resembles the usual form of the Aroidece, 
since we have a superior radicle, a cotyledon, and a tendency to the 
formation of a lateral slit, as indicated by the depressed areola. 

November 18. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Dr. Lankester exhibited specimens of a Fucus sold in the London 
shops under the name of " Australian Moss," of which he also fur- 
nished a brief notice. On referring to Sir W. J. Hooker, Dr. Lan- 
kester obtained for it the name of F. stiriatus. Turn. ; but a compa- 
rison with a specimen in the Linnean Herbarium marked F. stiriatus 

268 Linnean Society. [Nov. 18, 

by Mr. Turner himself, and with Mr. Turner's description in the 
' Historia Fucorum,' has induced Dr. Lankester to regard the Austra- 
lian moss as distinct. He believes it to agree better with F. spino- 
sus, L. It is brought from Swan River, where it grows on rocks 
washed by the sea, and is composed principally of Lichenin, a form 
of starch which also constitutes the bulk of such gelatinous plants 
as Iceland Moss, Carrageen Moss, Ceylon Moss, and the Gelidium 
used by the Hirundo esculenta in the formation of its nest. Its 
dietetical and medicinal qualities strongly resemble those of the 
Carrageen Moss (Chondrus crispus, Lyngb.). 

Read a paper " On the Natural History, Development, and Ana- 
tomy of the Oil Beetle, Meloe, more especially Melo'e cicatricosus. 
Leach." By George Newport, Fellow of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons, &c. Communicated by the Secretary. 

Mr. Newport commences his paper with the remark, that although 
the genus Meloe includes some of the most common insects, scarcely 
anything has yet been ascertained respecting their ceconomy, which, 
hitherto, has remained one of the most difficult unsolved problems 
in the natural history of the Articulata. Many naturalists, more 
particularly Goedart, Frisch and DeGeer, have well described the 
perfect insect, and have even given detailed observations on the ovi- 
position of the female and the early stage of the larva, but they have 
invariably failed to carry their inquiries further, and have been quite 
unacquainted with the adult larva and the nymph, as well as with 
the early stage of the imago. This deficiency in our knowledge of 
the history of these common insects is attributed to two causes — 
first, the anomalous habits of the insect in its earliest stages ; 
and secondly, the little credit that has been given to the state- 
ments of former observers, whose accounts Mr. Newport verifies in 
almost every particular. 

Mr. Newport commenced his observations on the habits of Meloe 
about fifteen years ago ; but although he succeeded at that time in 
rearing the larva from the QSg, as had been done by Goedart and 
DeGeer, and soon afterwards obtained the full-grown larva, the 
nymph and the imago, before it left its cell, he has never been able 
to obtain the larva in a stage intermediate between its earliest and 
its full-grown condition ; and on this account he has delayed to 
publish a statement of what he already knew of the natural history 
of these singular insects. 

The species on which Mr. Newport has made his investigations 
are Melo'e violaceus, Meloe proscarabcBUs and Meloe cicatricosus, all 

1845.] Linnean Society. 269 

which he has procured at Richborough near Sandwich in Kent. The 
first two of these species come forth about the middle of March, and 
the latter from ten days to a fortnight later in the season. They 
feed chiefly on the buttercup (Ranunculus acris), and one species, 
M. cicatricosus, also on the dandelion. 

When the Meloes first appear they are feeble, and have the body 
very small and contracted. In the course of a few days they become 
more active and are increased in size. They expose themeelves much 
to the sun, and pair in the middle and warmest part of the day. On 
the 8th of April 1830, the author first observed a female preparing 
to deposit her eggs, and he has since had numerous opportunities of 
observing her thus occupied. She excavates a burrow, to the depth 
of about two inches, beneath the roots of grass in a dry soil exposed 
to the sun, usually at the side of a foot-path. Into this burrow she 
passes her body backwards, and having deposited a large packet of 
yellow-coloured cylindrical eggs, she closes up the burrow with 
earth and begins again to feed. Each female deposits eggs from 
three to four times during the season, at intervals of from one to 
two or three weeks. The greatest number are deposited at the first 
laying, and fewer at each succeeding laying. In order to ascertain 
the number deposited at the first laying by Melo'e proscarubceus, 
Mr. Newport removed the ovaries from a specimen that had recently 
been impregnated, and having divided one ovary into pieces counted 
the number of eggs in each under the microscope, and found that 
one ovary contained 2109 eggs ready for deposition ; so that the two 
ovaries contained the astonishing number of 4218 mature eggs, be- 
sides an almost equal number in the course of formation. 

The structure of the e^g, the membranes of the shell and embryo, 
the manner in which the embryo is liberated from the egg, the length 
of time it has remained in the egg state, and the circumstances which 
affect its development are then minutely detailed ; as well as the 
changes produced in the instinct of the unimpregnated female. 

The lar^'aof Melo'e, as it comes from the egg, is a yellow, slender, 
active little hexapod, scarcely one-twelfth of an inch in length. It at- 
taches itself with great readiness to bees and flies, and clings so se- 
curely to them, that the insects are not able to remove it from their 
bodies, as was noticed in several experiments. These facts confirm 
the observations of Goedart and DeGeer, who first bred the larva 
from eggs deposited by Melo'e. 

The structure of the larva is next described, and compared with 
that of the Pedicuhs apis of Linnaeus, as found on Hymenopterous 
insects, and the two are shown to be identical in every particular. 

No. XXVIII. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

270 Linnean Society. [Nov. 18, 


The Melo'e larva is also compared with the Pediculus Melittte of Mr. 
Kirby, with which also it agrees exactly in form and general struc- 
ture, but differs in colour, that of the latter insect being always 
black, while the larva of Melo'e is yellow. From this circumstance 
the author concludes that Mr. Kirby's insect is the larva of some 
species of another genus of the same family. 

The habits of the larva of Melo'e are then investigated, and the 
effects produced on it by exposure to light are minutely detailed. 
When light was totally excluded the larvae remained perfectly quiet 
for several days, but the instant light was admitted they were in 
motion, travelling ra2)idly in a direction towards it. The experiments 
were made by enclosing larvae in a phial, which was inverted and 
turned in opposite directions. When the phial was placed perpen- 
dicularly they invariably ascended to the top, and when placed in a 
horizontal direction they always ran to that end which was nearest 
the light, even Avhen the stopper around which they had been lying 
was removed to allow of their escape. This influence of light Mr. 
Newport conceives may be that which induces them to ascend the 
yellow flowers of the dandelion and buttercup preparatory to their 
attaching themselves to bees that alight on the flowers to collect 
pollen, and which then carry them into their nests. This seems to 
be the object of their attacking the bees, to be carried to the nest 
where they are to reside as parasites, and subsist on the food stored 
up for the bee-lan'a, and not to prey on the bee itself. 

The full-grown larva of Melo'e cicatricosus is then described, and 
also the nymph and the imago. The author has found the insect in 
those stages in the nests of Aiithophoj-a retusa ; but he has not 
hitherto succeeded in his attempts to rear the young larva of M. 
violaceus and M. proscai-abceus in the nests of that insect. He con- 
cludes, therefore, that these species inhabit the nests of some other 
bees. In the stage between the very young and the full-grown period 
the larva is believed to be active and retain its six scaly feet, and 
to feed on the food prepared for the young bee. In its full-grown 
state the legs of the larva are reduced to six short tubercles. The 
insect is then very fat, inanimate, and of an orange-yellow colour, 
has ten pairs of spiracles, and greatly resembles the full-grown 
Hymenopterous larva. It remains but a short time in this condition 
before it changes to a nymph, and soon afterwards to an imago, in 
which form it passes the winter in a state of hybernation and comes 
forth in the spring. 

In the course of this paper, while detailing the influence of light 
on the larva of Melo'e, Mr. Newport stated that he had been led by 

1845.] Linnean Society. 271 

these and other facts, which showed the great influence of light on 
the instincts of the young animal, " to regard light as the primary- 
source of all vital and instinctive power, the degrees and variations 
of which may, perhaps, be referred to modifications of this influence 
on the special organization of each animal body." This view has 
suggested itself to him in connexion with the discovery recently 
made by Mr. Faraday of the analogy of light with magnetism and 
electricity, and the close relation, previously shown by Matteucci to 
exist between electricity and nervous power, on which not only all 
the vital actions, but also the instinctive faculties seem to depend. 

December 2. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
Edwin Charles Charlton, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a paper " On the Anatomy of Eriocuulonea." By the late 
William Grifiith, Esq., F.L.S. &c. Communicated by R. H. Solly, 
Esq.. F.R.S., L.S. &c. 

The observations on which this memoir (written at Calcutta in 
1835) was founded, were made at Mergui between the months of 
July and October 1834. The species examined were natives of that 
place, and six in number. They appear to be destitute of true spi- 
ral vessels, the place cf which is supplied by ducts occasionally, but 
not freely, unroUable, aggregated in distinct fascicles and surrounded 
by more or less elongated cells. 

Mr. Griffith describes the leaves oiEriocaulon setaceum,Li., as the 
type of these organs in the genus, since they are in it reduced to 
the simplest state. They are submerged in this species, and the pe- 
duncles and their sheaths only rise above the surface of the water. 
The leaves are subulate, somewhat flattened and colourless below, 
green on their upper surface, and divided throughout their entire 
length into two distinct collateral tubes, by means of the central and 
only nerve which is attached both to the superior and inferior cutis 
by cellular tissue. Numerous transverse septa of cellular tissue 
divide each tube into chambers, which, however, have free commu- 
nication with each other through fissures dependent on a partial 

27 lAnnean Society. [Dec. 2, 

separation of the cells. The green parenchyma is almost entirely- 
confined to the upper half of each tube, and ceases abruptly with- 
out any apparent cause. It consists of a single layer of colourless 
oval or roundish sacs, arranged with the most beautiful regularity in 
longitudinal lines extending from the base to the apex of the leaf, 
and corresponding with the bodies of the cells forming the cutis and 
not with the intervals between them. The stomata are confined to 
the under halves of the leaves, or to that portion of the tubes which 
is destitute of parenchymatous tissue. 

In the terrestrial species the structure of the leaves is essentially 
the same, but the number of longitudinal tubes is increased, and va- 
ries from six to twenty, the central ones only reaching the apex of 
the leaf. The longitudinal divisions between these tubes are marked 
externally by corresponding depressions, and each is furnished with 
a vascular fascicle similar in structure and position to that of E. se- 
taceum. The parenchymatous cells are arranged with less symme- 
try than in that species, and are not so completely confined to the 
upper surface ; and the lower surface abounds with stomata. 

The sheaths which envelope the base of the peduncle have in all 
the same organization, which is exactly that of the leaves of the ter- 
restrial species. The peduncles are also composed of tubes, circu- 
larly arranged; they are marked externally with elevated whitish 
lines, which (in the living plant) have a slightly spiral direction 
from left to right, and correspond to the longitudinal septa. The 
tubes meet in a cellular axis, around which the vascular fascicles are 
arranged in corresponding number; and the septa form so many 
spokes consisting of more or less elongated cellular tissue, which in 
one species (£. WallicManum) ajjproaches in density to woody fibre. • 
The parenchyma within the tubes is disposed with less regularity 
than in the leaves and sheaths, and their outer green parietes abound 
with stomata. With one exception, the number of tubes in the 
sheaths bears an exact relation to that in the peduncles of two to one. 

The author describes the cavities existing in some Alismacece, Pon- 
tederia, Cyperacece and Nelumbinece, as originating in the same man- 
ner as the chambers in the tubes of Eriocaulon, from the interposi- 
tion of cellular septa perforated by fissures caused by the separation 
of the cells and not by any inteiTuption of the membrane. In Pon- 
tederia dilatata raphides are found in great abundance in cells at- 
tached to the septa in such a manner as to project at right angles 
beyond either surface, and to occupy the spaces left by the separa- 
tion of the ordinary cells. The same disposition occurs in some 

1845.] Linnean Society, 273 

The existence of storaata in the submerged leaves of E. setaceum 
is mentioned as ratlier corroborating than weakening the general 
rule laid down by M. Adolphe Brongniart, that submerged leaves are 
destitute of cuticle. The stomata of Eriocaulonea are described at 
length, and regarded as offering excellent examples of the correct- 
ness of M. Brongniart's statements with regard to the nature of these 
bodies. Their aperture communicates directly with the interior of 
the leaves, and is invariably occupied by air ; the communication in 
E. setaceum, and in two other species in which the parenchyma is 
confined to the upper surface, being uninterrupted; while in the 
leaves of those species in which the parenchyma is deposited on the 
lower as well as the upper cuticle, there is invariably an open space 
left in it, corresponding with each stoma, and" this opening appears 
always to be occupied by a bubble of air. The author states, how- 
ever, that he is far from considering it proved, that such a free com- 
munication through the stomata, although the same structure is ob- 
vious in other plants belonging to diflferent families, is universally 

As Xyrideee present none of the peculiarities of organization above 
mentioned, Mr. Griffith considers these peculiarities as corroborative 
of the correctness of Richard's opinion, since adopted by Professor 
Von Martins, that Eriocaulon is the tjrpe of a distinct family. 

December 16. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
George Bowdler Buckton, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a memoir " On the causes of disjunctions of Vegetable Sub- 
stance, especially those which are horizontal." By the Rev. William 
Hincks, F.L.S. &c. &c. 

After some preliminary observations on the subject of disruptions 
in general, the author briefly notices certain cases of vertical disrup- 
tion, and then proceeds to the more immediate object of his paper, 
the horizontal separation of vegetable substance by natural means. 
This, he observes, may take place in the axis itself, or in any of the 
organs connected with it at their points of attachment, as in the fall 

274 Linnean Society. [Dec. 16, 

of the leaf, of sepals and petals, of entire flowers and fruits, and in 
the separation of such buds as form caulinary bulbs ; or it may occur 
at gome other part of the organ, a portion separating from the rest, 
or the whole breaking up into pieces. Every such separation, he 
argues, must depend on one of the three following causes : 1. on a 
stoppage of the circulation from ligature ; 2. on unequal rapidity of 
growth of the two parts ; or 3. on the confinement within coherent 
envelopes (which do not admit of extension) of a portion of the axis 
or of some growing part, so that the force of growth bursts the en- 
velope, carrying off its upper portion. These general rules he then 
proceeds to apply to the explanation of particular cases. 

Of stems usually termed Articulate, some, such as those of Kleinia 
articulata, have no tendency to disruption at the supposed joint, 
which is merely the commencement of a new branch. In the misletoe, 
on the other hand, the author believes that the tendency to divide at 
the bases of the branchlets may be consequent on the dichotomous 
structure, which causes a pressure equivalent to a ligature at the 
point of division . 

With respect to the fall of the leaf, he refers to the observations 
of DeCandolle and Du Petit Thouars, which he does not think suffi- 
cient to account for that phsenomenon in a multitude of cases, but 
regrets that he can throw no additional light on the subject. He 
attributes the separation of the sepals and petals when they are ca- 
• ducous, to the outward pressure occasioned by the more rapid deve- 
lopment of the interior circles stopping the circulation of the fluids, 
and conceives this to be strikingly exemplified in Papaveracece, where 
the growth of the petals within the bud is great and rapid. He no- 
tices a specimen of Eschscholtzia in which the sepals cohering less 
firmly than usual, the calyx, instead of being thrown off in the form 
of a calyptra, remains after the opening of the flower partially adhe- 
ring ; and observes that the ordinary disruption in this genus takes 
eftect, not at the base of the sepals, but at a point above this, where 
the pressure occasioned by the enlargement of the petals is greatest. 
He instances also the genus Eucalyptus, in which there is a strong 
coherence of the sepals, and the lower portion of the calyx being 
strengthened by the adherent torus, the growth of the interior or- 
gans supplies the force which separates the part of the coherent se- 
pals above the torus in a solid piece like the cover of a vessel. On 
the cause of the horizontal separation of a portion of the anthers in 
the form of valves, which occurs in a few instances, he is not pre- 
pared to offer any opinion. 

In the fruit, as in the calvx, the author believes that horizontal 

1845.] Linnean Society. 275 

disruption arises from the force of cohesion of the parts of the circle, 
the absence of any of the causes favourable to dehiscence along the 
midrib of the carpellary leaf, and the operation of some force press- 
ing either from without or from within on one particular line encir- 
cling the fruit ; and he proceeds to offer exj^lanations of those cases 
with which he is most familiar. He takes lirst the circumscissile 
capsule of Anagallis, in which he states that the central free recep- 
tacle with the seeds upon it continuing to enlarge in both diameters 
after the envelope has ceased to grow, and having occupied from the 
first the entire cavity, it is naturally to be expected, since the chief 
extension of the interior parts is upwards (the natural direction of 
growth), while the enlargement of the seeds in the lower half tends 
to press back the parts of the lower hemisphere, that uniform and 
regular pressure will resolve a nearly spherical capsule into two 
equal hemispheres. This remark he applies to Centunculus also, but 
confesses himself at a loss to give any reason why the opening of 
Trientalis, which depends on the same general causes, should be ir- 
regular. For the separation of the lid of the capsule in Hyoscyamus 
he accounts by the contraction and rigidity of the throat of the calyx 
exercising a gradually increasing i)ressure around the upper part of 
the capsule, and thus causing its separation by the first of the ge- 
neral principles laid down. 

The author then proceeds to the case of Lecythis, which he thinks 
is to be explained by the third of his general principles. In illus- 
tration of this principle he refers to a monstrosity of the common 
Tulij), described and exhibited by himself some years ago at a meet- 
ing of the British Association. In this monstrosity, the upper leaf, 
being unusually developed, has cohered by its edges so firmly as to 
imprison the flower, and this constraint occurring at a period when 
the stalk was increasing in length, and previous to any consider- 
able enlargement of the flower-bud, the force applied was chiefly 
vertical, and has carried off the upper part of the leaf in the form of 
a calyptra, leaving the lower part in the shape of a cup, from the 
centre of which the stem appears to rise. The separation of the lid 
of the capsule of Lecythis he believes to be effected in an analogous 
manner ; the septa which form the two or four cells into which the 
fruit is divided meet in a thickened axis, and the outer part of the 
fruit becoming (partly from its natural texture and partly from the 
adherence of the torus and calyx) hard, solid and fully grown, while 
the axis continues slowly to extend, and thus to press upwards that 
portion of the capsule which rests upon it, causes that portion first 

276 Linnean Society. [Dec. 16, 

to become slightly prominent, and finally by a strain upon the vessels 
of that particular part to fall off in the shape of a lid. In Couroupita 
the pressure is sufficient to mark the surface of the fruit with a pro- 
minence, but from th» partitions giving way early, and from the 
abundant juices produced in the interior, there has not been, he con- 
ceives, sufficient pressure to occasion disruption. In all the species 
of Lecythis, he observes, the extent of the loose cover corresponds 
with the extent of the axis, and what remains of the latter continues 
attached to itf. 

As regards lomentaceous fruits in general, the author believes that 
the intervals between the seeds being sufficient to admit of the sides 
of the fruit cohering (which is promoted in particular instances by 
special causes), the swelling of the seeds afterwards stretches the 
parts over them in a degree which this coherence prevents from 
being equally distributed, drags the tissue forcibly from the junc- 
tures which are fixed points, and thus there being a strain in each 
direction from the middle line of the juncture, the contraction of 
drying during the ripening of the fruit effects the separation. 

Finally the author refers to the horizontal separations in the cap- 
sules of Mosses, and observes that the separation of the calyptra 
affords a plain example of the operation of his third principle ; Jbut 
with regai'd to the nature of the operculum, although he has an hy- 
pothesis under consideration, his mind is not yet satisfied. He states 
his object in the present paper to have been the investigation of the 
immediate physical causes of certain known effects, but he has not 
thought this the place even to touch upon their ultimate causes or 
the ends to accomplish which they are apparently designed, and 
which adapt them to the position and general structure of the parti- 
cular plant. 

Read also the conclusion of Dr. J. D. Hooker's " Enumeration of 
the Plants of the Galapagos Islands, with descriptions of the new 

In a brief introduction Dr. Hooker offers his acknowledgements to 
Mr. Darwin, by whom the collection on which this enumeration is 
chiefly founded was made, and to Prof. Henslow, in whose charge 
the collection had been placed, and who kindly relinquished his in- 
tention of publishing the novelties contained in it in favour of the 
author. He also notices the striking peculiarities which mark the flora 
of the Galapagos group, the plants composing which not only differ 
in a great degree from those of any other country, but are in many 

1845.] Linnean Society. 277 

cases peculiar to the separate islands, although in those instances 
frequently representatives of others which are found on different 

The number of species enumerated is two hundred and twenty- 
eight. Of these upwards of a hvmdred are described as new, and 
six new genera are established, the characters of which are given as 
follows : — 

Gen. Galapagoa, Hook.fil. 
Calyx 4-5-partitus ; laciniis linearibus. Corolla infundibuliformis ; tubo 
lato ; limbo 5-fido patente ; fauce iiud&. Stamina 5, inchisa, imo co- 
roUae tubo inserta. Ovarmm 4-loculare. Stylus terminalis, ad basin 
usque bipartitus ; stigmata 2, obtusa. Semina pendula ; albumine parco, 
carnoso ; cotyledonibus planis ; radicula majuscula, supera. — 'Herbae 
Insitlarum Galapagos, hispido-pilosce. Caules prostrati, ramosissimi. 
Folia alterna, coriacea, versus apices ramulorum detnissime conferta. 
Floras jjari'j, in axillis foliorum omnino sessiles, valde inconspicui. 
Obs. Genus Ehretiearum inter Coldeniam et Rkabdiam (secund. clariss. 
Bentham) medium, ob stylum bipartitum staminaque fundo corollae inserta 


Gen. DicTYocALYx, HooJc.fil. 
Calyx cylindraceus, 5-fidus ; lobis acutis ; tubo post anthesin subinflato, 
membranaceo, reticulatim venose. Corolla membranacea, subinfundi- 
buliformis ; tubo gracili gradatim superne ampliato ; limbo plicato, 
brevi, vix explanato. Staminum filamenta elongata; anthers inclusje. 
Ovarium disco carnoso insertum ; stigmate capitato. Capsula evalvis, 
indehiscens, bisulcata, incomplete 4-locularis, calyce ventricoso inclusa. 
Semina plurima, majuscula, tuberculata, dissepiment! medio prope 
angulum parietalem affixa ; testa nitida, obscure grauulata. EnSSryo 
arcuatus.-— HerbiB Americanae, repentes, glanduloso 1-puhescentes, cum 
tribu Daturearum, suadente Clariss. Miers, conferendcB. Folia mem- 
branacea, angulata v. sinuata, subopposita v. bina, Flores axillaret. 


Gen. Desmocephalum, Hooh.fil. 

Capitula in axillis foliorum densissimS congesta, monoica, 6-flora; floribus 

3 foemineis ligulatis, caeteris masculis tubulosis. Involucrum compres- 

sum; foliolis 3-5 inoequalibus. ^ece/?<ccM/Mm minimum, epaleaceum. 

Corolla fceminea tubo brevi, lato, piloso; ligula lata, involutd, bifida : 

mascula 4-fida, dentibus extus hispido-barbatis. Antherce ecaudatae. 

. Stylus floris masculi indivisus, acutus ; floris foeminei in ramos 2 elon- 

gatos desinens. Achenium late obcuneatum, compressum, subtrigonum, 

superne pilosum, foliis involucralibus immutalis tectum. — Genus Elvirae 

affine. Radix annua. Caulis pedalis, herbaceus, teres, erectus, a basi 

278 Linnean Society. [Dec. 16, 1845. 

trichoiome divisus ; ramis ascendent ih us pubescentibus. Folia opposita, 
petiolafa, ovata, obtusa, dupUcato-se^-rata, coriacea, supra scabriuscula, 
n'ttida, siibtus piibescenfia, nigricantia. Capitula axillaria, densissime 
covgesta, tnassam depresso- splicer icam semunciam latarn effor-tnantia. 
Involucri foliola late ovata, acuminata, hispida. Corolla valde incoti- 


Gen. MicRoccEciA, Hook.Jil. 

Capitula axillaria, pauca, valde compressa, nionoica, subtriflora ; floribus 
foemineis ligulatis, masciilis tubulosis. Involucrum compressum, 3-4- 
foliolatum ; foliolo unico late obovato, iinilaterali, cseteris parvis colla- 
teralibus. Receptaculum minimum, epaleaceum. Corolla floris foemi- 
iiei tubo gracili ; lamina rotnndata, obscure crenata : floi-is masciili 
4-fida ; tubo superne ampliato ; segmentis extiis barbatis. Antherce 
semi-exsertse, ecaudatse. Stylus floris foeminei in ramos 2 elongatos 
desinens; floris masculi indivisus. Ache7iium cuneatum, compressum, 
obscure trigonum, parce pilosum. — Herba pusilla, repens, scaberula ; 
va.m\s gracdibus, ascendentibus. Folia opposita, petiolata, rigidula, ovata, 
acuta, serrata, supra hispidula, snbliis cana, venis prominuUs. Capitula 
minima, breviter pedicellatn. \\\\o\\\cy\ foliolum exterius planum, acu- 
minatum, nervosum, maryinibus basi involutis. Floras exserti, Jlavi. 

Gen. MacrjEa, Hook.Jil. 
Capitulum multiflorum, heterogamum, radiatum ; floribus radii squamis 
involucri tectis, paucis, 1-seriatis, foemineis; disci tubulosis. Involucri 
hemispliseiici squamis sub-2-seriatis, disco brevioribus. Recej)taculum 
convexum, paleaceum ; paleis deciduis flores involucrantibus. Corolla 
radii tubo brevi gracili, ligula lata bifida ; disci tubo 4-fido, dentium 
marginibus incrassatis. A?ithercB hreviter appendiculatse. Stylus ^oris 
radii in ramos duos obtusos desinens ; disci ramis cono latiusculo ter- 
minatis. AchcBuium obovato-cuneatum, compressum, trigonum, hispi- 
dum, pappo brevi e squamis paucis ciliatis coronatum. — Genus He- 
liopsideis relatum. Frutex ; ramis erectis virgatis, nodosis. Folia in 
ramis abbreviatis fasciculata, rigida, Unearia, integerrima, pilosa, supra 
nitida, margi7iibus revolutis. Pedunculi/oZia superantes, graciles, sericei. 
Capitula spkcerica. Flores jlavi, radii pauci. Recej^taculi paleoe li- 
neares, apicibus incurvis acuminatis, dorso hispidis. 

Ord. Incert. 
Gen. Pleuropetalum, Hook.Jil. 
Calyx persistans, bipartitus ; sepalis late ovatis. Petala 5, subsequalia, 
libera, concava, coriacea, siccitate multicostata. Stamina 8, toro in- 
serta ; filamantis in tubum membranaceum coalitis ; antheris elongatis, 
ovarium vix superantibns. Styli 4, lineares. Ovarium 1-loculare, pluri- 
ovulatum ; ovulis placentae basilari funiculis elongatis adnexis. — Suf- 
frutex ? perennis, glaberrima, siccitate nigricans ; ramis teretibus, stric- 
tis, apicem versus Joliosis. Folia, jietiolata, patentia, elliptica, utrinque 
attenuala, lonye acuminata, intrgerrima. Floras in paniculus breves. 

Jan. 20, 1S4G.] Linnean Society. 279 

pauc/JIoras, termbiales clispositi, hreviter pedicellati, inconsp'icui. Calyx 
parinis, carnosus. Petala majuscula. 
Obs, Genus milli ordiiii arete affine, habitu PJnjtolaccce. 

January 20, 1846. 

R. Brown. Esq.. V.P., in the Chair. 

Robert James Nicholl Streeton, Esq., AI.D., and Robert Marnock, 
Esq., were elected Fellows. 

Read a memoir " On the Structure of the Ascidia and Stomata of 
Dischidia Rafflesiana, Wall." By the late William Griffith, Esq., 
F.L.S. &c. Communicated by R. H. Solly, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

This paper bears date at Mergui, November 7th, 1834. In it the 
author gives a detailed description of the arrangement, form and 
structure of the ascidia of the species of Dischidia above-named, and 
comes to the conclusion that they are modified lamince of leaves, in 
proof of which he adduces : 1st, their similarity in texture, internal 
structure, and structure of stomata with the limbs of the ordinary 
leaves ; 2ndly, the sUght but constant tendency in the limb of the 
leaves to assume an involute form ; 3rdly, the occurrence of an im- 
perfectly transformed pitcher, in Vv'hich the body of the pitcher is 
clearly referable to the limb of the leaf ; and 4thly, the general con- 
struction of the petioles in Asclepiadece, which renders it more na- 
tural to refer the ascidia to the limb of the leaf in that family. He 
regards the inner surface of the pitcher as corresponding with the 
upper surface of the leaves ; and is confirmed in this view by the 
greater abundance and development of the stomata on those surfaces. 
On the lower and outer surfaces the stomata are more or less imper- 
fect ; but on the upper and inner they show a considerable degree of 
complexity. They are particularly remarkable for the existence of 
an external cellular bourrelet or thickening, much elevated above 
the surface and of a whitish colour, giving rise to an appearance of 
minute white dots, which are especially conspicuous on the purple 
inner surface of the ascidia. They appear to have a very slight con- 
nexion with the cuticle, from which they are easily detached, and are 
not met with on old ascidia. Each bourrelet is composed of from 

280 Linnean Society. [Jan. 20, 

three to five cells, assuming the appearance of a cup-shaped gland. 
The stomata themselves are also somewhat elevated above the cutis ; 
the surrounding cells are parallelogrammic and disposed in circles, 
into the composition of each of which enter three or four cells, and 
each circle diminishes successively in size from without inwards. 
The stoma occupies the space of the innermost circle, and in itself 
presents nothing unusual. 

Read also a paper by the same author, dated Calcutta Botanic 
Garden, July 1st, 1835, " On the Seeds of Careya, Roxb." 

The author gives a detailed description of the seeds of Careya her- 
hacea (those of C. arborea he states to be exactly similar), from which 
it results that the fleshy body which constitutes the entire mass of 
the seed, after the removal of the testa, consists of a peripheral fleshy 
mass and a central subulate body firmly adherent with it, of similar 
texture, and having its apex directed towards one side of the hilum. 
At the opposite extremity the outer mass is surmounted by a 
number of colourless scales, surrounding and concealing other more 
minute scales which occupy the distal extremity of the central sub- 
ulate body. There are no traces of cotyledonary division, and the sub- 
ulate body, excepting at its divided upper extremity, is continuous 
with the rest of the fleshy mass. The commencement of the germi- 
nation takes place while the seeds are still enclosed in the fruit. The 
integument is ruptured longitudinally, and' generally with some de- 
gree of regularity along the apex ; from this opening are exserted 
pale greenish scaly leaf-like bodies, consisting first of those which 
surmount the outer mass, and subsequently of the divided termina- 
tion of the central subulate body. As this latter increases in length, 
it is seen to terminate in a green convolute leaf, in the axilla of which 
is placed another very rudimentary one. At this period the extre- 
mity of the subulate body next the hilum has also become exserted, 
and forms a subulate fleshy and undivided projection. Into this the 
cellular tissue of the fleshy body passes, although there is a faint 
line of demarcation between the two. 

The absolute nature of the outer fleshy part, Mr. GriflSth observes, 
can only be determined by pursuing the development of the ovula. 
The nature of the subulate body is evident : it is the root, the true 
plumula being the minute scaly body at its distal end. The root 
points, as it should do, towards one side of the hilum, the situation 
in fact of the foramen. At the collet it is continuous with the plu- 
mula, and laterally with the outer fleshy mass, which ought there- 
fore to be cotyledonary, and taking it to be so, might be explained 

1846.] Ldnnean Society. 281 

by supposing the cotyledons to be affixed in a peltate manner, and 
united into a solid mass. 

Mr. Griffith was precluded from the further pursuit of the subject, 
with reference to the development of the ovula and the more advanced 
germination, by the departure of the Deputation for the investigation 
of the Tea-districts of Upper Assam, of which he formed part. 

February 3. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

James Ogden, Esq., M.D., and Charles Du Cane, Esq., Capt. R.N., 
were elected Fellows. 

Read papers on various subjects, bearing date in 1834 and 1835, 
by the late William Griffith, Esq., F.L.S. &c., communicated by 11. 
H. Solly, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

The first of these contains the description of a plant found by 
Mr. Griffith in a small island near Mergui, called Madamacan, and 
which he has characterized under the generic name of Corysadenia, 
but which is evidently the same with Dr. Blume's genus Illigera, pub- 
lished in Europe in 1834, and consequently then unknown to the 
author. In common with that botanist, and acting on a suggestion 
of Dr. Wight, he indicates its near affinity to Gyrocarpus, with which 
he suspects that it should form an order, to be called " Gyrocarpece." 
He notices these genera as forming exceptions to a general rule 
pointed out by Mr. Brown, that the ovarium of dicotyledonous 
plants, when single, never adheres to the calyx. 

In the next paper, Mr. Griffith makes some additions to our know- 
ledge of the genus Henslowia, which he characterizes as follows : — 

Henslowia, Wall. 
Dioica. Mas : calyx suburceolatus, 5-partitus ; laciniis aestivatione apertis. 
Corolla nulla. Stamina 5, calycis sinubus inserta ; filamentis per aBsti- 
vationem introflexis, deinum erectis longeque exsertis ; antheris termi- 
nalibus, 2-locularibus, loculis angustis distantibus longitudinaliter de- 
hiscentibus. Ovarii rudimentum centrale, biloculare. Foem. : calyx 

282 Linnean Society. [Feb. 3, 

fere ut in mare. Stamina abortiva 5. Ovarium liberum, biloculare, 
polyspermuni. Stylus filiformis. Stigma oblongum, peltato-capitatum. 
Ovuta indefinite numerosa, placentae axili affixa. Capsula supera, bi- 
locularis, bivalvis ; valvis medio septiferis, mediante stigmate persis- 
tenti connexis. Se7nma plui-ima, minnta, reticulata, apiculata, placentae 
transversim affixa, dorso secus racheos directionem cristata; albumen 
nullum ; cotyledones paivse ; 7-adicula ratione cotyledonum longa, cla- 
vata, hilum spectans ; plumitla inconspicua. — Arbores ; ramis oppositis 
determinate ramosis ; foliis oppositis, exstipulatis, integris ; raceniisjja- 
niculatis ; floribus minutis, inconspicuis. 

A part of the additional information on this curious genus has 
already appeared (on Mr. Griffith's authoritj") in Prof. Lindley's 
' Natural System of Botany.' After noticing the Combretaceous 
habit of the male tree when in full flower, Mr, Griffith adds, that it 
can scarcely be doubted that it is the type of a distinct order, and 
hazards an opinion that its true situation in the natural system will 
be found between LythrariecB and MelastomacecB. He observes also 
that the ovula present the peculiarity of the raphe running along 
their upper or under faces, independent apparently of any twisting 
of the short funicle. 

Mr. Gx-iffith next characterizes a new genus of the order Tern- 
stroemiacecE, as follows : — 

Gen. Erythrochiton, Griff.* 

Flores dioici, bibvactcolati. Calyx inferus, profunde 5-partitus. Petala 
5, liypogyna, libera, sepalis opposita. Stamina indefinita, hypogyna, 
multiplici serie. yInthercE adnatje, truncatse. Ovarium 2-loculare, 4- 
ovulatum. Styli 2. Stigmata 2, reniformia, foliacea. Bacca supera, 
2-locularis, 2-4 sperma. Semina pendula, albuminosa. Embryo cur- 
vatus. — .A.rbor mediocris ; foliis stipulatis, perennantibus, integris; pe- 
dunculis extra-axillaribus ; floribus solttariis ; facie quodammodo Ca- 

Erythrochiton Wallichianum. 

Hab. in sylvis secus littora Insulae Madamacan, Mergui proximse ; lect. 
mense Decembris 1S34. 

Mr. Griffith adds in a note, that to this genus Hopea eglandulosa, 
Roxb., which Mr. Colebrooke in a MS. note in Roxburgh's MS. 
Synopsis stated long ago not to belong to Hopea (Sarcostigma Rox- 
burghii, Wall. MSS., formerly called by Mr. Brown Wahlenbergia), 
appears to have a considerable similarity in habit and in the structure 
of the stigmata and ovarium. And a similar correspondence exists, 
as far as can be judged from a drawing in the Botanic Garden at 

* Nee Nees et Mart. — Secr. 

1846.] Linnean Society. 283 

Calcutta, with another unpublished plant from Sylhet, probably 

forming a second species of Dr. Wallich's Sarcostigma*. 

Lastly Mr. Griffith characterizes a new genus of Anacardiacece, 

under the name of 

Gen. SwiNTONiA, Griff, 

Sepala 5, basibus coalita, persistentia. Petula 5, hypogyna, sub fructu 
demum ampHata. Stamitia totideni, toro cylindrico parum elevato 
insidentia. Ovarium subrequilaterale, in apice toil staminiferi sessile. 
Stylus fiHformis ; stigma peltato-capitatum. Fructus siccus, exstipi- 
tatus, petabs ampliatis fobaceis suffuUus. — Arbor magna, resinosa, facie 
qnodammodd Mangiferas. Foba lanceoluta, coriacea. Paniculae axil- 
lares terminalesque; flores inconsincui. 


Hub. in colle aUo Insulse Madamacan Mergui proximse, Pator dicto, co- 
piose ; florena Novembri et Decembri, fructifera Februario. 

This genus is dedicated to George Swinton, Esq., late Secretary 
to the Bengal Government, who has always been ready to promote 
the interests of science and the welfare of the Tenasserim Provinces, 
and to whom Dr. Wallich had intended to dedicate his genus Mela- 
norrhcea. In the structure of its fruit it is very nearly allied to Me- 
lanorrhoea ; and in that of the flowers, particularly as regards the 
mode of adhesion of the petals and stamina to the torus, it ap- 
proaches to Syndesmls of the same author. 

February 17. 

E, Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Major Proby T. Cautley and Edward Kelaart, Esq., M.D., were 
elected Fellows. 

Mr. Ward exhibited specimens of the extreme states of Chondrus 
crispus, Lyngb., gathered by him at Linmouth, N. Devon, growing 
within a few feet of each other, but under different conditions ; the 
broad variety being found in pools among the rocks, where it is 
always submersed ; the narrow on the outer ledge of rocks, where it 

♦ Not Sarcostigma of Drs. Wight and Arnott in Edinburgh New Pbil. 
Jonrn. vol. xiv. p. 299. — Secr. 

284 Linnean Society. [Feb. I7j 

is fully exposed to the action of the waves, which produce the same 
effect upon it as is frequently observed in freshwater aquatics, the 
submersed leaves of which become more or less finely divided, in 
proportion to the greater or less rapidity of the stream. It is worthy 
of remark, that the broad state, which is found in comparatively still 
water, is wholly free from zoophytes, while the narrow is entirely 
coated with them. » 

Read some observations " On the Axial and Ab-axial arrangement 
of Carpels." By T. S. Ralph, Esq., A.L.S. &c. 

Mr. Ralph begins by referring to the differing position of the odd 
sepal pointed out by Mr. Brown as constituting a character of or- 
dinal value between Leguminosce and Rosacea, and to the uniform 
position of the solitary carpellum in the former, and endeavours to 
determine, either hypothetically or from actual observation, the re- 
lation of carpella to axis in various families and genera of plants. He 
notices a specimen of Heracleum giganteum, in which three mericarps 
were developed, and states that in each case the additional mericarp 
was placed side by side with the ab-axial (or anterior) mericarp, 
from which circumstance he concludes the axial (or posterior) to be 
in this case the odd carpellum. In a specimen of an (Enothera with 
five instead of four carpella, he found the fifth carpellum apparently 
ab-axial. He conjectures from the position of the abortive stamen 
in ScrophularinecB, that the odd carpellum is in that family ab-axial ; 
and in other cases, such as Lychnis for example, he endeavours to 
determine its position by means of the odd style. He refers the ar- 
rangement of carpella in relation to axis to four heads ; viz. definite, 
1. axial or centripetal, 2. ab-axial or centrifugal ; indefinite, 3. an- 
terior and posterior, 4. right and left. In the two latter cases the 
position must be determined theoretically. He concludes by giving 
a list of genera examined by himself, and arranged under the heads 
of carpels " axial," and " ab-axial." 

Read also a continuation of Dr. Boott's " Caricis Species Novae v. 
minus cognitse." In this, the third part of his paper, Dr. Boott de- 
scribes seventeen species, the characters of which are as follows : — 

1. C. KARA, spica simplici oblonga fusca androgyna apice mascula, stig- 
matibus 3, perigyniis ovatis acuminatis rostratis ore emarginatis crebre 
et valide nervosis divergentibus squam^ ovata obtusa v. acutiuscula fer- 
ruginea longioribus. 

Hah. in Mont. Khasiya Indise Orientalis, Griffith in Herh. Lemann. 

Obs. C. polytrichoides, Muhl. affinis. 

1846.] Linnean Society. 285 

2. C. EsENBECKii, spica cylindric& dioicS.?v. androgynd apice masculS 
multiflora basi laxiflora foemineis paucioribus alternis instmctS, stigma- 
tibus 2, perigyniis (floriferis) linearibus ore inembranaceo truncato ob- 
lique fisso ciliato-serratis squama lanceolata bispido-mucronata angus- 
tioribus longioribusque. 

C. trinervis, Nees in Wight, Contr. Ind. Bot. (non Decand.) 
Hab. in India Orientali, Moura, Roi/le. In Monte Chiir, ad alt. pad. 
12,000, Edgeworth. 

3. C. Geyeri, spica simplici androgyiia apice mascuia basi flosculis foemi- 
neis 1 V. 2 alternis instnicta, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis triquetro-ob- 
ovatis stipitatis rostratis ore integro glabris pallidis squama lata basi 
amplectente brevi-cuspidata dorso trinervi pallida ad latera ferrugined 
brevioribus angustioribusque. 

Hah. in declivitatibus aridis Montium Saxosorum, Americae Septentrio- 
nalis, C. A. Geijer, no. 332 {^Herh. Hook.). 

Obs. Affinis C. phyllostachys, Meyer, quEe flosculis foemineis saepe 3, 
squamis masculis brevioribus apice hyalinis, foemineis foliaceis longissimis, 
racbi flexuosa, difFert. 

4. C. coACTA, spica castanea basi setaceo-bracteata e spiculis pluribus 
androgynis apice masculis parvis ovatis sessilibus ebracteatis in capi< 
tulum longiusculum arete congestis composita, stigmatibus 2, perigyniis 
ovatis acuminato-brevi-rostratis bifidis stipitatis utrinque sub-9-nervii3 
superne ad margines bialatas serrato-scabris stramineis squama ovatd 
hispido-mucronata brevioribus. 

Hah. in AfFghanistan, Griff., no. 79 (Herb. Hooker). 

Obs. Affinis C. vulpiiicp, L. ; differt culmo obtusangulo, superne gracili, 
nee in axim angustiorem abrupte coarctato. A C. vulpinari, Nees, spica 
longa cylindricd basi miniis composita (nee ovata), perigyniis scabris, di- 
stincta. A C. glomeratd, Thunb. culmo graciiiori obtusangulo, perigyniis 
8ub-9-nerviis, spica congesta (nee basi sublobata), bractea solum ad basin 
spicae setacea, foliis angustioribus (nee glaucescentibus) differt. 

5. C. SANGUiNEA, spica decomposita dupHcato-racemosd ; racemis termi- 
nalibus axillaribusque remotis solitariis geminatisque longe exserte pe- 
dunculatis vaginatis; spiculis 3 — 8 ovatis sessilibus atro-purpureis an- 
drogynis apice masculis ad apicem pedunculorum spicatim v. duplicato- 
spicatim dispositis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis trigono-ovatis rostratis 
bifidis nervosis stipitatis scabris subrecurvis squama lata ovat4 acut4 v. 
mucronulata purpurea longioribus. 

/3. magis composita (junior). 

Hab. in AfFghanistan, Griffith, no. 96. ^, No. 91 {Herh. Hook.). 

Obs. .\d gregem C. pohjstachya, Willd. &c. pertinet. 

6. C. Rafflesiana, spica ferruginea concolori subsesquipedali paniculata 
e spiculis permultis congestis sessilibus oblongis androgynis apice mas- 
culis supra-decompositS ; paniculis terminalibus axillaribusque multi- 
No. XXIX. — Phoceedings of the Linnean Society. 

286 Linnean Society. [Feb. 17, 

floris : superioribus sessilibiis approximatis simplicibus solitariis : infe- 
rioribus remotis longe pedimculatis decompositis geminatis vaginato- 
bracteatis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis trigono-ellipticis acuminatis longe 
rostratis obliqufe recurvis bidentatis nervosis superne plus minus sca- 
briusculis ad margines serrato-scaberrimis lineolis purpureis notatis 
squama ovata uninervi ferruginea niucronat^ longioribus. 
Hah. in Ins. Java, Horsfield. 
Obs. Affinis C raphidocarpa, Nees, quae perigynio glabro subciliato, 

squama subulato-acuminata, foliis subtus margineque liirtis, differt. A C. 

ramosd, Schk., C.Jilicind, Nees. C. meiogynd, Nees, inflorescentia densiore 

aliisque notis differt. 

7. C. Prescottiana, spicis 6 elongatis cylindricis approximatis strami- 
neia eoncoloribus : terminali 1 v. 2 mascula : reliquis foemineis sessi- 
libiis nutantibus evaginatis inferioribus longe foliaceo-bracteatis basi 
laxifloris, stigmatibus 2, perigyniis lato-ellipticis brevi-rostratis biden- 
tatis compressis nervosis divergentibus stramineis squama hispido- 
mucronat^ dorso trinervi pallida ad latera ferrugine^ latioribua longi- 

Hob. in Napalia? Herh. Wallich.. no. 3386. 
Obs. Affinis C. crinitce, Lam. 

8. C, JUNCEA, spicis 2 — 4 gracilibus erectis fernigineo-purpureis : termi- 
nali mascula filiformi : reliquis foemineis laxifloris subremotis infima 
pedunculata evaginata, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis triquetro-fusiformibus 
ore integro apice scabris squama ovata obtusa longioribus vel lanceo- ' 
latam mucronatam subaequantibus. 

C. juncea, Willd. Enum. Suppl. p. 63 ; Kunth, Cyper. p. 468. 
C. miser, Buckley in Sillim. Journ. 45. p. 173. 
C. Rugeliana, Kunze in Herb. Hooker (ex parte). 
Hah. in Montibus Carolinae Septentrionalis, Buckley, Rugel. 
Obs. Affinis C. brachystachys, Schk. quae perigyniis foliis infimis vagi- 
nisque glabris, &c. differt. 

9. C. OLivACEA, spicis 6 — 8 elongatis cylindricis alternis remotis : mas- 
eulis ferrugineis 2 : foemineis 4 v. 5 rariiis 6 apice masculis fusco-oliva- 
ceis longissime bracteatis infima remota rariiis incluse pedunculata, 
stigmatibus 3, perigyniis ellipticis acuminato-rostratis bidentatis ven- 
tricosis nervosis rugosis divaricatis squama lanceolata hispido-aristata 
brevioribus latioribusque. 

Hah. in Assam Indise Orientalis, Major Jenkins {Herb. Hooker). 
Obs. Habitus C. pendulce, Huds. 

10. C. Griffithii, spicis 4 v. 5 purpureis: terminali mascula obovata : 
reliquis foemineis oblongo-cylindraceis inferioribus exserle pedunculatis 
basi attennatis erectis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis ovalibus tenuissiniis 
abrupte brevi-cylindrico-rostratis ore integro v. emarginato membra- 
naceo enerviis margine superne scabriusculis purpureis basi albidis com- 

1^46.] Linnean Society. 287 

pressis squama lanceolata acuminata longe cuspidata purpurea nervo 

albo angustioribus brevioribusque. 
Hab. in AfFghaiiistan, Griffith, no. 78 {Herb. Hooker). 
Obs Affinis C. lucicla, Boott. 

11. C, SuLLivANTii, spicis 4 — 6 cylindricis gracilibus : mascula 1 : foemi- 
neis 4 rariiis 3 — 5 laxifloris erectis pedunculatis superioribus approxi- 
matis infima remota exserte pedunculata basi attenuata saepe compo- 
sita, stigniatibus 3, perigyniis ellipticis brevi-rostratis ore integro v. 
emarginato viridibus pelhicide punctatis pilosis enerviis squama ovata 
ciliata hispido-mucronata albida nervo viridi paululiim longioribus, 

C. Sullwantii, B. Bot. Exc. to the Mount, of N. Carol. Gray in Sillim. 
Journ. 42. p. 29. 

Hab. in sylvaticis prope Columbian! Ohionis, Americse Septentrionalis, 
W. S. Sullivant (1840). 

Obs. Affinis C. arctatce, Boott, satis hethk pilosd, spicis erectis, perigyniis 
enerviis distincta. 

12. C. AcuTATA, spicis 5 V. 6 erectis cylindraceis fuscis : mascula 1 v. 2 
sessilibus : reliquis 4 foemineis saepe apice subulato-acutatis masculis 
densifloris sessilibus vel pedunculatis long^ foliaceo-bracteatis alter- 
natim contiguis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis elliptico-lanceolatis rostrati? 
bifurcatis subinflatis nervosis glabris nitidis squama purpureo-ferru- 
ginea concolori v. apice hyalina ciliata hispido-aristata longioribus. 

C. physocarpa, Nees {nan Presl). 

Hab. in America Meridionali ; in Ins. Chiloe, Cuming, no. 43 ; in Monte 
Pilylum Columbiae, ad alt. ped. 12,000, Jameson {Herb, Hooker). 
Obs. Affinis C. paludosce, Gooden. 

13. C. THECATA, spicis 4 — 6 erectis pallidis v. castaneis : terminali mas- 
cula cylindracea : reliquis foemineis oblongis remotis inferioribus ex- 
serte pedunculatis longe bracteatis vaginalis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis 
(floriferis) ovatis bidentatis utrinque nervosis ad margines denticulatis 
squama ovata acuminata v. cuspidata dorso nervosa brevioribus. 

Hab. in arenosis Insulae Rottnest prope Prest, Preiss, 1 839 {Herb. JVard.) ; 
ad fl. Cygnorum, Drummond, no. 921 {Herb. Hooker). 

Obs. Affinis C. alveaia, Boott ; differt perigynii.s bidentatis margine den- 

14. C. TucKERMANi, spicis 5 v. 4 rarius 6 : masculis 2 rarius 3 v. ] : foe- 
mineis 3 V. 2 oblongis cylindraceisque crassis subapproximatis pedun- 
culatis longissime bracteatis infima saepe demiim nutante, stigmatibus 3, 
perigyniis tenuibus pellucidis oblongo-ovatis acuminatis longe cylin- 
drico-rostratis bifurcatis glabris turgide inflatis pallidis oblique adscen- 
dentibus 10 — 14-nerviis squama ovata acuta v. hispido-mucronata mul- 
tum latioribus longioribusque. 

C. buUata, Tuckerman, Enum. Method. Car. p. 20 {non Schkuhr). 
Hab, in America Septentrionali, " nondum in Nova Anglia visa," Tucker- 
771 an. 

288 Linnean Society, [March 3, 

Obs. Affinis C. bullatce, Schk. DifFert perigyniis tenuioribus pellucidis 
majoribus oblique adscendentibus, rostro glabro, squamis saepe mucronatis, 
spicis foemineis pluribus longioribus longius pedunculatis nutantibus, foliis 
latioribus, culmo scabriori, peduiiculis scabris. 

15. C, spicuLATA, spicis 4 V. 5 cylindraceis pallidis erectis androgynis 
apice masculis superioribus approximatis sessilibus infima subremota 
exserte pedunculata, stigraatibus 3, perigyniis triquetro-ellipticis cylin- 
drico-rostratis bifidis stipitatis superne ad margines scabris nervosis 
squama lanceolata acuminata v. bispido-cuspidata longioribus. 

Hah. in Montibus Khasiya India Orientalis, Griffith {Herb. Lemann). 
Obs. Affinis C. setigera, Don (C hymenolepis, Nees), quas perigyniis 
scabris, squamis testaceis, spicis supremis masculis difFert. 

16. C. MooRCROFTii, spicis 3 V. 4 ovalibus congestis : terminal! masculS : 
reliquis foemineis v. apice masculis infima pedunculata lanceolato-brac- 
teata, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis ovali-globosis rostratis bifidis enerviis 
nitidis glabris v. supernfe ad margines hispidulis pellucide punctulatis 
stramineis rostro purpurascente longe stipitatis squama lanceolata acutS 
fusco-purpurea apice marginibusque albo-membranacea brevioribus. 

Hab, in India Orientali, ad ripas fl. Indi in planitie elata Tibetana, " Tibet- 
Grass of Moorcroft," Falconer in litt. ad Prof. Royle. 

Obs. Afltines C. verna, Schk., C. conglobata, Kit. Differt spicis congestis 
nunc apice masculis evaginatis, bractea abbreviata, perigyniis enerviis bi- 
fidis pellucide punctatis, foliis glauco-viridibus demiim flavis. 

17. C. TENUissiMA, spicis 2 V. 3 erectis pedunculatis : terminali mascula 
cylindrica : reliquis foemineis oblongis laxe pauciflovis exserte pedun- 
culatis vaginatis remotis, stigmatibus 3, perigyniis trigono-obovatis bre- 
vissime conico-rostratis rostro recto ore emarginato leviter nervosis 
squamam aequilatam mucronatam ferrugineam sequantibus. 

C. panicea ? Bunge in Herb. Fielding, 
Hab. in China Boreali, Bunge. 

Obs, Affinis C. panicecB, L., satis foliis filiformibus, squamis foemineis 
mucronatis, perigynii rostro recto, distincta. 

March 3. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read a paper " On the Aqueous Vapour, and on the dark colour 
of the Wax, in Bee-hives." By George Newport, Esq., F.R.S. &c. 
Communicated by the Secretary. 

The author directs attention in this paper to the transpiration of 

1846.] Linnean Society. 289 

vapour from the interior of bee-hives at certain seasons of the year, 
an occurrence which, he remarks, has almost escaped the observation 
of naturaHsts. He also recalls to the notice of the bee-keeper that 
at the latter end of summer there is often a deposit of dark-coloured 
matter on the foot-stool, or on the alighting-board at the entrance- 
hole of the hive, extending a few inches from it. This deposit the 
author at first believed to be occasioned by shattered pollen or by 
rejected excrementa, but he was afterwards convinced that it does 
not arise from either of these causes. He believes it is occasioned 
by small quantities of wax, which, adhering to the feet of the bees 
when they leave the combs, become deposited on the floor at the en- 
trance as the bees leave the hive ; and the darkened colour which 
this deposit acquires he thinks is due to the same cause as that 
which changes the appearance of the combs in the interior. This, 
he suggests, may depend on some chemical effect produced in the 
wax by the respired air of the hive. Part of the carbonic acid which 
necessarily results from the respiration of the bees on the combs may 
become chemically combined with the wax, composed, as it actually 
is, of nearly eight-tenths of its whole weight of carbon, and it may 
thus acquire the darkened colour from the surcharge of its chief con- 
stituent, the affinity being promoted by the elevated temperature of 
the hive. 

In the autumn, when a hive is examined early in the morning, 
after the bees have been in a state of activity during the preceding 
day, and more especially when the temperature of the preceding 
night has been low, there is often a quantity of fluid draining from 
the entrance-hole. The amount of this is dependent on the greater 
or less degree of activity of the bees, and consequently of their respi- 
ration and of the transpiration from their bodies. 

Huber stated that the interior of the hive is ventilated by the 
fanning of the bees with their wings. This observation the author 
has confirmed ; and he suggests the probability, that it is to the meet- 
ing of the two currents of introduced and expelled air, occasioned by 
this act of the bees, that the deposition of the vapour as fluid is due. 

In order to ascertain the quantity of vapour condensed and ex- 
pelled from a hive, he made experiments, which, as he remarks, al- 
though not free from objection, yet afford some indication of the 
amount. He cut off the bottom of a glass phial, and then accurately 
fitted the phial to the entrance-hole of a box-hive, in such a manner 
that both the expelled and the introduced air passed through it. 
During one night of nearly twelve hours, at the commencement of 
September, there was condensed within the phiul nearly one drachm 

290 Linnean Society. [March 17, 

and a half of fluid. The temperature of the external atmosphere, 
when the hive was examined at seven o'clock in the morning, was 
59° F., and that of the hive, at some distance within the entrance, 
69° F. 

On another occasion, a few days afterwards, at about the same 
time in the morning, when the temperature of the atmosphere was 
61° F., that of the vapour within the phial as it issued from the hive, 
but at nearly four inches' distance from it, was 71°'5 F., while the 
interior of the upper part of the hive, as ascertained by a thermo- 
meter inserted through the top and undisturbed for several days, 
was only 69° F, The bees were then quiet at the top of the hive, 
but were in activity at the lower part. The temperature of the hive 
and the quantity of fluid thus seemed to depend on the amount of 
respiration consequent on the greater or less activity of the bees, as 
the author has shown respecting temperature in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions' for 1837. 

On another occasion, when the bees were quiet and the tempe- 
rature of the external atmosphere was only 41° F., that of the top of 
the hive was 54° F., but that of the vapour from the entrance-hole 
was 59° F. The quantity of fluid then condensed in the phial, du- 
ring a night of twelve hours, was scarcely three minims. 

These experiments seemed to show that the vapour is in the 
greatest quantity when the bees are most active, and in the least 
quantity when they are inactive ; and the author believes that it is 
the carbonic acid, the result of respiration, and held in solution in 
this vapour, which occasions the darkened colour of the combs. 

March 17. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 
Mr. Samuel Osborn was elected a Fellow. 

Read a paper " On the Siliceous Armour of Equisetum hyemale, L., 
with an account of its hitherto undescribed Stomatic Apparatus." 
By Golding Bird, Esq., A.M., M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Dr. Bird commences his paper by referring to the observations of 
Mr. Sivright on the large amount of silica contained in Equisetum 
hyemale, and those of Dr. Brewster on the general arrangement of 

1S4G.] Linnean Society. 291 

the siliceous masses on its surface and their action on polarized light. 
He then proceeds to describe minutely the structure of this siliceous 
armour. The fourteen longitudinal ridges on each joint of the stem 
are each furnished with two parallel rows of siliceous tubercles, 
having the lustre and general appearance of glass beads ; and along 
the margins of each ridge are numerous longitudinal wavy lines, 
which fill up the inter^^als between the lateral aspects of the ridges 
and the centres of the contiguous furrows. In the depressions of 
these furrows is seen a double vertical series of oval projections, 
arranged in pairs, each furnished with an oval fissure, having its 
longer axis placed transversely ; these fissures lead to the complex 
stomatic apparatus. 

Dr. Bird details the manipulations, consisting of maceration in 
water, boiling in strong nitric acid, careful scraping away of the 
disorganized cellulo-vascular structure, washing, boiling again in 
nitric acid, and again washing in water, which he considers neces- 
sary for the perfect exhibition of the minute structure of the stomata. 
After a portion of the stem has undergone these processes, the sili- 
ceous structures previously observed become much more obvious and 
distinctly marked. On reversing the preparation so as to obtain a 
view of its inner surface, the portions corresponding to the rows of 
tubercles are found to be nearly opake, owing to a compact series of 
linear masses of siliceous matter combined with some still remaining 
organic structure. Equidistant from these linear masses are seen the 
posterior aspects of the stomatic apparatus, each presenting an ovate 
nipple-like prominence having its longer axis corresponding with 
that of the stem, and consequently opposed to that of the external 
fissure, into the base of the conical eminence surrounding which 
these ovate bodies are fitted. 

Further manipulation is necessary to carry this investigation into 
the more minute details ; and Dr. Bird has recourse to heat, applied 
by holding the piece of Equisetum prepared as already described in 
the flame of a spirit-lamp, in order to get rid of the minute portion 
of organic matter still remaining in the preparation. After acquiring 
a red heat, the preparation finally assumes a snowy whiteness ; it is 
then placed between two slips of glass, which reduce it by breaking 
into fragments of a size sufficiently small to allow of careful exami- 
nation by high powers of the microscope. The transverse fissure 
leading externally to the stomatic apparatus is found to have been 
widened and rendered irregular by the heat. On bringing this 
fissure within the focus, it is seen to be replaced by one having its 
longer axis in the opposite direction, which is derived from the oval 

292 Linnean Society. [April 7> 

figure of the apparatus at its base. Among the fragments may be 
seen numerous separated specimens of the stomatic apparatus. This 
is described by Dr. Bird as oval in outline, nearly flat, and measuring 
in its long diameter g-g^oth of an inch. It consists of a frame of silex 
formed of two pieces, thick at their convexities, thin at their con- 
cavities, nearly touching above and below, and grasping between 
them two long and flat structures, fissured (apparently) in a pectinate 
manner, and tapering from their middle towards either end. In most 
specimens an opening exists between these structures ; in others 
they are quite in contact. In some the thinner and laminated por- 
tions of the frame are perforated by three well-defined apertures, 
but this is by no means constant. The apparatus thus consists essen- 
tially of four pieces, viz. two curved frames with their laminse and 
two linear pectinated structures ; and these are placed at the base of 
a conical eminence opening by a transverse fissure. By what means 
it is retained in its position Dr. Bird has not been able satisfactorily 
to ascertain. 

April 7. 

Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Thomas Henry Brain, Esq., LL.D., and Charles Csesar Corsellis, 
Esq., M.D., were elected Fellows. 

Read a " Note on the Generation of Aphides." By George New- 
port, Esq., F.R.S., Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, &c. 

In this note the author states his object to have been the verifica- 
tion by his own observations of those made by Leeuwenhoek, Bonnet, 
Reaumur and others, preparatory to attempting hereafter tor show 
the accordance of those observations with some universal law of re- 
production. The points to which his attention was more particularly 
directed were, first, whether the Aphis is really viviparous at one 
season and oviparous at another ; and secondly, whether the sup- 
posed ova are true eggs, or, as some have imagined, merely capsules 
designed for the protection of the already-formed embryos during the 
winter season. 

On the 30th of November Mr. Newport ol)served the deposition 
of the egg by the female Aphis, and found it to be a true e^^, similar 

1846.] Linnean Society, 293 

to that of other insects, composed of an orange-coloured yolk, formed 
of yellow nucleated cells, surrounded by a very small quantity of 
transparent vitelline fluid, and containing a very large germinal 
vesicle with a distinct macula or nucleus. On the 2nd of December 
the females were again seen to produce living young, and Mr. New- 
port describes the process of parturition which he then observed. 
These observations confirm the statements of former naturalists on 
both the points inquired into, and negative the presumption raised 
with reference to the capsular character of the egg by proving it to 
possess all the characters of a true ovum. 

Read also a portion of Dr. Buchanan Hamilton's " Commentary 
on the 8th book of the Hortus Malabaricus of Rheede." 

April 21. 
Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Ward, F.L.S., exhibited specimens of the dried plant and fruit 
of Uncaria procumbens, Burchell, from South Africa ; and also a por- 
tion of the stipes of a fern from New Plymouth, New Zealand, pro- 
bably belonging to Pteris esculenta, Sol., measuring several feet in 
length. Mr. Carrington, from whom the latter specimen was ob- 
tained, stated that the species of fern from which it was obtained 
grows, in the neighbourhood of the coast, to the height of five feet, 
in masses of from six to seven feet diameter, so strong and dense 
as to be capable, if a cover were thrown over it, of sustaining the 
weight of a man. On the margin of the bushland it attains a height 
of twenty-one feet, and Mr. Carrington has observed it on the banks 
of a river, when interlaced and matted together, to measure thirty 

Read a paper " On the Development of Starch and Chlorophylle." 
By Edwin John Quekett, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Mr. Quekett commences by referring to the observations and opi- 
nions of Miiller, Miinter and Nageli on the subject of the formation 
of starch and chlorophylle in the cells of plants, and to his own ob- 
servations, recorded in the 'PharmaceuticalJoumal.'vol.iii. 1843-44, 

294 Linnean Society. [April 21, 

on the growth of starch in the leaves of Vallisneria spiralis. Miiller, 
he states, has observed that in the cells of Chara crinita, the cyto- 
blast becomes hoUow, enlarges, and fiUs the cell-membrane in which 
it is contained, and ultimately becomes the reservoir for granules of 
starch ; while Nageli has observed that in Caulerpa prolifera, at the 
period of the formation of starch, the cells contain several smaller 
cells, in each of which are developed generally from three to four 
grains of starch. In order to observe the growth of starch and chlo- 
rophylle, Mr. Quekett examined in several plants the organs in which 
those substances are generally situated, and found that their forma- 
tion took place, in the majority of instances, in the following manner. 

In the very young stem of Circaa Lutetiana, or the young branch 
of the Grape- Vine, the different appearances presented by the grains 
of starch from their perfect state down to their first commencement 
may be readily observed by making numerous sections from the 
lowermost internode up to the terminal joint. The cells most re- 
cently formed are so filled with mucilage and granules as to be opake ; 
lower down the granules begin to disappear and the cytoblast is ap- 
parent ; still lower the cytoblast appears to have lost its granular • 
character without having much increased in size, and has become a 
minute cell with a distinct nucleus, instead of a congeries of gra- 
nules with a larger central one. On the outside of this nucleated 
cell, granules (varying in number from ten to twenty) make their 
appearance, at first very minute and of a green hue, and afterwards 
enlarging and becoming colourless ; and as they increase in size the 
nucleated cell is absorbed and the granules become free. At a later 
period a multiplication of the granules takes place by fission and 
pullulation, certain grains exhibiting marks of subdivision, and 
others having minute granules attached to them ; and generally 
more grains of starch are found in a cell than the number of minute 
granules seen developing on the nucleus. 

Several of these stages are more readily seen in the tuber of the 
Potato. If a slice be removed from its exterior so thin as only to 
pass beneath the cuticle, and a very thin and perfectly transparent 
slice be then taken and examined under the microscope, the cells in 
the central portion are seen to contain only a few grains of starch, 
while in approaching the sides of the section the grains become 
smaller and pass gradually into the nature of chlorophylle. On di- 
recting attention to those parts of the section, in which the cell- 
contents pass gradually from the state of starch to that of chloro- 
phylle, many cells are seen to contain a distinct nucleated cell, ap- 
parently of a flattened or lenticular form, on the edge of which are 

1846.] Linnean Society. 295j 

arranged a number of minute granules ; in others the appearances 
are more advanced, the granules gradually hecoming larger and the 
nucleated cell becoming obliterated. From the disturbance that 
takes place in the position of the granules after detachment from the 
nucleated cell, it is difficult to determine by what part they were 
adherent to it ; but Mr. Quekett believes that this adherence takes 
place at the end at which the point or hilum is observed. Subse- 
quent to this period the grains of starch enlarge, become laminated, 
and are multiplied in the manner already pointed out by various 

Such are the results of Mr. Quekett's observations on Exogenous 
plants ; in Endogenous plants he states that the same process does 
not appear to be in all cases pursued, inasmuch as while the rhizoma 
of Iris germanica affords a favourable example for the exhibition of 
the process as above described, the young stem of Lilhan bulbiferum 
offers the following differences. Sections taken from the base of a 
young stem within the bulb have their cells full of starch-grains ; at 
the height of an inch from the base of the stem, the cells are filled 
with fluid only, and each cell contains a cytoblast with its contents 
presenting a milky hue. Carrying on the sections from above down- 
wards within these limits, the cells are first found to become more 
transparent and to contain granules with well-defined outlines ; lower 
down they exhibit minute granules mixed with the fluid of the cell, 
leaving the cytoblast transparent, empty and angular ; while at the 
base the granules have arrived at their perfect condition and the 
cytoblast is no longer visible. Thus it appears, Mr. Quekett states, 
that there are two modes of formation of starch connected with the 
cytoblast ; in the one case the cytoblast becomes a nucleated cell 
and the grains originate on its exterior ; in the other it does not be- 
come a nucleated cell, but gives origin to the grains in its interior. 

As regards the origin of chlorophylle, Mr. Quekett states that in 
the plants which he has examined the same mode of development ap- 
pears to obtain as described in the formation of starch, viz. the gra- 
nules originating from a nucleated cell, and instances the cuticle of 
the very young frond of Scolopendrium vulgare, L., as an example ; 
but he adds that the first origin of chlorophylle is so niixed up with 
the formation of the cell, that it is impossible to arrive by dissection 
at the commencement of the process. 


Linnean Society. 
May 5. 

[May 5, 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President^ in the Chair. 

Read a letter " On the Migration of the Swallows," addressed to 
the Secretary. By Thomas Forster, Esq., M.D., F.L.S. &c., dated 
Bruges, May 2nd, 1846. 

The object of this note is to show, not only that the four British 
species of Swallows migrate, but also that their migration is pro- 
gressive through Europe to Asia and Africa. The first table is stated 
to have been compiled from the recorded observations of naturalists 
and others, copied on the spot during an extensive tour through 
Europe in the years 1833, 1834, 1835 and 1836. Dr. Forster states 
that he is satisfied that numerous flights of the several species an- 
nually arrive at the end of February and beginning of March in Sicily, 
Italy and the Islands of the Mediterranean, from Africa. Of these 
a portion proceed after a few days' rest towards the north, leaving 
colonies in difl^erent places as they advance, until they reach their 
most northern destination in Europe. In autumn they retire in the 
same manner, and their numbers appear. prodigiously increased in 
particular places where they halt and rest for days before the phalanx 
again takes wing. This, Dr. Forster states, is also the case with 
Quails, with the Mountain-Finch, and with many of the Warblers. 
Particular places seem to be favourite resorts as resting-places to 
particular species, as Pisa for example to the Swift, the Campagna 
and Southern Italy to the Martin. When an early spring has oc- 
curred in the S. of Europe, these birds have made their appearance 
earlier, as if they had been capable of inferring an earlier season 

Table I. 

Mean time of Arrival. 








Hirundo rustica 

//. urhica 

H. Tiparia 

Feb. 27 
April 10 
April 3 
April 15 

March 3 
April 15 
April 5 
April 18 

March 5 
April 16 
April 8 
April 20 

March 25 
April 20 
April 12 
April 25 

April 5 
May 1 
April 25 
April 30 

April 15 
May 1 
April 25 
May 3 

H. ji'pus 

In their recession in autumn they observe nearly the same relative 
times, with the exception that the Swifts migrate much earlier in 
Flanders than they do in Kent and Sussex. They are often gone on 
the 1st of August, and always about the 5th, whereas they remain 
in England until about the 15th. 


Linnean Society. 


The second Table is copied from the Journal kept in succession 
by Dr. Forster's late father, T. F. Forster, Esq., F.L.S., and himself; 
and records the period of arrival of the Swallow {Hirundo rustica, L.) 
for nearly half a century. Dr. Forster hopes on a future occasion to 
supply similar tables of the Martin, Swift, and other birds of passage. 

Table II. 

Showing the day of Arrival of th 

e Swallow for forty -seven years. 

1800, April 15 

1812, April 15 

1824, Api-U 14 

1836, April 6 

1801, — 5 

1813, — 15 

1825, — 19 

1837, — 6 

1802, — 15 

1814, — 19 

1826, — 14 

1838, — 13 

1803, — 15 

1815, — 14 

1827, — 22 

1839, — 15 

1804, — 17 

1816, — 21 

1828, — 23 

1840, — 15 

1805, — 5 

1817, — 10 

1829, — 21 

1841, — 5 

1806, — 2 

1818, — 17 

1830, — 16 

1842, — 5 

1807, — 15 

1819, — 15 

1831, — 12 

1843, — 21 

1808, — 16 

1820, — 16 

1832, — 19 

1844, — 16 

1809, — 18 

1821, — 18 

1833, — 17 

1845, — 8 

1810, — 20 

1822, — 17 

1834, — 1 

1846, — I 

1811, — 18 

1823, — 22 

1835, — 7 

Read also a note " On the Structure of Viola, in connection with 
its Impregnation." By T. S. Ralph, Esq., A.L.S. &c. 

Mr. Ralph regards the following circumstances as more or less 
essential to the impregnation of the ovules of Viola : 1st, the pen- 
dent position of the flower, which brings the stigma into a position 
below the anthers ; 2ndly, the spurred petal, which by the secretion 
of honey attracts insects, whose efforts to obtain a supply of nutri- 
ment disturbs the whole band of coherent anthers through the move- 
ments impressed on the two spurs of anthers which descend into the 
nectary, and thus cause a free discharge of pollen ; 3rdly, the rostrate 
termination of the stigma in some species, in which the pollen is 
shed very freely and appears to have a ready access to the interior 
of the stigma ; 4thly, the remarkable bend in the style in those spe- 
cies which have a globose stigma, in which species Mr. Ralph has 
also found a set of singular hairs seated on the claw of the fifth or 
spurred petal, on which the pollen collects very abundantly, and 
thence probably finds its way into the interior of the stigma ; the 
stigmatic head being readily capable of being pushed into the groove 
of the claw of the petal amid these hairs, a process which Mr. Ralph 
thinks is performed by the assistance of insects. In some species 
there are also a set of hairs placed at the throat of the corolla on the 
two middle petals, the use of which Mr. Ralph thinks to be to shut 
out the ingress of the proboscis of the insect in that direction. 

298 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

. May 24. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

This day, the Anniversary of the birth of Linnaeus, and that ap- 
pointied by the Charter for the election of Council and Officers, the 
President opened the business of the Meeting and stated the num- 
ber of Members whom the Society had lost during the past year, of 
some of whom the Secretary read the following notices : — 

James Hussey Abraham, Esq., for nearly half a century the con- 
ductor of the most flourishing seminary in the town of Sheffield, was 
well-skilled in various branches of Natural Philosophy, especially 
Electricity and Magnetism, and possessed a large and valuable col- 
lection of apparatus with which he illustrated his lectures on these 
and allied branches of science. In the course of his magnetic expe- 
riments, the idea suggested itself to him that the minute particles of 
steel evolved in the dry grinding of forks, needles, &c., the inhala- 
tion of which is so deleterious to the workmen engaged in those 
trades, might be intercepted by means of a wire-gauze mask, or 
caught by a chaplet of magnets worn about the mouth of the ope- 
rator. For the ingenious contrivance by which he proposed to effect 
this object, he received in 1821 the large gold medal of the Society 
of Arts. Other ingenious modifications of the practical application 
pf the magnet were also devised by Mr. Abraham ; and he delivered 
a lecture on this, his favourite topic, at an evening meeting of the 
British Association, at their first meeting in the city of York in 1831. 
In conjunction with his friend James Montgomery the poet, who 
then edited one of the local newspapers, he was mainly instrumental 
in originating the Literary and Philosophical Society of Sheffield, of 
w^hich in 1834 he was elected President. He was also celebrated in 
his neighbourhood for his skill in horticulture, and seldom failed to 
carry olF one or more prizes at the exhibitions of the Sheffield Hor- 
ticultural Society, founded in 1830 by himself and some friends; the 
prize medals of which Society bear on their obverse an exquisitely 
engraved head of Linnseus. Mr. Abraham died on the 5th of Fe- 
bruary in the present year, in the 69th year of his age. He became 
a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1825. 
Henry Singer Chinnock, Esq. 

Barron Field, Esq., was born on the 23rd of October 178G. He 
was the second son of Mr. Henry Field, who was in extensive me- 
dical practice in London, and for many years apothecary to Christ's 

1846.] Ijinnean Society. i299 

Hospital. Mr. Barron Field was lineally descended in the sixth de- 
gree from Oliver Cromwell ; his grandfather, Mr. John Field, having 
married Anne, the daughter of Thomas Cromwell, who was grandson 
of Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of Ireland, the younger son of the 
Protector. Mr. Barron Field was educated for the profession of the 
law, and called to the bar by the Honourable Society of the Inner 
Temple. In 1811 he published an 'Analysis of Blackstone's Com- 
mentaries,' which has become a standard work for the use and in- 
struction of students. In 1816 he was appointed Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of New South Wales, and continued to exercise the 
duties of that office till 1824 ; when, on a change in the Charter of 
Justice for that colony, he relinquished his appointment and returned 
to England. Early in 1829 he received from Government the ap- 
pointment of Chief Justice of Gibraltar, which he held until ill-health 
obliged him to retire and return to his native country. In both 
these distant appointments Mr. Barron Field applied himself to what 
was always with him a favourite relaxation, the study of botany. In 
New South Wales he availed himself of the talents of Mr. Lewin, 
the distinguished painter of natural history, and formed a pleasing 
collection of drawings of Botany Bay plants ; and his garden at 
Gibraltar, situate at nearly the most southern point of Europe, ex- 
hibited fine specimens of geraniums, cacti and other beautiful plants, 
flourishing in an almost natural state. Mr. Barron Field also dedicated 
much of his leisure to the critical perusal of the early English dra- 
matists and poets ; and latterly attached himself to the Shakspeare 
Society, of which he was chosen one of the Council, and for which 
he edited several old dramas. He died on the 11th of April 1846, in 
his 60th year, at Torquay in South Devon, where he had resided for 
the last two years. 

During his residence in New South Wales he published a small 
volume of poems, the first that had ever been printed in that colony, 
which he subsequently included in a collection of ' Memoirs on New 
South Wales,' containing, among several geographical papers of in- 
terest, some notes by Allan Cunningham on the Botany of New Hol- 
land. He became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1825. 

The Rev. Thomas Gisborne, Prebendary of Durham, a name distin- 
guished in the literature of our country, was attached from early life 
to the pursuit of natural history, to which his ' Rural Walks,' first 
published in 1795, bear in many passages ample testimony. It is 
not necessary to speak here, and indeed it would be out of place to 
do so, of the value of his ethical and religious writings ; but he well 
deserves mention as one of the most zealous collectors of rare Bri- 

300 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

tish birds, and for his great liberality to the Durham Museum, of 
which he was one of the founders and principal patrons. The fine 
collection of British birds, which forms the foundation of that Mu- 
seum, was munificently purchased and presented to the Institution by 
him, and he never missed an opportunity of adding to its value and 
completeness by supplying its deficiencies in the rarer species. He 
became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in the year 1799, and died 
in the spring of the present year. 

Robert Graham, M.D., Regius Professor of Botany in the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, was the third son of Dr. Robert Graham, and was 
born at Stirling on the 7th of December 1786. In the first part of 
his career he practised medicine in Glasgow, and in 1818 he was ap- 
pointed to the Professorship of Botany then first established by the 
Crown as a distinct chair in the University of that city. In 1820 he 
was transferred to the Botanical chair of the University of Edinburgh, 
which he filled up to the time of his death. In the same year he be- 
came a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and in 1821 of 
the Linnean Society. 

Dr. Graham devoted himself assiduously and successfully to the 
duties of his office. By his energy and enthusiasm, as well as by his 
aflfable and pleasing manners, he succeeded in implanting a taste for 
his favourite science among the pupils of his class, many of whom 
have since become able teachers, as well as zealous students and 
collectors. In the promotion of this taste he derived much assistance 
from the botanical excursions which he made in company with his 
pupils, not merely in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, but in distant 
parts of Scotland, and even in England and in Ireland, in the course 
of which several additions were made to the Scottish flora. During 
these excursions he also laid in a large store of materials for a Flora 
of Britain, in the preparation of which he had been long engaged, 
but which he did not live to complete. His published works consist 
chiefly of descriptions of new or rare plants from the Edinburgh Bo- 
tanic Garden, which owes much of its present excellence to his ex- 
ertions. These descriptions, together with notices of his botanical 
excursions, appeared in the ' Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal ' 
and in the ' Botanical Magazine.' In the ' Companion ' to the latter 
work, published by Sir Wm. J. Hooker, he also gave " an account 
of the Camboge-tree of Ceylon." His favourite tribe was the Legu- 
minosce, and he had undertaken to describe the plants of that exten- 
sive family contained in Dr. Wallich's Indian herbarium, but subse- 
quently relinquished the intention and transferred the plants to Mr. 
Bentham, who has made considerable progress in their illustration. 

184G.] Lmnean Society. 301 

The genus Grahamia jointly commemorates the botanical merits 
of Mrs. Graham, afterwards Lady Callcott, and those of Dr. Graham ; 
and several species have also been named in honour of the latter. He 
died on the 7th of August last at the house of his brother at Coldoch 
in Perthshire, after a long and painful illness, leaving behind him 
the character of an able and enthusiastic teacher, a warm and zealous 
friend, and a candid and honourable man. 

In Joseph Janson, Esq., the Society has lost a very active and 
zealous member. He was born at Tottenham in Middlesex on the 
12th of July 1789, and became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 
November 1831. Before his election into the Society', he contributed 
towards the purchase of the Linnean collections, and it was owing 
in a great degree to his exertions that the subscription was set on 
foot which has enabled us to pay off so large a portion of our debt. 
The Society has since been indebted to Mr. Janson for a valuable 
set of cabinets for its herbarium, and for the cabinet which contains 
the principal part of the collection of fruits which have been so care- 
fully arranged by Mr. Kippist. To the library also he has presented 
upwards of forty volumes of local European floras ; and he was always 
ready to add to our collections, or to aid in giving interest to our 
meetings by the exhibition of rare and curious specimens from his 
garden at Stoke Newington, where, in addition to the more usual 
garden plants, he was particularly successful in the cultivation of the 
rarer and less determinately settled British species. 

Mr. Janson was, as many now present can well bear testimony 
a man of cultivated understanding, of a clear head and a warm heart. 
He was ever ready to perceive and to acknowledge merit, and it was 
one of his benevolent pleasures to bring forward young men of talent 
and to put them in a way of making their abilities available. He was 
a zealous friend of various establishments for the education of the 
poor, to the promotion of the objects of which he devoted much time 
and labour as well as rendering pecuniary assistance. He was never 
married. He died on the 30th of April in the present year after a 
long illness, which did not assume a dangerous appearance until 
about a fortnight before his death. By his will he has bequeathed 
to the Society a legacy of 100/. 

Henry Gaily Knight, Esq., M.P., distinguished for his extensive 
acquaintance with the architecture of the middle ages, on which he 
published several highly beautiful and important works. He was 
educated at Eton and afterwards at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he formed an acquaintance with Byron, which he renewed 
during a tour in the East in 1810-11, and which probably led to 

302 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

his attempting poetry in a series of new ' Persian Tales.' These, 
however, met with Httle success, and he devoted himself during the 
latter years of his life to the more congenial study of mediaeval 
architecture. He was returned to parliament in 1834 for North 
Nottinghamshire, for which he continued to sit till the time of his 
death, which occurred on the 9th of February in the present year, 
and in the 59th year of his age. He became a FeUow of the Lin- 
nean Society in 1818. 

Richard Latham, Esq., received the rudiments of his education at 
Christ's Hospital, and in grateful recollection of the benefit, devoted 
the first four hundred pounds which he saved by industry and fru- 
gality to the uses of that noble institution. He became connected 
with the extensive brewery of Sir Henry Meux and Co., of which 
for more than a quarter of a century he was acting partner. In this 
position he acquired considerable wealth ; while he amused his leisure 
hours with the pursuits of chemistry, geology, botany and ornitho- 
logy. He also contributed largely to the funds of many of the most 
important charitable institutions of the metropolis. He became a 
Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1821, and died at his residence at 
Bayswater on the 24th of January in the present year, and in the 
79th year of his age. 

Thomas Knowlton, Esq., the son of a father of the same names, 
who was in the early part of his life gardener to Sherard, and after- 
wards to the Earl of Burlington, and M'ho is mentioned with honour 
in Pulteney's ' Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England ' as an 
antiquary as well as a naturalist. Our deceased member inherited 
his father's taste for natural history, and formed a valuable botanical 
and zoological library, which was disposed of by auction on the death 
of its proprietor in the spring of the present year. The elder Knowlton 
died in 1784 at the advanced age of 90, and his son, who became a 
Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1795, must also have reached a 
good old age. 

Charles Lush, Esq., M.D., was educated as a surgeon, and the first 
bent of his mind towards natural history was given in a small society 
of juniors to which several of our Fellows who have since distin- 
guished themselves also belonged. He became the Botanical Lec- 
turer at St. Thomas's Hospital in 1825, and in 1827 sailed for India 
as an Assistant- Surgeon in the East India Company's service on the 
Bombay establishment. Soon after his arrival he was appointed to 
take charge of the Botanic Garden at Dapooree near Poona, which 
appointment he retained until his return to England in 1837. In 
1829 he was employed by the Bombay Government in traveUing in 

1846.] Linnean Society. 303 

the Southern Mahratta country, along the coast of Canara, and visit- 
ing the Portuguese settlement of Goa, &c. in order to select a suit- 
able spot for the establishment of an experimental cotton- farm. His 
report of the results of this journey was published with the appro- 
bation of the authorities, and circulated among all the magistrates 
and other functionaries. From 1830 to 1833 he had the direction 
of some experiments in the cultivation of silk and cotton carried on 
in the Southern Provinces, and in 1833 made a report to the Govern- 
ment respecting mulberries for the feeding of the silk- worms. In 
1836 he visited the cotton districts in Guzerat, for the purpose of 
inspecting the different farms, on the subject of which he furnished 
a report ; and in the same year he communicated to the Medical 
and Physical Society of Bombay, a paper published in December in 
the * Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,' entitled " Geological 
Notes on the Northern Conkan, and a small portion of Guzerat and 
Kattywar." In this paper he mentions the discovery by himself in 
the Island of Perim, in the Gulf of Cambay, of a large deposit of 
fossil bones, which has since been more fully investigated by Capt. 
Fulljames and Dr. Falconer, and has been found to comprise some 
of the most remarkable among the very extraordinary fossils for the 
knowledge of which we have recently been indebted to the natu- 
ralists of India. 

In 1837 he returned to England overland, and in 1840 again pro- 
ceeded to India, where he was appointed surgeon to the 14th Bom- 
bay Native Infantry, and accompanied that regiment in 1 844 to Kur- 
rachee in Scinde, and in 1845 to Hydrabad, where he fell a victim 
to spasmodic cholera on the 4th of July, in the 49th or 50th year of 
his age. 

In character Dr. Lush was well-known to many of our members 
as warm-hearted, sincere, and of so sweet a disposition, that I am 
assured by one of our Fellows who knew him best, that during a 
close intimacy of many years he never saw him out of temper. He 
was a constant peacemaker, and his simplicity was extraordinary. 
His talents were excellent, and had his application been equal, there 
is no doubt that he would have attained a high position in science. 

Peter Nouaille, Esq. 

Of our Associates we have lost two during the past year. 

Mr. James Main began life as a working gardener in the neigh- 
bourhood of Edinburgh, andAvas afterwards employed by Mr. George 
Hibbert, to whom we are indebted for the introduction of many va- 
luable plants through the means of collectors whom he sent abroad. 

304 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

One of these was Mr. Main, whom he despatched to China, and who 
continued in Mr. Hibbert's employ for some years after his return to 
England, but afterwards took a farm in Scotland. Here he was 
unsuccessful ; but having made himself well-acquainted with the re- 
ceived theories and practice both of horticulture and of agriculture, 
he turned his attention to the literature of those subjects, and from 
this time forwards became a frequent and welcome contributor to 
some of the principal periodicals devoted to their illustration. In the 
year 1830 he published 'The Villa and Cottage Florist's Direc- 
tory,' which reached a second edition in 1835 ; in 1833 ' Illustra- 
tions of Vegetable Physiology, jDractically applied;' in 1835 'Po- 
pular Botany;' and in 1839 'The Young Farmer's Manual,' and 
' The Forest Planter's and Pruner's Assistant ;' and he also edited 
new editions of Mawe's ' Every Man his own Gardener,' and of 
several other works of a similar character. 

Mr. Main was elected an Associate of the Linnean Society in 
1829, and communicated to us in 1844 a paper entitled " Remarks 
on Vegetable Physiology," in which he reproduced the leading ideas 
on the growth of plants contained in his ' Illustrations of Vegetable 
Physiolog}^' Of this paper an abstract is published in the ' Proceed- 
ings ' of the Society. He died at Chelsea in the spring of the pre- 
sent year at an advanced age. 

Mr. George Samouelle was brought up to the business of a book- 
seller, and was for several years an assistant in the establishment of 
Messrs. Longman and Co. He early imbibed a taste for natural 
history, and more especially for entomology, and became an assi- 
duous collector of British insects. In 1819 he published a work en- 
titled ' The Entomologist's Useful Compendium, or an Introduction 
to the Knowledge of British Insects, comprising the best means of 
obtaining and preserving them, and a description of the Apparatus 
generally used ; together with the genera of Linne, and the modern 
method of arranging the Classes Crustacea, Myriapoda, Spiders, Mites 
and Insects, from their affinities and structure, according to the views 
of Dr. Leach. Also, an explanation of the terms used in Entomo- 
logy ; a Calendar of the times of appearance and usual situations of 
near 3000 species of British Insects ; with instructions for collecting 
and fitting up objects for the Microscope. Illustrated with twelve 
plates,' 8vo, Lond. In this work, the multifarious nature of which 
may be inferred from the title-page, Mr. Samouelle furnished the 
British entomologist with a careful and valuable compilation, and 
added moreover numerous original observations calculated to be 
useful to the collector ; but the greater part of the work, as well as 

1846.] Linnean Society. 'iOj 

the most important in a scientific point of view, was derived from 
the MSS. of Dr. Leach, which were freely communicated to the 
author. This work was followed by ' General Directions for col- 
lecting and preserving Exotic Insects and Crustacea,' 18mo, Lond., 
1826. Soon after the publication of his 'Compendium' Mr. Sa- 
mouelle became an assistant in the Natural History Department of 
the British Museum, and was chiefly employed for many years in the 
care and arrangement of the entomological collections of that esta- 
blishment. In 1832 he commenced the publication of an illustrated 
periodical, entitled ' The Entomological Cabinet ; being a Natural 
History of British Insects,' of which he completed two annual vo- 
lumes. He afterwards issued two numbers of a second series of the 
same work, but not meeting with sufficient encouragement he pro- 
ceeded no farther. In 1836 he also published two numbers of a 
second edition of his ' Entomologist's Useful Compendium,' but this 
undertaking fell to the ground from the same cause. He was elected 
an Associate of the Linnean Society in 1818, and died at Lambeth 
in the spring of the present year. 

His principal work was highly useful at the time of its appearance, 
following as it did on the two introductory volumes of Messrs. Kirby 
and Spence, and affording to the numerous students who were in- 
cited by those volumes to take up entomological pursuits, a manual 
of information for their guidance in collecting, preserving and ar- 
ranging insects, which was then greatly wanted by British entomo- 

The Secretary also announced that twelve Fellows had been 
elected since the last Anniversary. 

At the election, which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop 
of Norwich was re-elected President ; Edward Forster, Esq., Trea- 
surer ; John Joseph Bennett, Esq., Secretary; and Richard Taylor, 
Esq., Under-Secretary. The following five Fellows were elected 
into the Council in the room of others going out: viz. Sir Henry 
Thomas De la Beche ; Hugh Falconer, M.D. ; Joseph Dalton Hooker, 
M.D. ; William Wilson Saunders, Esq., and William Yarrell, Esq. 

No. XXX. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

SOQ Linnean Society. [June 2, 

June 2. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read some " Notes towards a Statistical Account of the Fauna of 
New Zealand and the Auckland Islands, so far as regards Annulose 
Animals." By Adam White, Esq., M.E.S., Assistant in the Zoolo- 
gical Department of the British Museum. Communicated by the 

In these notes, Mr. White remarks on the advantages offered by 
an insular position, of comparatively limited extent and far removed 
from any great continent, in the drawing up a local fauna or flora ; 
and anticipates that in the course of time, when we shall have been 
furnished with nearly perfect lists of the animals and vegetables in- 
habiting New Zealand, we may arrive at tangible results regarding 
them, free from the disturbing influences which result from the great 
extent and varied nature of such a continent as New Holland, and 
from the ready access afforded to wanderers of both kingdoms by the 
proximity of such islands as our own to great and almost adjoining 
continents. He limits his present observations to the Coleopterous 
order of insects, and states the sources from which the various col- 
lections examined by him have been derived. From the information 
which he has been enabled to acquire from all these sources he 
arrives at the following conclusions : — 1st, that Coleoptera do not 
aboxmd in species in New Zealand ; 2ndly, that the numbers of Cicin- 
delidce, Carahidos, CurculionidcB and Longicornes are strikingly cha- 
racteristic of its Coleopterous fauna as compared with any part of 
New Holland ; and Srdly, that Cetoniadee, Buprestidce and Chryso- 
melidcE, so abundant in nearly every part of the Australian continent, 
are either wanting or very poorly represented in New Zealand. He 
does not, however, venture in the present state of our knowledge to 
propound these as axioms ; and instances the paucity of species of 
various orders of insects, especially Hymenoptera and Neuroptera, 
enumerated in the ' Fauna Boreali-Americana,' as compared with the 
large number of species of those orders collected by Mr. Barnston in 
a single locality within the limits of that territory, as a striking ex- 
ample of the fallacy of the conclusions which might be drawn from 
insufficient and uncertain data. 

The author then proceeds to give an enumeration of the species of 
each Coleopterous family hitherto detected in New Zealand ; and ob- 

1846.] Linneah Society. 30^ 

serves in a note that the jEshna liasstna of Strickland, a Neuropte- 
rous insect, of which a lower wing has been found in the lias of 
Stonesfield, belongs (as Mr. Dale has conjectured) to a genus closely- 
allied to Petalura, which latter has hitherto only been detected living 
in New Zealand and New Holland. 

June 16. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

John Birkett, jun., Esq., and Thomas Lightfoot, Esq., M.D., were 
elected Fellows. 

Read a paper " On the calcifying functions of the Cowry and the 
Olive, two genera of Pectinibranchiate Mollusks." By Lovell Reeve, 
Esq., A.L.S. &c. &c. 

After referring to the numerous instances of ver)' considerable 
modifications in the form of shell and mode of calcification which 
occur among Mollusca, even in genera very nearly related to each 
other, Mr. Reeve proceeds to describe more particularly the manner 
in which the calcifying process is performed in the two genera which 
form the subject of his paper. Each of these genera produces a 
porcellanous shell of very analogous structure, consisting of a cy- 
linder of several enlarging whorls, convoluted on a plane nearly ver- 
tical to the spire, and composed of layers of vitrified enamel of dif- 
ferent colours and design ; but there is a striking difference in the 
calcifying organ as regards its structure and its function of secretion. 
In the CoviTy the office of calcification is performed by a lobate ex- 
pansion of the mantle from either side of the aperture, sufficiently 
large to cover the entire shell, and retracted only under the influence 
of alarm. In the Olive, on the other hand, the mantle is limited to 
the interior and the aperture of the shell ; and appears to be furled 
over the edge of the lip, and retained in a state of tension by a cord 
or filament passing from its posterior extremity into a narrow channel 
which is excavated round the spire of the shell in place of the suture. 
The result of this diflference in the condition of the calcifying organ 
is, that in the Cowry the testaceous secretion is deposited over the 
whole shell from the outside in successive layers at different inter- 
vals of time, while in the Olive the layers must be secreted simul- 
taneously at the lip alone, and the porcellanous surface of the shell 

308 Linnean Society. [Nov. 3, 

is preserved (both in its course of retrovolution and after maturity) 
by a reflection of the ventral disc soraevifhat analogous to the re- 
flected mantle of the Covv^ry, but bearing no part in the formation of 
the shell. 

In support of this vievi' and with the view of proving that this 
distinction is borne out by the physical condition of the shells at 
different periods of growth, the author takes for examples Cyprcea 
Tigris and Oliva Utriculus. The Tiger,Cowry in its first stage is of 
a uniform light chestnut-bay ; the colour then breaks up, as it were, 
into bands of close-set blotches of a richer hue ; a coating of white 
is next superposed, and upon that is deposited a series of rather 
distant zigzag flames ; these are partially concealed by a second layer 
of white enamel thinner and more delicate than the preceding one, 
on which a number of dark spots are subsequently deposited ; and a 
third coating of white enamel, with a new layer of black and brown 
spots intermingled, characterizes the maturity of the shell. Each 
period in the life of the Cowry appears therefore to be distinguished 
by a different design of colouring ; but this is not the case with the 
Olive, the shell of which exhibits the same appearance at all stages 
of its growth, and the different layers of its colouring matter must 
be deposited simultaneously because the organ of calcification ex- 
tends only to the lip, from which the shell gradually recedes in the 
progress of its growth. The external coating of Oliva Utriculus 
is of an obscure milky-blue, and the removal of this layer by means 
of an acid reveals a dull ashy ground sprinkled with numerous tri- 
angular opal-like dashes ; in Oliva Brasiliensis the removal of the 
outer layer exhibits a longitudinally striped pattern, and other va- 
rieties of design may be found in different species ; but there is no 
periodical change of colour in the entire shell to mark its advance- 
ment in growth. 

November 3. 
R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
Arthur Grote, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a " Description of the Asafoetida plant of Central Asia." 
By Hugh Falconer, Esq., M.D., F.L.S. &c. &c. 

Dr. Falconer describes the plant which yields the Asafoetida under 
the following characters : — 

1S46.] Linnean Society. 309 

Trib. PeucedanevE. 
Gen. Narthex, Falc. 
Calycis margo obsoletus. Petala ? Slylopodium plicato* 

urceolatum. Styli filiformes demum reflexi. Fructus a dorso plano- 
compressus, margine dilatato cinctus. Mericarpia jugis primariis 5, 
3 intermediis filiforniibus, 2lateralibus obsoletioribus margin! contigiiis 
imniersis. FittcB in valleculis dorsalibus plerumque solitariae (valle- 
culis lateralibus nunc sesqui- vel bi-vittatis) ; commissurales 4 — 6 variae 
ineequales, exterioi-ibus saepe reticulatim interrupts. Semen compla- 
natum. Carjso^// or «/« bipartitum. ?7wj6e//<? pedunculatae, compositae. 
Invohicrum utrumque nullum. — Genus inter Peucedaneas calycis mar- 
gine edentato ; fructus vittis magnis, commissuralibus incequalibus ; in- 
volucroque utroque nulla distinctum. Narthex nuncupatum a vocabulo 
vdpdrj^, apud Dioscoridem Ferulae attribiito. 
N. AsAFCETiDA, caule tereti simplici petiolis dilatatis apbyllis instructo, 
foliis radicalibus fasciculatis ; petiolis trisectis ; segmentis bipinnati- 
sectis : laciniis lineari-lanceolatis obtusis inasquilateralibus integris vel 
varie sinuatis decurrentibus. 
Asafoetida Disgunensis, Kcempf. Amcen. Exot. p. 535. 
Ferula Asafoetida, Linn. Mat. Med. p. 79; Dec. Prodr. iv. 173 ; Lindl. Fl. 

Med. p. 45. 
Hab. in apricis inter saxa in valle " Astore " vel " Hussorah" dicta prope 
Indum ultra Cashmeer ; indigenis Daradris " Sip " vel '•' Sup " dictum. Legi 
fructigerum prope Boosth5n die 21™° Septembris 1838. 

Dr. Falconer states that he has compared his materials with 
Ksempfer's description and figures and with the original specimens 
of that author in the collection of the British Museum, and found 
them to agree, so far as a comparison could be instituted, in every 
essential particular. Jubbar Khan, the Dardoh Rajah of the country 
in which Dr. Falconer gathered his specimens, at once recognised 
the plant as that which furnishes the Heeng or Asafoetida of com- 
merce, and referred to the medicinal accounts given of it by the Per- 
sian and Arabic authors ; but the Dardohs are a wild race and do 
not collect the gum-resin for exportation. Some young roots were 
carefully removed and introduced in the first instance into the Bo- 
tanic Garden at Saharunpoor, but afterwards transferred to the sub- 
sidiary hill garden at Mussooree. Of these some had succeeded 
well, but had not flowered up to the time of Dr. Falconer's leaving 
India ; and one of these furnished the leaves which were represented 
in a figlire accompanying the paper, together with a small quantity 
of Asafoetida, diflPering in no respect from the ordinary condition of 
that substance as it occurs in commerce. The species is found, as 

310 Linnean Society, [Dec. 1, 

it would appear, in the greatest abundance in the Persian provinces 
of Khorassan and Laar ; and thence extends on the one hand into 
the plains of Turkestan upon the Oxus, -where it seems to have been 
met with by Sir Alexander Burnes, and on the other stretches across 
from Beloochistan, through Candahar and other provinces of AfFgha- 
nistan, to the eastern side of the valley of the Indus in Astore. Dr. 
Falconer has not met with it in Cashmeer. 

Besides the gura-resin, the fruits of the Narthex Asafcetida are also 
imported into India for medicinal use, and along with them the fruits 
of another umbelliferous plant which Dr. Falconer found to belong 
to a true Ferula, and which are sold under the name of Doogoo ; a 
word evidently connected with the Greek cuvkos. Of these fruits 
he gives a description ; and he also mentions another umbelliferous 
fruit in the collection of Dr. Royle, labelled as " the seed of the 
Wild Asafcetida plant, collected and brought to England by Sir John 
MacNeill from Persia," which differs widely from the fruit both of 
Narthex and Ferula, and belongs to another tribe of the Order. 

November 17. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Francis James Graham, Esq., B. A., and William White Williams, 
Esq., M.D., were elected Fellows ; and Mr. William Hanson was 
elected an Associate, 

Read a portion of Dr. William Buchanan Hamilton's " Commen- 
tary on the Hortus Malabaricus of Van Rheede." 

December 1. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

George Busk. Esq., David Barclay Chapman, Esq., William Robert 
Fisher, Esq., and Adam White, Esq., were elected Fellows. 

Read a paper " On the Structure and Movements of Bacillaria 

1S46.] Linneun Society. 311 

paradoxa, Gmelin." By G. H. K. Thwaites, Esq. Communicated 
by William Spence, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Mr. Thwaites commences his memoir by a description of the spe- 
cies. The filaments are ribbon- shaped, curved, pale brown with a 
paler mesial line, and consist each of from 4 or 5 to upwards of 100 
linear frustules, lying contiguous and parallel to each other. The 
front view of each frustule exhibits a slight tapering towards the 
apices, and a minute dentation on the inner edge of the smooth 
raised lateral margins, the intermediate space being smooth. In a 
side view, the surface of mutual contact is seen to be linear-lanceolate 
with the apices rounded ; and the space between the smooth raised 
lateral margins is marked with transverse raised striae. The length 
of the frustule, and consequently the width of the filament, varies 
from ^f^o to j^Q of an inch ; and the width of the frustule from 
ru^oo ^^ J Goo ^^ ^^ iach. The frustules are filled (with the ex- 
ception of a lighter transverse central fascia) with a pale brown en- 
dochrome ; and the filaments increase in length from multiplication 
of the frustules by fissiparous division. 

Mr. Thwaites has found this (the original) species of Bacillaria 
abundantly in ditches at the mouth of the Avon near Bristol, in water 
probably slightly bjackish, and also in small quantity in the river 
Frome at Stapleton, encrusting various aquatic plants with a dark 
brown coating, which under the microscope is resolved into a num- 
ber of pale brown filaments that seem to adhere tolerably firmly to the 
plant on which they are situated. When they have been for a few mo- 
ments detached, a remarkable motion is seen to commence in them. 
The first indication of this consists in a slight movement of a terminal 
frustule, which begins to slide lengthwise over its contiguous frus- 
tule, the second acts simultaneously in a similar manner with regard 
to the third, and so on throughout the whole filament ; the same 
action having been going on at the same time at both ends of the 
filament, but in opposite directions. The central frustule thus ap- 
pears to remain stationary or nearly so ; while each of the others has 
moved with a rapidity increasing with its distance from the centre, 
its own rate of movement having been increased by the addition of 
that of the independent movement of each frustule between it and 
the central one. This lateral elongation of the filament continues 
until the point of contact between the contiguous frustules is re- 
duced to a very small portion of their length, when the filament is 
again contracted by the frustules sliding back again as it were over 
each other ; and this changed direction of movement proceeding, the 
filament is again drawn out until the frustules are again only slightly 

312 Liunean Society. [Dec. 1, 

in contact. The direction of the movement is then again reversed, 
and continues to alternate in opposite directions, the time occupied 
in passing from the elongation in one direction to the opposite being 
generally about 45 seconds. In the course of this movement the 
filaments seldom resume their original Fragilaria-like appearance ; 
and there are occasional interruptions to its regularity, both the ter- 
minal frustules in some cases moving in one and the same direction 
instead of in a direction opposite to each other. This Mr. Thvpaites 
regards as resulting from a breach in the vital or dynamical con- 
nexion of the filament, and as not improbably indicating the place 
where spontaneous division of the filament is about to occur. If a 
filament, while in motion, be forcibly divided, the uninjured frustules 
of each portion continue to move as before, proving (as the author 
believes) that the filament is a compound structure, notwithstanding 
that its frustules move in unison. When the filament is elongated to 

' its utmost extent, it is still extremely rigid and requires some com- 
paratively considerable force to bend it, the whole filament moving 
out of the way of any obstacle rather than bending or separating at 
the joints. A higher temperature increases the rapidity of the move- 

The author hazards a conjecture that the action of cilia is the 
proximate cause of the phsenomenon ; for, although he has been un- 
able to discover cilia, he has little doubt of their presence from the 
mode in which minute particles of indigo suspended in the water 
were acted upon, when coming into contact with the frustules. He 
regards the movement of each individual frustule, considered alone, 
as closely resembling that which is seen in the detached frustules of 
other sj)ecies of Diutomaceee ; namely, a so to speak alternate back- 
ward and forward movement at regular intervals. On the animal or 
vegetable nature of the production he has no remarks to offer. 

The paper was accompanied by magnified drawings of Bacillaria 

paradoxa in various stages of elongation and retraction ; and by very 
highly magnified representations of its mode of fissiparous increase, 
and of the markings on both its surfaces. 

Read also the commencement of a memoir " On the Vegetation of 
the Galapagos Archipelago, as compared with that of some other 
Tropical Islands and of the Continent of America." By Joseph Dal- 
ton Hooker, Esq.. M.D., F.L.S. &c. 

1846.] Li/mean Society. 313 

December 15. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Lovell Reeve, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Specimens of Jimcus diffusus, Hoppe, collected by John Ansell, 
Esq., at Darman's Green near Hoddesdon, Herts, were exhibited 
and presented. 

Read the conclusion of Dr. Hooker's memoir " On the Vegetation 
of the Galapagos Archipelago, as compared with that of some other 
Trojoical Islands and of the Continent of America." 

The present paper offers the deductions which Dr. Hooker has 
drawn with reference to Botanical Geography from his " Enumera- 
tion of the Plants of the Galapagos Islands," read during the previous 
session. He regards the relationship of the Flora to that of the ad- 
jacent continent as double ; the peculiar or new species being for the 
most part allied to plants of the cooler parts of America or of the 
uplands of the tropical latitudes, while the non-peculiar aie tlie 
same as abound chiefly in the hotter and more humid regions, sucli 
as the Islands of the West Indies and the shores of the Gulf of 
Mexico ; and while on the other hand many of the species, and those 
the most remarkable (as is likewise the case with regard to the 
Fauna), are confined to a single islet of the group, and often repre- 
sented in other islets by similar, but specifically very distinct, con- 

The author commences his memoir with an account of the geo- 
graphical position, and of some of the most important features of the 
climate and soil of the Archipelago, chiefly derived from the journals 
of Mr. Darwin and of some other voyagers, including the unpublished 
journal of the late Mr. T. Edmonstone. This is followed by an 
Enumeration of the Naturalists who have explored it in the order of 
the dates of their respective visits, including Mr. Cuming, Mr. David 
Douglas, Dr. Scouler, Mr. Macrae, Mr. Darwin, Admiral Du-Petit- 
Thouars and Mr. Edmonstone. The total number of species brought 
together from these various sources amounts to 244, of which 202 
are flowering plants and 28 ferns. All of these, excepting perhaps 17, 
natives of Charles Island (the only inhabited one), are truly indige- 
nous, but it is probable that this is only an approximation to the true 

No. XXXI, — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

314 Linnean Society. [Dec. 15, 184^. 

number. Under any circumstances, however, the Flora is extremely 
poor when compared with that of other tropical islands of equal, or 
even of smaller, extent ; the Cape de Verd Islands, scarcely so well 
explored, yielding upwards of 300 species on a soil quite as sterile ; 
and the Sandwich and Society groups being very much richer, 
although further detached from any great continent. 

Dr. Hooker next proceeds to review the Flora under three distinct 
heads ; first with reference to the proportion borne by each of the jirin- 
cipal Natural Orders to the whole Flora, and its relations to the Flora 
of the neighbouring continent and of other islands somewhat similarly 
circumstanced. Secondly, he treats of the Flora of the Galapagos 
as divisible into two types ; the West Indian (including Panama), to 
which the plants common to other countries and some dubious spe- 
cies almost universally belong ; and the Mexican and temperate 
American, or that under which the great majority of the peculiar 
species rank. Thirdly, he notices the most singular feature in the 
vegetation of the group, namely that the several islets are tenanted 
for the most part by different species, many of which are, however, 
represented by allied species in one or more of the other islets. 
Under each of these heads Dr. Hooker enters into minute statistical 
details, accompanied by extensive research and careful comparisons. 

Read also a " Description of a new species of Cowry." By G. B. 
Sowerby, Esq., F.L.S. &c. &c. 

CvpRiEA VENUSTA, testa ovato- veutricosa utiaque extremitate antica prse- 
cipue subrostiata, dorso gibboso carnicolore maculis pa'.lide castaneis 
iiotato, lateribus basalibus incrassatis carnicoloiil)us, extvemitatibus 
pallide castaneis roseo-tinctis, basi subplanulata albicante extremita- 
tibus carnicoloribus, spiia valida obtusa anfractibus duobup, apertura 
elongata angusta rectiuscula intus rosea postice in canalem breveni 
sinistralem exeunte antice subflexuosa, canali antica brevi rectiuscula 
paululum deflexa, dentibus labii externi circa 25 magnis iuterstitiis 
Eequalibus rotundatis; labii interni paucis (circa 16) majoribus distan- 
ti'ous anticis niaximis mediunis fere obsoletis, cavitate columellari parva 

A very handsome Cowry, of which a single specimen has lately 
been received from Port Adelaide, South Australia. 

Jan. 8, 1847-] Linne an Society. 315 

January 8, 1847. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

At a Special General Meeting convened by the Council in the 
terms of the following circular : — 

" Linnean Society, 32 Soho Square, 
December 28th, 1846. 
" SiK, 

" You are requested to attend a Special General Meeting 
of the Society, on Friday the 8th of January next, at two o'clock in 
the afternoon precisely, to consider the subject of the following 
Statement and Resolution of Council. 

" The late Edward Rudge, Esq., F.L.S., who died on the 3rd of 
September last, has in his will made the following bequest : — 

' I give and bequeath to the President and Council for the time 
being of the Linnean Society of London, the sum of Two Hundred 
Pounds, in trust, to invest the same in the names of Trustees, 
in the purchase of 3 per cent. Consolidated Bank Annuities, and 
from time to time, as occasion may require, out of the Dividends 
thereof, to purchase a Gold Medal, to be called ' The Linnean 
Medal,' to be awarded by the President and Council of the said 
Society, at their discretion, to the Fellow of the said Society 
who shall write the best communication in each volume which 
after my decease shall be published by the said Society, in either 
of the four departments of Natural History, every such Gold 
Medal to contain the Profile Bust of Linnaeus in his full dress, 
encircled by his name and the dates of his birth and death on 
the one side, and the engraved name of the Fellow of the said 
Society to whom such Medal shall be awarded, encircled by a 
wreath of the LinncEa borealis, on the obverse.' 

" The Council has repeatedly had the subject and terms of this 
bequest under its serious consideration, and has, after mucJi patient 
and anxious deliberation, unanimously come to the following reso- 
lution : — 

• Resolved, — I'hat in the opinion of this Council, on a fall 
consideration of the terms of the bequest of the late Edward 
Rudge, Esq., of the interest of a sum of £200, for the purpose 
of establishing a Medal ' to be awarded by tlie President and 
Council of the (Linnean) Society, at tlieir discretion, to the 

316 Linnean Society. [Jan. 8, 

Fellow of the said Society who shall write the best communi- 
cation in each volume which after his (the testator's) decease 
shall be published by the said Society, in either of the four de- 
partments of Natural History,' it is inexpedient to accede to the 
liberal intentions of the testator under the conditions expressed 
in his will.' 

' That this Resolution be submitted to a Special Meeting of 
the Society,' 
" This Resolution, which has received the entire concurrence of the 
President and of every Member of the Council, was chiefly founded 
on the following considerations : — 

" The great object of the Liiinean Society, as of all other bodies 
similarly constituted, is the production and publication of such essays 
as tend to the advancement of that branch of science which it culti- 
vates. The principal question therefore in reference to Mr. Rudge's 
bequest, is the manner in which its acceptance would operate on the 
Society's publications, and the Council has arrived at the conclusion 
that its tendency would be prejudicial rather than favourable ; inas- 
much as while the Medal would offer no inducement to some of those 
Members who have hitherto been in the habit of communicating 
papers which have had a place In the ' Transactions,' they might, 
on the contrary, be unwilling to submit their future communications 
to this new ordeal ; and it does not appear probal)le that the Medal 
would prove a stimulus to the production of more valuable Essays 
from any other class of the Society. On the other hand, it is pro- 
bable that dissatisfaction would arise in the minds of some of those 
Members, who after contributing papers to more than one volume of 
the ' Transactions,' should fail in obtaining the award of a Medal. 

" A second objection to the acceptance of the bequest arises from 
the absence of any discretionary power of withholding the Medal, 
which Is necessarily to be awarded to the best paper in every volume, 
and consequently to papers of very unequal value, thereby lowering 
the character of the Medal, and consequently affecting the scientific 
reputation of the Society itself. 

" Differences of opinion, and consequent dissatisfaction, would also 
be not unlikely occasionally to arise in deciding upon the compara- 
tive merits of papers in botany and zoology, the two branches of 
natural history, of which, for many years past, the Transactions of 
the Society have exclusively consisted. 

" Another point may still be noticed as decidedly unfavourable to 
the acceptance of the bequest, namely, the not improbable award of 
the Medal by the Council, in some cases to one of Its own body, in 

184/.] Linnean Society. 317 

strict conformity with the conditions of the will ; conditions which 
neither the Council itself, nor (as it appears from the tenor and pro- 
visions of the will) any other party has the power to modifj'. 

" These objections have appeared to the Council so important as not 
to admit of any other course but that of respectfully declining to 
accept a bequest, the operation of which would in all probability be 
injurious to the best interests of the Society, by lowering the cha- 
racter of its publications, and endangering the continuance of that 
harmony which has hitherto prevailed in all essential points. The 
Council is at the same time deeply sensible of the kind and liberal 
intentions of Mr. Rudge, and entertains a sincere regret that the 
express terms of his will should have rendered the acceptance of his 
bequest liable to such grave objections. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 

" John J. Bennett, Sea'etary." 

It was moved, seconded and carried unanimously, that the Society 
concur in the Resolution of Council, and that the thanks of the So- 
ciety be given to the Council for the mode in which they have sub- 
mitted the question to the consideration of the Society. 

January 19. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. William Mitton was elected an Associate. 

Mr. Ward, F.L.S., exhibited a fine series of specimens of Adiantum 
Capillus Veneris, L., together with a specimen oi Asplenium Tricho- 
manes, L., collected in Italy by Mr. E. W. Cooke, the latter bearing 
on several of its ])inn?e sori taking their origin from the upper as well 
as from the lower surface of the frond ; and also a portion of a large 
branch of a Scotch Fir hollowed out by hornets to form a nest, and 
beautifully exhibiting in the dissected parts the origins of the smaller 

Read a paper " On the Natural Histor)^ Anatomy, and Develop- 
ment of Melo'e (second memoir)." B3' George Newport, Esq., F.R.S. 
&c. Communicated by the Secretary. 

Mr. Newport states at the commencement of his paper, that his 

318 Lhinean Society. [Jan. 19, 

present object is to compare the habits and anatomy of Melo'e in its 
. larva state with those of the larvae of allied genera, and with the jja- 
rasitic groups of insects the Sh-epsiptera and Anoplura, with a view 
to show that habit and instinct in animals are always closely asso- 
ciated with the functions of particular organs, and seem to be the 
immediate result of structural peculiarities of organization. 

Having in his former memoir described the habits of Melo'e, and 
traced the young from the egg to the imago state, he now entered 
on an examination of the habits of the entire group of insects allied 
to Melo'e, and showed that the whole of them in their larva state bear 
a general resemblance to the larva Melo'e, not only in their organi- 
zation but also in their habits ; and that the more closely the larvse of 
different genera approach in structure, the more nearly also are they 
allied in instinct and oeconomy. This accordance between structure 
and instinct he regards as universal throughout nature, and as par- 
ticularly marked in the Articulata. The author believes that, by 
carefully comparing our observations on the natural history of ani- 
mals with their peculiarities of structure, and these on the other 
hand with their instincts, what might otherwise remain useless and 
isolated facts may be rendered truly important to science, " as data 
on which a correct knowledge of the laws of creation and life may 
be established." In this way, he states, " natural history may be 
made to occupy its proper position as an important branch of useful 
knowledge, and mainly help to demonstrate the connexion which 
subsists between structure and function, and function and the habits 
of animals." 

In pursuing this view, he shows that the organization and instinct 
of the larva Melo'e closely agree. At the moment of birth, when the 
larva is destined to attach itself parasitically to the Hymenoptera which 
alight on flowers to collect pollen, and which are to convey it to their 
nests, its organs of vision are largely developed, and those of loco- 
motion are elongated, powerful, and constructed like those of the pa- 
rasitic Anoplura ; and it is extremely active and sensitive of light. 
But when, at the period of full growth, it is found in the cell of 
Anthophora, it is a fattened, yellow-coloured, almost motionless larva, 
with its legs atrophied and reduced to mere pedal tubercles previous 
to a further change in their structure when the larva passes to the 
state of nymph. 

In the course of these observations Mr. Newport proved, by actual 
comparison, the identity of many yellow-coloured larvae which had 
been taken by Mr, Smith on some of the Nomadce (themselves 
parasitic insects) with the larvae of Melo'e, which he had himself 

1847-] Linnean Society. 319 

reared from the eggs, thus establishing the fact of the parasitic 
attachment of Meloe to perfect Hymenoptera. The genera allied to 
Meloe {Mylabris, Lytta, Telraonyx, Sitaris and Apalus), and those of 
allied families, Horia, Cipiter, Rhipiphorus, Symbius and others, were 
all shown to bear a more or less close relation to Meloe in the habits 
or the structure of their larvee. Sita7-is was especially referred to, on 
the observations of Audouin and Pecchioli, as affording close simi- 
larity to Meloe both in structure and habit, this species having 
already been found by the former naturalist in the nests of Antho- 

Mr. Newport then traced the history of the Slrepsiptera as now 
ascertained by the labours of Siebold, most of whose observations he 
has confirmed, and he showed some remarkable coincidences between 
the structure and habits of the extremely minute larvae of these in- 
sects and those of Meloe. The chief of these are their parasitism on 
the Hymenoptera, and the atrophy of their limbs after they are located 
in the nests of their victims. So extremely minute are the young 
Stylops shortly after their birth, that on measuring several, while 
living, on a micrometer plate, Mr. Newport found that each indivi- 
dual does not exceed twenty-two thousandths of an inch in length : 
yet internally this minute object is as fully organized as other in- 
sects. He then showed that what had been regarded by Dr. Siebold 
as a csecal termination to the alimentary canal is in fact a reduplica- 
tion of part of that organ, which after folding twice on itself is con- 
tinued to the anal segment as in other insects. He also described 
the imago of this species of Stylops, which, as well as its larvae, had 
been obtained from the bee, Andrena Trimmerana, and pointing out 
in what it seems to differ from Stylops melittce, he proposed to de- 
scribe it as Stylops aterrimus. 

Comparing the male Stylops with the female, Mr. Newport re- 
marked especially on the peculiar organization of the former, as fitted 
for special instincts, perfection of vision and celerity of flight, con- 
jecturing that the object of this in Stylops may be the detection on 
the wing of those Hymenoptera which carry about with them through 
the air the apodal female that awaits impregnation ; and showed 
that all we yet know of the habits of Stylojjs is conformable to this 

Returning then to the consideration of Meloe, the author showed 
that notwithstanding the structures with which it left the egg are fully 
developed, they are so on an inferior type of organization, like Sty- 
hps and like the Anoplura. The eye, although large and highly 
sensitive to light, is still but a single ocellus, fitted only for near vi- 

320 Linnean Society. [Feb. 2, 

sion. The limbs although strong are unguiculated, like those of the 
Anoplura, and fitted for clinging rather than for regular progression ; 
and its mandibles, retaining the jointed, jjediform structure of the 
corresponding organs in the carnivorous Chi/opoda, are fitted for 
piercing soft structures, rather than for triturating or for incising 
their food. This fact, overlooked by the author in his former memoir, 
novi' induced him to believe that the young Meloe pierces and preys 
on the bee larva rather than that it subsists on its food. This he 
believes also may hereafter prove to be the true habit of the larva 
of most of the allied genera. 

Specimens of the larva and imago Stylops, and of the larva, nymph 
and imago Meloe, were on the table for inspection. 

February 2. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

George Stacy Gibson, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read an " Account of Gamoplexis, an undescribed genus of Or- 
chideous Plants." By Hugh Falconer, M.D.. F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. &c. 

Tiib. GASTRODiEiE, R. Br. 
Gen. Gamoplexis, Falc. 
Perianthium moiiopliylhim, tubulosum, basi ventricosum; limbi breviter 
6-lobi segmenta rotundata, antrorsum (torsione) subsecunda, exteviora 
sequalia, inteviorum posticum (labellurn) pedicelli torsione anticum 
lateralibus paulo inajus, caeteroquin consimile. Columna elongata, 
erecta, semiteres, marginato-dilatata, apice tridentata cava, basi antice 
incrassata stigmatifera. Anthera terminalis, mobilis, decidua, carnosa, 
biloculaiis ; locuhs parallelis contiguis. Masses poUinis m (\\\o\\s\oQn\o 
solitariae, e lobiilis majusculis granulatis laxe cobserentibus conflatce. 
Glandula ant cnudicula nulla. — llcrha parasitica {I) aphylla, vaginata, 
riifescens, habitu Orobancbcn quamdam omnino referens. Rhizoma 
hypogcBum, tuberosum, annulatum, spongiosum. Racemus elongatus, 
muUifiorus, prima nutans, demiini erectus. Floras mediocres, erecti, 
pallide stramineo-virides vel ochroleuci. 
Gamoplexis orobanchoides, Falc. MSS. cit. in Royle, Illusir. p. 364, et 
in Lindl. Gen. ^- Spec, Orchid. PI. p. 384, absque charactere aut dejinitione. 
Hab. in iimbrosis liuinidis inter Monies Emodenses ad alt. circiter ped. 
7000 ; Dhunoultee, Tyne-Teeba, Simla, &c. Floret Julio et Augusto. 

After a detailed description of the plant, Dr. Falconer proceeds to 

1847.] Linnean Society. 321 

point out its affinity both in habit and structure to Gastrodia, R. Br„ 
and to Epiphanes Javanica, Bl., from both which, however, it is suf- 
ficiently distinct in the cohesiA of the labellar segment with the 
tube of the perianthium. It is the only example, so far as Dr. Fal- 
coner is aware, hitherto ascertained in the order, of the union of 
all the divisions of both whorls of the floral envelope into a mono- 
phyllous perianthium. Its parasitism is of a peculiar kind ; the tu- 
berous rhizoma emits no root-fibres by which to attach itself to other 
plants, but is itself matted over by their slender rootlets which ra- 
mify upon it in every direction slightly imbedded in its surface, to 
which they adhere with great tenacity, and especially to the scarious 
margins of the abortive sheath annuli. This pecuHarity was ob- 
served in numerous instances, but other cases occurred in which the 
surface of the tubers presented no such appearance. 

February 16. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

William Baird, Esq., M.D., and George Newport, Esq., were 
elected Fellows. 

Read an extract from a letter addressed by Captain Sir E. Home, 
Bart., R.N., to R. Brown, Esq., V.P.L.S., giving an account of the 
measurement of some of the largest of the New Zealand and Norfolk 
Island Pines. With reference to the former Sir E. Home quotes from 
the Journal of Mr. Saddler, Master R.N., who was sent to New Zea- 
land in 1833-4 in command of the Bufi^alo Store-ship to procure spars 
for the Navy. The tree which he describes was in a forest near 
Wangaroa, some miles north of the Bay of Islands. Mr. Saddler 
says, " On 16th (May 1834) I went to examine a Kauri tree [Dam- 
mara australis, Lamb.] which Mr. Betts the purveyor in his search 
through the forest had discovered a few days previous ; it is situated 
about two miles from the river on the steep bank of a ravine. It 
appeared perfectly sound and healthy, and measured forty-three feet 
nine inches in circumference, and sixty feet high without a branch. 
Its head then spread out into forty-one principal branches, some of 
which were four feet through. It is more than double the size of 
any tree I have before seen in this country." Sir E. Home adds. 

No. XXXII. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

322 Linnean Society. [Feb. 16, 

that the largest tree of this species that he saw was only eighteen 
feet eight inches in circumference ; but that in Norfolk Island he had 
measured the largest tree [of Arau&aria excelsa, Sol.] known to be 
upon the island and had found it to be 187 feet high, the girth at four 
feet from the ground fifty-four feet, and at twenty feet from the 
ground fifty-one feet. This tree is hollow for sixteen feet above the 
ground, but is in good health. 

Read also a memoir " On the Structure and Comparative Phy- 
siology of Chiton and Chitonellus." By Lovell Reeve, Esq., F.L.S. 
&c. &c. 

Mr. Reeve commences his paper by remarking on the paucity of 
species of Chitonidts known to Lamarck so lately as 1819, and the 
very large number (amounting to between two and three hundred) 
now known to inhabit the western coast of South America, the shores 
of New Holland and New Zealand, and other localities explored by 
recent voyagers ; and states that he is enabled by the kindness of 
Mr. Cuming and Capt. Sir Edward Belcher to offer a few observa- 
tions on the structure of Chiton and such remarks on Chitonellus as, 
in his opinion, will leave no doubt of their claim to generic distinc- 
tion. He notices the successive additions made to these genera by 
Mr. Frembly, by Mr. Cuming, by M. Quoy, by Capt. Belcher in the 
voyages of the Blossom, the Sulphur and the Samarang (and espe- 
cially in the latter in company with Mr. Arthur Adams), by the Rev, 
Mr. Hennah, by Dr. DieflFenbach, by Mr. Earl, by Mr. Ronald Gunn, 
by Mr. Ince, by Dr. Gould, by Mr. Courthony, and by Prof. Edward 
Forbes and Mr. M' Andrew ; and then enters into an examination of 
the views of authors with reference to their afiinity, adopting that 
first promulgated by Adanson and now generally adopted, that they 
are immediately related to Patella. A description of the animal is 
then given, and the differences between it and the animal of Patella 
pointed out, as well as the modifications to which it is subject in 
different species. The distinctions between the shells and animals 
of Chiton and Chitonellus are more particularly insisted on ; and the 
author proceeds to point out a marked difference in the habits of the 
two genera. He states, on the authority of Mr. Cuming, that while 
the Chitons live attached to stones and fragments of shells in deep 
water, or more frequently under masses of stone and on exposed 
rocks about low- water mark, the Chitonelli dwell in holes and cavi- 
ties, either of natural formation or bored by other Mollusca, into 
which they thrust themselves by attenuating their bodies in a sur- 
prising manner, sometimes turning completely at right angles and at 

1847.] Linnean Society, 323 

angles again. Those which were only partially imbedded were found 
to have entered holes too small to contain them, and the posterior 
part of their bodies remained suspended externally, fat and swollen, 
and constantly separating from the anterior half when any attempt 
was made to draw them forcibly from their retreats. These remarks 
apply to Chitonellus fasciatus, collected by Mr. Cuming in the Phi- 
lippine Islands in great abundance and of extraordinary dimensions, 
extending frequently to a foot or more in length. Capt. Sir E. Bel- 
cher and Mr. Adams collected the same species in the Korean Archi- 
pelago, where they were found in company with Chitons and noticed 
to be of locomotive habits ; the Chitonellus seeking retirement in a 
hole or cavity, but crawling away from its attachment on being dis- 
turbed, at about the pace of the common garden snail. 

For these reasons, although Mr. Reeve does not regard the other 
subdivisions proposed in the genus Chiton as of greater value than 
sectional, he considers Chitonellus as entitled to rank equally with 
Chiton in its most extended form, being in his opinion clearly di- 
stinguished both in structure (as regards the condition of the mantle 
and its system of calcification) and in habit. 

March 2. 
The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

William Thomas CoUings, Esq., and Thomas Vernon Wollaston, 
Esq., were elected Fellows. 

Read " Notes on the seals of Linnaeus." By the Baron d'Hom- 
bres Firmas. Communicated by the Secretary. 

In these notes, intended to form part of the preliminary matter 
prefixed to the correspondence of Linnaeus with his uncle, Boissier de 
Sauvages, which the Baron is about to print for private distribution, 
an account is given of the seals employed by Linnseus in that cor- 
respondence, and of some others with which M. d'Hombres Firmas 
has become acquainted from other sources. Of all of these he gives 
figures, adding the armorial bearings of Linnaeus as designed by 
himself, and as altered to suit the rules of heraldry by the Chancellor 
De Fitas, the seal of the Linnean Society, and the reverse of a medal 

324 Linnean Society. [March 2, 

struck in 1758, in honour of Linnseus, by order of Count Tessin, 
Marshal of the Diet. 

Read also a paper " On the Impregnation of Dischidia." By the 
late William Griffith. Esq., F.L.S. &c. &c. Communicated by 
Robert Brown, Esq., V.P.L.S. 

In this paper, dated " Mergui, March 7, 1835," Mr. Griffith de- 
tails a series of observations made in January of that year on Dis- 
chidia Rafflesiana, Wall., and confirmed' (with the exception of those 
relating to the development of the ovule) by the examination of an- 
other species, apparently allied to D. Bengalensis, Colebr. 

Mr. Griffith commences by a description of the progress of the 
ovula from their first appearance as mere rounded elevations on the 
placenta. The first change consists in a narrowing towards the base, 
which afterwards puts on the appearance of a funiculus, and at the 
same time a rounded rather shallow cavity appears on the upper 
edge of the ovulum close to the funiculus. The further changes take 
place rapidly ; the rounded cavity assumes the appearance of a deep 
fissure with raised margins extending from the base of the ovulum, 
close to the funiculus, along the upper margin of the ovulum for 
about one-fourth of its length. This fissure gradually lengthens ; 
its lips become more expanded, and a small indistinct grumous-look- 
ing mass becomes visible in the central line and towards the apex of 
the ovulum, which is the first rudiment of the nucleus, or of the ca- 
vity within which the future embryo is to be developed, and which 
becomes subsequently more distinct, and frequently assumes a 
rounded form. In the perfect ovule the fissure is very large, extend- 
ing longitudinally from the base of the funiculus for about one-third 
of the length of the convex upper margin of the ovule ; its lips are 
gaping, and it is of considerable depth, gradually narrowing towards 
its fundus. The grumous mass is now very distinct and the first 
indications of an excavation around it are appreciable. When no 
impregnation has taken place, in flowers that have passed their me- 
ridian, the excavation is enlarged, the grumous mass is more irre- 
gular, and it frequently appears to be broken up, the component 
parts being irregularly grouped together. 

The partial closing of the corolla of Dischidia by the connivence 
of its divisions, and the short hairs with which those divisions are 
furnished internally in D. Rafflesiana, induced Mr. Griffith to regard 
foreign agency as inapplicable in determining the escape of the pol- 
linia from their anthers, and to believe that impregnation in any 
given floM^er is in this genus the result of the action of its own pel- 


1847.] Linnean Society. 325 

linia. The poUinia are erect, have no diaphanous margin, and de- 
hisce along that margin which is internal with regard to the cell of 
the anther, and which presents no appreciable difference of structure, 
but corresponds with the margin of dehiscence of the pendulous pol- 
linia first noticed by Mr. Brown. The base of the stigma is slightly- 
papillose in D. Rafflesiana, and more evidently so in the other spe- 
cies ; and the fissures of communication are open in the former, but 
closely approximated in the latter. In neither has Mr. Griffith seen 
the poUinia engaged in these fissures, but they are either caught 
by the processes of the corona or fa^ to the fundus of the corolla ; 
and in whatever situation they emit their boyaux, the cord formed 
by the aggregation of the latter always engages itself in the 
nearest fissure where it becomes more opake and grumous. The 
cord then passes upwards to the base of the stigma, along which it 
is reflected until it reaches the union of the stigma with the styles, at 
which place it dips into one of them, or rarely both, and proceeds 
downwards to the placenta, causing a slight discoloration of the ad- 
joining tissue. The boyaux then separate and proceed in every di- 
rection among the ovula, to which they become firmly attached. 
They contain much granular matter Avhich has a strong tendency to 
accumulate towards their termination. Mr. Griffith states that he 
has observed an oscillatory motion, but no motion of ascent or de- 
scent, of the contained granules. The tubes are simple and one ap- 
pears to be allotted to each ovulum, to which it remains appHed for 
some time, invariably passing in at the centre of the fissure and ad- 
hering so firmly that they break across rather than separate. Mr. 
Griffith was unable to demonstrate their termination internally by 
actual dissection, but in one instance he observed the boyau to ter- 
minate about the fundus of the fissure in a cul-de-sac, which was 
crowded with granules. Whatever the function of these granules may 
be, similar bodies exist in the cellular tissue of the ovula both before 
and after the application of the tubes, and the majority certainly dis- 
appear before the tubes reach the ovula. 

No immediate change appears to be produced in the ovula by the 
application of the tubes ; but some time afterwards the excavation 
appears to enlarge and extend towards the point of insertion of the 
tube ; and this action is continued until the whole of the granular 
mass disappears and the chief part of the ovulum is occupied by the 
now empty excavation. No further appreciable change, except in 
size, takes place for some time, and the rudiments of the coma are 
even visible before any part of the embryo appears to be formed. 

326 Linnean Society. [March 16, 

March 16. 
The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 
Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Mr. Ward, F.L.S., exhibited specimens of several Ferns collected 
in Ireland, including Trichomanes speciosum (referred to Tr. radicans, 
Hedw. fil.) found in a new station on the Toomies mountain, Kil- 
larney ; Hymenophyllum Tunhridgense, of more than double the size of 
any specimens to be found at Tunbridge Wells ; and a monstrous 
and singularly divided variety of Asplenium Filix Fcemina, found 
about twenty years ago in Connemara, and sent to the Botanic Gar- 
den at Dubhn, where it maintains its character when grown from the 
sporules, which are freely produced. 

Read a " Note on Samara lata, L." By G. A. Walker Arnott, 
Esq., LL.D., F.L.S,, Regius Professor of Botany in the University of 

In this note Dr. Arnott gives a minute account of the history of 
the genus Samara, and of the errors of various authors in regard to 
it, originating partly in Linnseus's own misquotation as a synonym of 
Burm. Thes. Zeyl. t. 31, which represents a species of Memecylon ; 
partly in Jussieu's reference of the genus to Rhamnece, afterwards 
corrected by himself, but which correction seems to have escaped 
observation ; and partly in the assumption that the Samara Iceta of 
Swartz, referred to in his ' Flora Indise Occidentalis,' must therefore 
be a plant of the West Indies. With regard to the affinities of the 
genus, he notices Mr. Brown's reference to Myrsine of the three spe- 
cies added by Swartz, Solander and WiUdenow, and also Jussieu's 
suggestion that Samara is related to ikfyrsme, both published in 1810. 
A detailed examination of the three specimens of Samara lata pre- 
served in the Linnean Herbarium, and of three specimens from 
China referred to that species in the Banksian Herbarium, follows ; 
and he concludes from this examination that Samara, L., is identical 
with Choripetalum, A. DeC, which is scarcely distinguishable from 
Embelia, L., except in the quaternary instead of quinary division of 
the flower, although perhaps the aestivation may also slightly differ. 
The following are the characters which Dr. Arnott gives of the spe- 
cies hitherto known to him : — 

1847.] Linnean Society. 327 

1. S. lata, floribus corymbosis, bracteis pedicello duplo brevioribus, pe- 
talis intus glabris, foliis membranaceis planis. 

Samara Iseta, L., Sw. Sfc. • 

Hub. in China. 

2. S. undulata, floribus racemosis, bracteis pedicello miilto brevioribus* 
petalis intus glabris, foliis membranaceis undulatis. 

Myrsine ? undulata, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. p. 299. 
Choripetalum vmdulatum, Alph. DeC. in Linn. Trans, xvii. p. 131. 
Hab. in Nepalia. 

3. S. viridiflora, floribus racemosis, bracteis pedicello duplo brevioribus, 
petalis subacutis intus subvelutinis, foliis subcoriaceis. 

Choripetalum viridiflorum, Alph. DeC. Prodr. viii. p. 88. 
Hab. in Java. 

4. ^S*. aurantiaca, floribus spicato-racemosis, bracteis pedicellum fere supe- 
rantibus, petalis intus velutinis, foliis coriaceis. 

Myrsine? aurantiaca, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. p. 300, 
Choripetalum aurantiacum, Alph. DeC. in Linn. Trans, xvii. p. 131. 
Hab. in Peninsula Indiae Orientalis, ad Quilon. 

5. S. atiopunctata, floribus racemosis, bracteolis pedicello florigero duplo 
longioi-ibus, petalis obtusis intiis glabris, foliis coriaceis. 

Hab. in Peninsula Indiae Orientalis, ad Quilon. 

Of the stability of this latter species, however, although apparently 
distinct from S. aurantiaca in the characters given. Dr. Arnott en- 
tertains some doubts. 

April 6. 

R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Robert M' Andrew, Esq., and James Forbes Young, Esq., M.D., 
were elected Fellows. 

Read a " Note on Cryptophagus cellaris, Payk." By George New- 
port, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

The author states that in his first memoir on Meloe he described a 
larva, of which he had found three specimens in the cell of Antho- 
phora retusa, and which, although they were of small size, he then 
thought might ultimately prove to be the young of Meloe, at a pe- 
riod of growth between that in which it is now known to come from 

S8 Limmm Smietg. [Aprilao, 

dtae«S^aai Hat wi mUck ke las ffri—il it; h a T J i i trly befare it 

cio^es tD a KfaLtli Hr I:Z -.' Y:~f~:r fr^tcdbeAcai asacbnify 
tihef«Mi^«FJfe^.v' -^i n -:~ ii-; ----: rjsey fcdoR^ tD aaoliher 

Aoft: fcgiiw, laqpc ti-r— i:: - :-;- --^^ ■ - .-i iiy di^ 

Mil a. ed of -ifa^ '' \ ^ ' : md 

lArritAelanKCC-r - :, - -^j-A 

£. Famer, Eet^ TJ^ in tihe Clair. 
Li A-:-:t: lag., 1LA-, was decrri 1 

rr^ iM w uM ; caale aaayfid^ ereete, jai|^- 

1847.] Ummeam Sooddtf. 329 

bretAms awl atA figre wd, m auJe wteSn, aretSs; piwillkii tei» mk- 
hj/rnHmo, Imamm hOaiaiikmg rmeit, eMiarimrSbmt fmm, eanmi biei 
maiyme mmnattimed ; Amttm. J^fmBan. 

1. O. M»cunmas, eaiJe iMiB^ h trntraB.* 2 v. 3 i 

Hmb. ad MataM, m Pnfw.BioitJaaam. 
PlaDfa2 — 3-]iolKfam. 

2. O. iGCAsmiaMUy cade aihaaio ■»£• hiirti J i» 3 v. 4 m 

£r«A. ad Ignasn, ia IVmr. Bio de Jaaeirau 

Flaaia TixpolEeanfc 

]Mt. IJieis riinMiics tibas BcniEBni ^' 
(rhaiartniBed at p. 221), of ivlndihelua: 
banom of Sr WiUiaai Hooker, as wcilae 
same fpecies mlhclgd hf Cbpt. Clna^: 
He icgaids TMadm and QpiiniTig as coc 
of tin* family fhi —ajai nft ^n JLj ' r J!: %i^ t^: 
lows: — 

L BunauisiiiiKa;. PaimmAii .aauami. Onarans 

PhKfwtm CBBinGL 

IL ArnxiEX. PcrimfSaBB 
PiJacarilgS, piipialiiK 

ra y i a h i iiiij L. iJ ni ll i T7 ntriB .. X Didb/a^iegmgllBam. 

l2:i:i^:i: "-^jim* . ...... 4. l^ndwoanM,] 

wimlla I „„ — , I I.... , , , J 

III. TmsmmM. PerimMimn iiMfirt. OT i a a i iiii i «. Onerl-vm Z 
i>facaate3,pane«aks. /*< 

CinralbrteiaBaBqpnal&s. .SSoniaB 

The pafier 
tliese plants 
-was iOnsltrarc 
<tf tdeflofver 

Xo. XXXm. — PafflCEEMxie* « j 

330 Linnean Society. [May 4, 

May 4. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Henry Cadogan Rothery, Esq., M.A., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a paper " On Jansonia, a new genus of Leguminosa, from 
Western Australia." By Richard Kippist, Libr. L.S. 

Char. Gen. Calyx ebracteatus, bilabiatus ; labio superiore fere ad basin 
bifido ; inferiore 4-pl6 longiore, 3-])artito ; segmentis omnibus acutis. 
Corollce papilionacece petala longe stipitata ; vexillum ovato-lanceo- 
latum, reflexum, alls oblongo-ellipticis multo brevius ; car'mcB com- 
pressjB (alis tertia parte longioris) petala oblonga, basi auriculata, 
dorso coiinata. Stamina 10, libera, vel ima basi cohaerentia, insequi- 
longa, persistentia. Ovarimn villosissimum, substipitatum, stipitulo 
basi vaginula cincto, pauci- (4 — 6) ovulatum, suturis non inflexis. 
Stylus filiformis, elongatus, apice incurvus, glaber. Stigma parvum. 

Legumen — Suffrutex Novae Hollandiae Austro-Occidentalis, 

Brachysemati, R. Br. proximus ; ramis erectis vel adscendentibus ; foliis 
oppositis, oblongo-ovafis, emarginatis, mucro7iatis, utrinque reticulatis, 
margine revolutis, subtmdulatis, minute denticulatis ; stipulis lanceolato- 
subulatis, demum deciduis ; floribus sessilibus, congestis in capitula cer- 
nua, A flora, bracteis 4 ovatis decussatis, coriaceis,fuscis, exfus sericeis 
suffulta, ramulos breves axillares terminantia. 
Jansonia Formosa. 

Hab. in Novae Hollandiae Ora Austro-Occidentali, ad " Scott's River " 
(1842), Gilbert (v. s.). 

Obs. Specimen habitu debiliore, et foliis ramulisque pubescentibus pauld 
diversum a D. Jac. Drutnmoud ad " Swan River " lectum (v. s. in Herb. 
D. Lemann). 

The nearest affinity of Jansonia is with Brachysema, R. Br., with 
which genus Mr. Kippist states that it agrees in its unguiculate 
petals, in the form and unusual length of the keel, in the extreme 
shortness of the standard, in its elongated filiform style, and in its 
shortly stalked villous germen, surrounded at the base by a minute 
fleshy ring ; but it is abundantly distinguished by its capitate inflo- 
rescence, by the remarkable inequality of its calycine segments, by 
the much greater length of the claws of its petals, and by the pau- 
city of its ovules, which do not appear to exceed six in number. 
Mr. Kippist also compares it with Leptosema, Benth., which is clearly 
distinguished by its bibracteolate calyx, composed of two nearly equal 

18470 lAnnean Society. 331 

lips, the uppermost of which is very slightly bifid ; its scarcely un- 
gTiiculate vexillum ; its wings about equal in length to the keel ; the 
distinct inflexion of its carinal suture ; as well as by its inflorescence, 
that of Leptosema being a densely crowded raceme, while in Jansonia 
the flowers are perfectly sessile and arranged in a verticillate manner 
round a common axis, which is slightly prolonged beyond the point 
from whence the flowers spring in the form of a short mucro. 

The genus is dedicated to the memory of the late Joseph Janson, 
Esq., F.L.S. ; and the paper was accompanied with a drawing of the 
plant, comprising details of its parts of fructification. 

Anniversary Meeting. 
May 24. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

This day, the Anniversary of the birth of Linnaeus, and that ap- 
pointed by the Charter for the election of Council and OflScers, 'the 
President opened the business of the Meeting, and stated the num- 
ber of Members whom the Society had lost during the past year, of 
some of whom the Secretary read the following notices : — 

Mr. William Anderson was the son of an humble but respectable 
man, who was, just previous to the rising of 1 745, forester and gar- 
dener to a Jacobite Laird in the Western Highlands, and who had 
some share in favouring the escape of Prince Charles Edward from 
his pursuers. He afterwards rented a garden at Easter Warriston 
near Edinburgh, and subsequently removed to Cannon Mills, where 
his son William, then a sturdy lad, distinguished himself as a leader 
against the incursions of the more aristocratic youths of the New 
Town, which were frequently directed upon the village. About 
1790 he entered the garden of Messrs. Anderson and Leslie of the 
Broughton Nurseries ; and after being employed for some time in 
the neighbourhood of Edinburgh he made his way to London, where 
he worked for some time in a nursery. About 1798 he became 
gardener to Mr. James Vere of Kensington Gore, a wealthy silk- 
merchant, who possessed a large collection of rare and valuable 
plants. Here Mr. Anderson remained until 1815,'and liad ample 

332 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

opportunities of enlarging his knowledge of plants, as well as of 
studying the best and most improved methods of cultivation. In 
1815, on the recommendation of Sir Joseph Banks and Sir James 
Edward Smith, he was appointed by the Society of Apothecaries to 
the Curatorship of their Botanic Garden at Chelsea, then vacant by 
the death of Mr. Fairbairn ; and their choice was amply justified by 
the result. He speedily retrieved the garden from the state of neg- 
lect and dilapidation into which it had fallen, and placed it in a 
thriving and respectable condition, in which he continued to main- 
tain it (as far as the small amount of funds allotted for its support 
would admit) until his decease. He was elected an Associate of the 
Linnean Society in 1798, and became a Fellow in 1815, always 
taking a warm interest in its prosperity, and attending its meetings 
with the utmost regularity. He died on the 6th of October 1846, at 
an age approaching 80, having been for nearly thirty-two years 
Curator of the Botanic Garden at Chelsea, and having borne through 
life the character of a strictly honourable, upright and independent 
man, which qualities, he combined with a warm heart and a charit- 
able disposition. 

The following are the titles of his communications to the ' Gar- 
dener's Magazine ' and other horticultural publications : — 

" On packing and preserving Seeds (of Corypha Taliera)." — Gard. 
Mag. vol. i. p. 210. 

" On Budding the Peach and Nectarine on Almond Stocks." — 
Ibid. vol. i. p. 384. 

" On a durable Earthenware Number Tally." — Ibid. vol. v. p. 263. 

" On Breaking Stones in Gravel Walks." — Ibid. vol. v. p. 459. 

" On the advantage of building the Furnaces of Greenhouses, &c. 
within the house." — Ibid. vol. xi. p. 247. 

" On protecting the Crocus, when in blossom, from Sparrows." — 
Ibid. vol. xiii. p. 172. 

" A mode of destroying the White Bug in Hot-houses." — Ibid. 
vol. xvi. p. 110. 

" On the Hautboy Strawberry." — Ibid. vol. xvii. p. 266. 

" On the introduction and cultivation of a variety of Azalea indica." 
— Hort. Trans, vol. ii. p. 259. 

Extract of a letter from Mr. Anderson to M. Otto, Director of 
the Berlin Botanic Garden, containing observations on some weep- 
ing varieties of the Hawthorn, Elm, Ash, &c., and on their repro- 
duction by seed. — Verhandlungen des Vereins zur Beforderung des 
Gartenbaues, &c., Berlin, vol. v. p. 280. 

Thomas Bevan, Esq., M.D. 

1847.] Linnean Society. 333 

John Bostock, M.D., was the son of a physician in Liverpool, in 
which town he was born in the year 1774. He lost his father in 
early infancy, and received his rudimentary education at the New 
College at Hackney, where the Lectures of Dr. Priestley contributed to 
imbue his mind with an ardent love of science, which determined him 
to embrace his father's profession. With this view he completed 
his studies at the University of Edinburgh, where he took his degree 
in 1798; and he soon afterwards entered into practice as a physician in 
Liverpool and continued to reside therefor nearly twenty years. During 
this period, notwithstanding that he was actively engaged in his pro- 
fessional pursuits, he distinguished himself by numerous contributions 
to various Medical and Scientific Journals and to Brewster's 'Ency- 
clopaedia,' as well as by the prominent part which he took in the esta- 
blishment and support of the scientific and charitable institutions 
of the town. Among these the Fever Hospital and the Botanic Gar- 
den were greatly indebted to his exertions ; and he delivered, as Pro- 
fessor of Physiology, the first course of Lectures given in the Philo- 
sophical and Literary Institution. 

In 1817, Dr. Bostock quitted the practice of his profession, and 
fixed himself in London, where he soon became an active member of 
most of the leading Scientific and Medical Societies. His election 
into the Royal Society took place in 1818, and in 1832 he was one 
of its Vice-Presidents. In 1819 he became a Fellow of the Linnean 
Society ; and he was for some time one of the Secretaries, and 
afterwards President of the Geological Society. He became an active 
member of the Zoological Society soon after its institution, and the 
Medical and Chirurgical Society elected him their Treasurer ; and 
he gave Lectures on Chemistry for several years at the Medical School 
of Guy's Hospital. 

His 'contributions to Medical and Scientific Journals, to Cyclo- 
paedias and to the Transactions of Societies, are stated to amount to 
sixty-nine ; of which twenty were published in Nicholson's ' Journal,' 
or in the 'Annals of Philosophy,' eighteen in the 'Medico- Chirur- 
gical Transactions,' and twelve in the ' Cyclopaedia of Practical Me- 
dicine ' and the ' Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology.' Some 
of the more important of these papers were afterwards republished 
by him in a separate form. Such are his ' Account of the History 
and Present State of Galvanism,' and his ' History of Medicine.' But 
his most important work is his ' Elementary System of Physiology,' 
in three vols. 8vo, Lond. 1824 — 1827, of which a second and a third 
edition have since appeared, the last comprised in one very thick 8vo 
volume. This is justly regarded as the best text-book of Physiology, 

334 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

being a most elaborate compilation of all that had been previously 
published, both as regards facts and theories, in this highly import- 
ant and extensive field of inquiry, together with exact and scrupu- 
lous references to the original authorities for every statement and to 
the sources from which more detailed information may be derived. 
He subsequently projected a new translation of Pliny's ' Natural 
History,' of which he printed the first and thirty-third books as a 
specimen for private distribution, in 1828, and in which he had made 
considerable progress at the time of his decease. For two or three 
years before his death his health had been gradually declining, and 
he finally sank under an attack of cholera on the 6th of August 

William Bridgman, Esq., F.R.S. S^c, became F.L.S. in 1799, and 
died on the 6th of January 1847. 

Mr. Lionel Dietrichsen. 

Sir Thomas Grey. Kt., M.D., F.R.S., was a native of the county 
of Selkirk, and became a surgeon in the Royal Navy in 1794. He 
was knighted for his professional services, first by the Lord Lieute- 
nant of Ireland, and afterwards by the Prince Regent in 1819. He 
became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1814, was for many years 
a magistrate of the county of Kent, and died at St. Lawrence in the 
Isle of Thanet on the 17th of July 1846. 

Charles Hatchet t, Esq., was eminently distinguished for his know- 
ledge of chemistry, as well as for his amiable disposition and liberal 
spirit. A detailed account of his life and writings will probably be 
given elsewhere, but it is right that he should be mentioned here as 
the founder (in conjunction with the late Sir Everard Home) of the 
Animal Chemistry Society, consisting of a very few members of the 
Royal Society, who met at distant intervals under a regulation that 
the papers read at their meetings should be afterwards communicated 
to the parent body. Many valuable papers (and among them several 
by Mr. Hatchett himself) communicated by this Society are printed 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions.' 

Mr. Hatchett became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1 795, 
and of the Royal Society in 1797. He contributed to the eighth 
volume of our ' Transactions' a paper entitled " Some Account of the 
Pitch Lake in the Island of Trinidad, in two Letters : the first from 
Samuel Span, Esq., to James Tobin, Esq., F.L.S. ; and the other 
from Mr. Tobin to Charles Hatchett, Esq., F.R.S. and L.S. ; with 
observations by Mr. Hatchett." His death took place in February 
of the present year, at an advanced age. 

George Loddiges, Esq., was born on the 12th of March 1784, at 

1847.] Linnean Society. 335 

Hackney, where his father Conrad Loddiges, a German by birth, had 
established a Nursery and Botanical Garden, which under his able 
superintendence, and since his death under that of his two sons, has 
attained the highest reputation both at home and abroad. Among 
its most remarkable features are the collection of Orchidece, of which 
a catalogue, extending to upwards of 1900 species and varieties, was 
published in 1845; and the noble series of 280 Palms, which can 
scarcely be rivalled in variety and beauty of growth. The house in 
which the latter are contained was designed without the intervention 
of an architect, and entirely erected with the assistance only of the 
workmen employed in the garden. 

At an early period Mr. George Loddiges became a Fellow of the 
Horticultural Society, of which he was for some years one of the 
Vice-Presidents; and in 1821 he was elected into the Linnean Society, 
and has several times been placed upon its Council. He commenced 
in 1818, in conjunction with his brother, the publication of a work of 
plates illustrative of the plants cultivated in the nursery at Hackney, 
under the title of the ' Botanical Cabinet,' and continued it until the 
number of figures amounted to 2000, of which a large proportion 
were drawn by himself. His taste for art had induced him to form 
an extensive collection of impressions of gems from the antique, and 
he had brought together about 1000 specimens of woods, cut and 
polished for the better exhibition of their characters. He was also 
much attached to microscopical investigation, anxious to possess 
the best and most recent improvements in the instrument, an accu- 
rate observer and a skilful manipulator. But in nothing were his 
attachment to natural history, and his skill and taste in the prepa- 
ration and arrangement of his subjects, more strongly manifested 
than in his unrivalled collection of Humming- Birds, which extends 
to more than 200 species, in various states of age and plumage, to 
the collection and mounting of which he had devoted during twenty 
years a large portion of his time. It had long been his intention to 
publish a work illustrative of this beautiful tribe of birds ; but 
although he had collected much valuable information respecting 
them, he appears not to have made any advance towards putting it 
in a state for publication. He died on the 5th of June 1846, at the 
age of 60, leaving behind him the character of a man of great 
amiability of disposition, extensive information and liberal spirit. 

Hugh Percy, Duke of Northumberland, was born on the 20th of 
April 1785. He was educated at Eton and afterwards at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and took his degree of A.M. in 1805, and that 
of LL.D. in 1809. In 1812 he was called to the House of Peers by 

336 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

the title of Baron Percy, and in 1817 he succeeded his father in the 
Dukedom. He had previously sat for several years in the House of 
Commons, and he afterwards filled several dignified and important 
offices in the State, being selected to represent the King of England 
at the Coronation of Charles X. of France, and afterwards to fill the 
office of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, under the Administration of the 
Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel. 

His leisure hours were much employed in the study of botany, 
astronomy and mechanics. To the University of Cambridge (which 
had elected him its Chancellor) he presented a large telescope with 
an object-glass of 12 inches diameter, and one of the latest acts of 
his Hfe was to give to the University of Durham a similar telescope, 
with a portable observ^atory, so adjusted that it might be erected in 
the most eligible situation for taking observations. 

On his garden at Syon (a garden known to botanical science for 
nearly three centuries, and from whence Dr. Turner, the author of 
the first English Herbal, dates the preface of his book) his Grace 
annually expended large sums. The garden was greatly improved 
by the erection of an elegant, extensive and lofty range of conserva- 
tories ; and considerable success was attained in thejeiFort to cultivate 
various tropical fruit-trees, with a view to the ripening of their fruit. 
In this object the Duke followed up the example of his father-in-law, 
the late Lord Powis, whose collection of tropical fruit-trees had been 
transferred to Syon at his decease. At various times collectors were 
also sent out by the Duke, either entirely at his own expense, or in 
conjunction with others, with the view of introducing horticultural 
novelties, and many rare and interesting plants which flowered or 
fruited for the first time at Syon were the result of these expeditions. 

His Grace died at Alnwick Castle on the 1 1 th of February in the 
present year. His Fellowship of the Linnean Society dates from the 
year 1833 ; and he had been for several years a Trustee of the British 
Museum on the nomination of the Queen. 

John Parkins 071, Esq., F.R.S.SfC, was the son of a gentleman who 
became possessed by the chances of the Lottery of the noble museum 
formed by Sir Ashton Leven at an expense of upwards of 50,000/. 
This was the means of introducing our late FelloM' to Dr. Shaw of 
the British Museum, with whom he became closely intimate, and to 
many other eminent naturalists, from whose conversation he imbibed 
a considerable taste for the pursuits in which they were engaged. 
From an early period of his life he was employed in the service of 
the Government, first as Paymaster of French Refugees, and after- 
wards as British Consul successively at Koenigsberg, Pillau, Memel, 

1847.] Linnean Society. 337 

Pemambuco, Bahia and Mexico. In these various localities, espe- 
cially in the latter, his position and his taste enabled him to render 
considerable services to botany by the introduction of new and va- 
luable plants, for many of which our conservatories are indebted to 
his active exertions. 

He retired from public service a few years ago, and has since been 
a frequent attendant at our meetings, taking a lively interest in the 
proceedings of the Society, of which he had been for nearly fifty-two 
years a Fellow. He died at Paris on the 3rd of April in the present 

Edward Rudge, Esq., was descended from a merchant and alder- 
man of London of the same names, who in 1664 purchased of Mr. 
William Courten (whose collections in natural history formed the 
foundation of the Sloanean Museum) a large portion of the Abbey 
estate at Evesham, to which estate our late member succeeded, and 
to which he also made considerable additions. He was born on the 
27th of June 1763, and derived his taste for botany, which he early 
cultivated by the collection of British plants, from an uncle, who 
commenced the formation of an herbarium, which was followed up 
and greatly added to by the nephew. The acquisition of a fine 
series of the plants of Guiana collected by M. Martin, a French 
collector of great skill and judgment, who lost by the fortune of war 
two successive and valuable collections of plants, induced him to 
turn his attention more particularly towards the flora of that coun- 
try, and he published in 1807 a folio volume of selections, carefully 
made, under the title of ' Plantarum Guianse Rariorum Icones et 
Descriptiones.' The illustrations to this volume. In the preparation 
of which he derived some assistance from Mr. R. A. Salisbury, were 
from the pencil of the first Mrs. Rudge. 

Mr. Rudge became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1802, and 
communicated several papers to its ' Transactions ' in the course of 
the ten following years. These are severally entitled — 

" Descriptions of some species of Carex from North America," 
vol. vii. p. 96. 

" Descriptions of seven new species of Plants from New Holland," 
vol. viii. p. 291. 

" Description of a new species of Dimorpha," vol. ix. p. 197. 

" A description of several species of Plants from New Holland," 
voL X. p. 283. 

" A description of several new species of Plants from New Hol- 
land," vol. ii. p. 296. 

In the eighth volume of our ' Transactions' Mr. R. A. Salisbury 

338 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

paid him the merited compliment of dedicating to him a genus of 
plants under the name of Rudgea, described and figured from speci- 
mens of two species in Martin's Guiana collection, which (as far as 
I am aware) have not yet been met with by any other collector. 

In 1805 he became a FellowjoTt he Roya l^^ciety ; and he subse- 
quently connected himself with most of the leading Societies of the 
metropolis, taking an active interest in their pursuits and being fre- 
quently placed upon their Councils. At an early period he became 
a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and as an antiquary he has 
considerable merit. At intervals between 1811 and 1834 he care- 
fully excavated those portions of the ancient Abbey of Evesham 
which were under his control, and the results were communicated 
to the Society of Antiquaries, who not only inserted his memoirs in 
the * Arch^ologia,' but also made the ruins and relics brought to 
light by these excavations the subject of a series of large plates in 
their ' Vetusta Monumenta.' An octagonal tower of stone erected 
by him in 1842 on the battle-field of Evesham, commemorative of 
Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, further marks the bent of his 
mind towards antiquarian studies. 

Mr. Rudge died at the Abbey Manor House, Evesham, on the 
3rd of September last, at the age of 83. In his will he gave a proof 
of his attachment to the Linnean Society, of which he had so long 
been a member, by bequeathing to it the interest of a sum of 200/. 
for the purpose of establishing a medal, the particulars of which, and 
the reasons which actuated the Society in relinquishing the bequest, 
are given in detail at p. 315. 

Lord Saye and Sele was from his earliest days fond of ornithology, 
and had studied and understood the birds of the British Islands, of 
which he formed a very fine collection, at present arranged at his 
family residence of Belvidere, and in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion. Excepting a small aviary of exotic birds at his residence in 
Grosvenor Street, his lordship confined his collection to our native 
birds, but he was a very liberal supporter of publications on all 
branches of Natural History. He also took considerable interest in 
and contributed rather largely to the Ornithological Society in St. 
James's Park, where at one time he was a constant and almost daily 
visitor. He was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1822, 
and died in the spring of the present year. 

Richard Simmons, Esq., M.D., was the only son of Dr. Samuel 
Foart Simmons, a medical practitioner of great skill, especially in 
the treatment of lunacy, and took his degree at Oxford in 1809. He 
was a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, and enjoyed a pen- 

1847-] Linnean Society. 339 

sion from the Crown in consideration of his own and his father's 
services during the mental illness of King George the Third. He 
became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1802, and died on the 
18th of September last at St. Leonard's on the Sea, bequeathing a 
collection of fourteen pictures to the National Gallery, and a collec- 
tion of minerals to the University of Oxford, to which he had also 
presented numerous very valuable specimens through the present 
Dean of Westminster in 1832. 

Samuel Solly, Esq. 

Daniel Stuart, Esq., well-known for more than half a century as 
a political writer, and as a proprietor of various leading newspapers, 
became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1 806, and died at his house 
in Upper Harley Street, on the 25th of August last, at the age of 80. 

William Nicholas Wickham, Esq., was one of our oldest Fellows, 
having entered the Society in 1794. He married a daughter of Dr. 
Latham the ornithologist, and died at Winchester in the course of 
the last year. 

In our Foreign list we have lost since the last Anniversary two 
distinguished members. 

The Baron Benjamin Delessert, eminent alike for his private worth 
and for his enlightened patronage of natural history, was born at 
Geneva in the year 1763, of a family whose attachment to botanical 
pursuits is manifested by the ' Lettres Elementaires sur la Botanique ' 
of Rousseau, which were addressed to Madame Delessert, the mother 
of our late member, for the instruction of his sister, then a child. 
His elder brother Etienne was also fond of natural history, and in 
his company Benjamin in early life travelled through Switzerland, 
France, England and Scotland, and made considerable collections of 
the plants of those countries, which were afterwards incorporated in 
his herbarium. At the commencement of the revolution he served 
as an Artillery officer ; but after the 10th of August he quitted the 
service, and from that time forwards applied himself to commercial 
pursuits, in which he was eminently successful, and became one of 
the most wealthy bankers in Paris. He was also at one time the 
most considerable manufacturer of beet- root sugar in France ; but 
this speculation, in which he appears to have embarked chiefly from 
motives of patriotism, was not attended with much success. Foj 
nearly thirty years he sat in the Chamber of Deputies as one of the 
members for the Department of the Seine, and took a lively interest 
and an active part in all measures for improving the condition and 

340 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

the morals of the poorer classes. Thus he is regarded as the founder 
of Savings' Banks in France ; and his efforts were always strenuously 
directed to the amelioration of prisons and of prison discipline, and 
the abolition of the punishment of death. As a politician he sat in 
the Chamber constantly in the left centre, of which he was one of 
the most influential members, although he rarely took a prominent 
part in the debates. 

M. Benjamin Delessert was a distinguished patron of the arts, of 
literature and of science, the professors of which owe much to his 
zeal and liberality. His herbarium has long been regarded as one 
of the richest in the world ; and a recent publication by M. Lasegue, 
entitled ' Musee Botanique de M. Benjamin Delessert,' Paris, 8vo, 
1845, gives an interesting account of the numerous collections of 
which it is composed. There are few systematic botanists who have 
published extensively in recent times who have not derived advan- 
tage from consulting its stores, which were always opened with the 
utmost liberality to the use of students and men of science. His bo- 
tanical library too, consisting of upwards of 4000 volumes, formed an 
admirable and indispensable appendage to his collections. In 1820 
M. Delessert commenced the publication of a series of figures chiefly 
from specimens in his own herbarium, illustrative of DeCandoUe's 
great work, and issued at intervals five volumes, each of 100 plates, 
under the title of ' Icones Selectse Plantarum quas in Systemate 
Universali ex Herbariis Parisiensibus praesertim ex Lessertiano de- 
scripsit Aug. Pyr. DeCandolle, ex archetypis speciminibus a P. J. 
F. Turpin delineatse.' The ' Florae Senegambiae Tentamen,' edited 
by MM. Guillemin, Perrottet and A. Richard, was also published at 
his expense. 

M. Benjamin Delessert had early commenced the formation of a 
collection of Shells, but these were until within the last few years of 
comparatively little importance. The purchase, however, of Du- 
fresne's collection, of Teissier's, and more particularly of that of 
Lamarck, to which great additions had been made while in the pos- 
session of Prince Massena, rendered M. Delessert's cabinet of Shells 
one of the finest and most valuable that exists. As in the case of his 
herbarium, he was careful to render it useful to science, and he has 
within the last few years published several parts of a magnificent 
work entitled ' Recueil de Coquilles decrites par Lamarck dans son 
Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres et non encore figu- 
rees,' Paris, 1841, &c., fol. This has since been followed up by a 
still more splendid contribution to science, entitled ' Illustrations 

1S47.] Linnean Society. 341 

Conchyliologiques, ou Descriptions et Figures de tontes les Coquilles 
connues vivantes et fossiles,' edited by M. Chenu, the Conservator of 
the Collection, of which upwards of sixty numbers, containing more 
than 300 plates, are already published. 

M. Delessert died at Pai'is on the 1st of March in the present 
year. He had long been a Member of the Academy of Sciences of 
the Institute of France, and had received various honorary distinc- 
tions from his Government. His election as a Foreign Member of 
the Linnean Society dates from 1835. It should not be omitted that 
he has provided in his will for the maintenance of his museum and 
his library, and for rendering them useful to science by their con- 
tinued accessibility. 

Of the events of the life of Henri Dutrochet, M.D., I have been 
able to procure but little information. He commenced his career in 
1806, by the publication of an inaugural dissertation entitled ' Essai 
d'une Nouvelle Theorie de la Voix ;' and subsequently distinguished 
himself as an able physiologist, chiefly by the application of the 
principles of physics to the explanation of various phsenomena of or- 
ganization. In 1837 he collected together the most important of his 
numerous contributions to Anatomy and Physiology in two 8vo vo- 
lumes, under the title of ' Memoires pour servir a I'Histoire Anato- 
mique et Physiologique des Vegetaux et des Animaux.' Many of 
the memoirs contained in these volumes are entirely rewritten, and 
as he declares in his preface that he considers all that he had pre- 
viously written on the subjects treated of and not reproduced in them 
as non-existent, they must be regarded as containing the latest and 
most matured ex23ression of his views. His memoirs relate to a 
great variety of subjects, but those which have exercised the most 
important influence on science, and on which his fame will princi- 
pally rest, are devoted to the exposition of the phsenomenon to which 
he has given the name of endosmose. By means of this simple phy- 
sical law which regulates and controls the motions of fluids of differ- 
ent degrees of density separated from each other by permeable mem- 
branes he has himself explained, and furnished to others a most im- 
portant element in the explanation of, many obscure and previously 
unintelligible processes in the economy both of animals and jilants. 

He was a Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of 
France, and became a Foreign Member of the Linnean Society in 
1839. He died on the 4th of February in the present year. 

Among our Associates we have to record the death of 
Charles Sutton, D.D., who was born at Norwich on the 6th of 
No. XXXIV. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

342 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

March 1756, and died in the parish of St. George at Tombland, of 
which he had been for more than fifty years Perpetual Curate, on 
the 2Sth of May 1846, and consequently in the ninet-y-first year of 
his age. Dr. Sutton was educated at the Grammar- School at Nor- 
wich, whence he proceeded to St. John's College, Cambridge, and 
took honours as the tenth wrangler of his year. He became a Fel- 
low of the College, and was successively presented to the incumben- 
cies of St. George at Tombland, Alburgh and Thornham cum Holme 
juxta mare, at which latter place, situated on the north coast of the 
county of Norfolk, our distinguished Fellow the Rev. Mr. Kirby, 
whose sister he had married, occasionally passed a part of the sum- 
mer with him. It was here and in his company that Mr. Kirby 
discovered the new and highly beautiful species of Apion, which he 
has described and figured in the 9th volume of our ' Transactions ' 
under the name of Apion Limonii. 

Dr. Sutton was exceedingly zealous in the discharge of his clerical 
duties, and warmly promoted the interests of many charitable and 
educational institutions with which he became intimately connected. 
He was one of the oldest members of the Christian Knowledge So- 
ciety ; for many years Secretary of the Norwich National Society, 
and Treasurer of the Norfolk Society for the Relief of Clergymen's 
Widows and Orphans ; and for a long period took an active part in 
the management of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. For some 
years past his great age had of course precluded him from continuing 
this active course of life, but he retained his mental faculties and 
bodily strength to a very late period of his life. 

He became early attached to botanical pursuits and to the study 
of natural history in general as well as to antiquarian researches. 
His first and friendly instructor in botany was Mr. Pitchford, a sur- 
geon in Norwich, whose botanical merits are commemorated by our 
first President in a memoir on Norwich Botanists in the 7th volume 
of our ' Transactions.' 

In 1791 he was elected an Associate of the Linnean Society, and 
in 1797 he contributed to the 4th volume of our ' Transactions ' a 
paper entitled " A description of five British species of Orobanche" 
in which he distinguished two new species, viz. Orob. elatior and 
Orob, minor, and made some useful observations on the economy of 
the genus as well as some rectifications of the synonymy of its 

The Secretary also announced that twenty Fellows had been 
elected since the last Anniversary. 

1847.] Linnean Society. 343 

At the election, which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop 
of Norwich was re-elected President; Edward Forster, Esq., Trea- 
surer; John Joseph Bennett, Esq., Secretary ; and Richard Taylor, 
Esq., Under-Secretary. Tlie following five FeUows were elected 
into the Council in the room of others going out : viz. James Scott 
Bowerbank, Esq. ; William John BurcheU, Esq., D.C.L. ; Frederic 
Halsey Janson, Esq. ; Daniel Sharpe, Esq., and Nathaniel Wallich, 
Esq., M.D. 

June 1. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Sudlow Roots, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a "Description oi Athalamia, a new genus oi Marckantie(e." 
By Hugh Falconer, M.D., F.L.S. &c. 


Char. Gen. Flores masciiWl Capituli foeminei receptaculum nullum; 
Jloribus immediate pedunculo insertis, erectis. Involucrum nullum. 
InvoluceUa tubulosa, vertice bivalvia, basi inter se connata. Calyptra 
persistens, siib-bifidolacerata. Sporangium in lacinias 4 v. 5 demum 
revolutas dehiscens ; pedicello elongato sub-exserto. — Frons simijlex, 
V. radiatim 3-loba, crasse carnosa, subtus margine squamis foUueeis 
pluri-seriatis inslructa ; lobis oblongis, concavis, margine attenuatis ; 
pedunculo pedicellisque crassis, succulentis, teretibus. 

Athalamia pinguis, Falc. 


The absence of a common receptacle and the erect flowers appear 
to be the most characteristic marks of the genus Athalamia, which 
is most nearly allied to Lunularia, Micheli, in the dehiscence of the 
sporangium and elongation of the pedicel. 

Read also a further portion of Dr. Buchanan Hamilton's Commen- 
tary on the 8th part of Van Rheede's Hortiis Malabaricus. 

344 Linnean Society. [June 15, 

June 15. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Edward Phillips, Esq., M.D., and the Rev. William Smith were 
elected Fellows. 

Read " Some Account of an undescribed Fossil Fruit." By R. 
Brown, Esq., D.C.L., V.P.L.S. &c. &c. 

This singularly beautiful and instructive fossil, which had for 
many years formed part of the collection of Baron Roget in Paris, 
■was brought to London in 1843, and purchased jointly by the British 
Museum, the Marquis of Northampton and Mr. Brown. Nothing is 
known of its origin, but from its obvious analogy in structure and 
mineral condition with Lepidostrobus, Mr. Brown conjectures it to 
belong to the same geological formation. 

The specimen is evidently the upper half of a strobilus very gra- 
dually tapering towards the top. As brought to England it was not 
quite two inches in length, but a transverse slice, probably of no 
great thickness, had been removed from it in Paris ; and the trans- 
verse diameter of the lower slices somewhat exceeded the length of 
the specimen. Its surface, which was evidently water-worn, is 
marked with closely approximated unequal- sided hexagons, which 
are the terminations of bracteae, and become smaller and less distinct 
towards the top. 

From transverse and vertical sections it appears that the strobilus 
is formed of a central axis of small diameter, compared with the parts 
proceeding from it, which consist : 

1 . Of bractese, densely approximated and much-imbricated, having 
their lower halves at right angles to the axis, while the imbricating 
portion, of equal length with the lower and forming an obtuse angle 
with it, is gradually thickened upwards. These form the spokes 
and external rhomboidal areee seen in the transverse section. 

2. Of an equal number of oblong bodies, of a lighter colour and 
more transparent, each of which is adnate to and connected by cel- 
lular tissue with the upper surface of the corresponding bractea. 
These bodies are sections of sporangia, filled with innumerable mi- 
croscopic sporules, originally connected in threes, very rarely in 
fours, but ultimately separating. From this triple composition or 
union of sporules, which differs from the constantly quadruple 
union in tribes of existing plants, namely Ophioglossece and Lyco- 

1847.] Linnean Society. 345 

podiaceee, which from other points of structure may be supposed to 
be most nearly related to the fossil, Mr. Brown has named it 
Triplosporite . 

The structure of the axis, which is well-preserved, distinctly 
shows, in the arrangement of its vascular bundles, a preparation for 
the supply of an equal number of bractese. These vascular fasciculi 
are nearly equidistant in a tissue of moderately elongated cells. 
The vessels are exclusively scalariform, very closely resembling those 
of the recent Ferns and Lycopodiacece, and among fossils, those of 
Psarolites, Lepidodendron and its supposed fruit Lepidostrobus, as 
well as several other fossil genera, namely Sigillaria, Ulodendron and 

Mr, Brown does not propose to enter fully into the question of 
the affinities of Triplosporite ; but contents himself with remark- 
ing that in its scalariform vessels it agrees with all the fossil genera 
supposed to be Acotyledonous ; and that in the structure of its spo- 
rangia and sporules it approaches most nearly, among recent tribes, 
to Ophioglossece and Lycopodiacece, and among fossils to Lepidostro- 
bus, and consequently to Lepidodendron. The stem-structure oi Le- 
pidodendron, known only in Lepidodendron Harcourtii, offers no ob- 
jection to this view, the vascular arrangement of the axis of its stem 
bearing a considerable resemblance to that of Triplosporite. To this 
argument, derived from the agreement between axis of stem and 
axis of strobilus, Mr. Brown attaches considerable importance, as 
an equal agreement exists both in recent and fossil Coniferee. 

Mr. Brown adds, that Dr. J. D. Hooker has very recently de- 
tected, in the sporangia of a species referred to Lepidostrobus, spo- 
rules united in threes ; there still however remain, in the form and 
arrangement of the sporangia of that species, characters sufficient to 
distinguish it generically from the fossil here described. 

The paper was illustrated by drawings, both of the natural size 
and microscopic. 

Read also a note " On the occurrence of the Potatoe Disease 
independent of the Attacks of Insects." By J. O. Westwood, Esq., 
F.L.S., Secretary of the Entomological Society, &c. &c. 

This note, in which the author maintained that the disease which 
has of late years been so destructive to the potatoe is wholly inde- 
pendent of the agency of insects, was illustrated by numerous recent 
specimens of the potatoe-plant, in which the disease had made con- 
siderable progress in the tuber, while the haulm appeared perfectly 
healthy ; and on which the ravages of insects, and in particular of 

346 Linnean Society. [Nov. 2, 

the Aphis to which the devastation has been so confidently attri- 
buted, were nowhere to be traced. 

November 2. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

James Hewitson Wilson, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Mr. Westwood exhibited the following cases of insect monstrosi- 
ties : — 

1. Chiasognathus Grantii, with the left antenna deformed, furcate 
at the base of the serrated portion ; one branch very short and appa- 
rently composed of four clavate joints, the other branch shorter than 
in-the normal antenna and irregularly and shortly serrated ; the lower 
division of the left mandible also shorter than that of the right side. 
From Mr. Westwood's collection. 

2. A new species of Elateridce from Ceylon, in Mr. Templeton's 
collection. The middle foot on the right side deformed; the coxa 
and trochanter normal, but with three femora conjoined at their bases, 
and emitting three perfect tibiae, and two perfect and one imperfect 

3. An Indian Copris allied to C. lunaris, from Col. Hearsey's col- 
lection, in which the upper portion of the front of the head is want- 
ing, exposing the parts of the mouth. 

Read a paper " On the Natural History, Anatomy, and Develop- 
ment of Melo'e (Third Memoir — the Anatomy)." By George New- 
port, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Mr. Newport commenced this memoir by stating that having 
traced the Natural History of Melo'e in the preceding memoirs, he 
now proposed to examine its Anatomy " with reference to those 
principles which regulate the formation of animal bodies, and which 
seem to be the links of connexion that associate peculiarities of in- 
stinct with the evolution and with the functions of special struc- 

The portion read was the first section of the third memoir, the 
tegument of the young larva. This structure was shown to be the 
primary and essential foundation-tissue of the organized being, having 

1847-] Linnean Socitty. 347 

its origin in the hlastoderma, and being composed entirely of cells, 
like the young tissue of plants. The form of the body of the em- 
bryo entirely depends on the changes which take place in this struc- 
ture, and the principles which regulate these changes regulate also 
those of the whole life of the insect. 

The growth of the tegument of the young larva Mr. Newport 
showed to depend on the division of the nuclei of its cells ; that 
the subsequent consolidation of the tegument in the formation of 
the hardened dermo -skeleton of the insect is the result of the secre- 
tion of earthy materials by the nuclei of the tegumentary cells, in a 
manner similar to that in which bone is formed in the Vertebrata, by 
the calcification of the cells in layers of the surface of the peri- 
osteum, as shown by Hunter, Flourens, Goodsir, Sharpey, Tomes 
and others ; and that this is analogous to the mode in which the 
woody fibre of exogenous trees is formed on the inner surface of 
their bark. The earthy constituents of the dermo-skeleton were 
stated, from the chemical analyses of Odier, Lassaigne and Mr. Chil- 
dren, to consist chiefly of phosphate of lime, with carbonates of potass 
and lime, and a little phosphate of iron, and in some species with 
traces of silica, magnesia and manganese ; materials which, ten years 
ago, led Mr. Newport to describe the dermo-skeleton of insects as 
" an imperfectly-developed condition of bony matter," a view which 
has recently been much supported by the discovery by Platner of 
star-shaped corpuscles in the tegument of the silkworm, closely re- 
sembling those of true bone in the Vertebrata. 

The tegument of insects is thus regarded as analogous in its mode 
of development, as in its function, to that of the skeleton of the Che- 
Ionian Reptiles. This structure in the very young Melo'e was then 
fully described, and the nature of its appendages and functions exa- 
mined. The spines and hairs were shown to originate from the centre 
of tegumentary cells, and were regarded as excessive developments 
of the nuclei as single bodies. The growth and development of the 
tegument was shown to be efi^ected by means of the enlargement and 
fissiparous division of the nuclei of the cells, and the subsequent ex- 
pansion of these into cells, the nuclei of which undergo similar 
changes. This was pointed out as being strongly confirmatory of 
the theory of Schwann with reference to the tissues generally, and 
as being in full accordance with the observations of Kolliker on the 
yolk cells, and with original observations which Mr. Newport has 
himself made on other structures. 

The formation of the external respiratory organs was then exa- 

348 Linnean Society. [Nov. 16, 

mined. These were shown to commence in the tegument in spaces 
between the cells, which open into foUicles connected with sinuses 
in the granular tissue of the body, and that the orifices (the spiracles) 
at first very closely resemble the stomata of plants. The parietes of 
these follicles in Meloe are formed by aggregations of exceedingly 
minute, nucleated embryo- cells of rounded shape, and about one five- 
or one six-thousandth of an inch in diameter. 

The tegument of the head, and more especially that of the eye of 
the young Meloe was then examined, and the cornea, which in this 
stage of the insect's existence is a single structure, fitted only for 
near vision, was shown to be composed of numerous transparent der- 
mal cells, continuous with those which form the surface of the head, 
while the centre of the cornea, the axis of vision, is occupied by a 
single cell, more projecting and twice the size of those which sur- 
round it. 

The changes which take place in the relative development of dif- 
ferent parts of the tegument of the young Meloe, which lead to its 
entire alteration of form, were then pointed out, and shown to occur 
chiefly in the rapid growth of the dorsal region, which from being 
originally the smallest, as it is the last-formed part of the body, be- 
comes the most voluminous, and occasions a complete alteration in 
the position and size of the limbs and in the entire form of the in- 

The stages of this process and the formation of the dermo-skele- 
ton, the author proposed to be considered in the next section of this 

November 16. 
The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 
Samuel Brownlow Grey, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

E. Doubleday, Esq., F.L.S., read a paper " On the Pterology of 
the Diurnal Lepidoptera, especially upon that of some genera of the 

After expressing his regret at the little attention bestowed in this 
country upon the anatomy of the Annulosa, the writer proceeded to 
remark that he was not aware that any author had recorded the fact 
of a sexual variation in the neuration'of the wings of Lepidoptera, a 

1847.] Linnean Society. 349 

fact extremely interesting from the light it throws on the homologies 
of the nervures and nervules. 

The variation takes place in the genera Ithomia, Mechanitis and 
Sais, all remarkable also for the great sexual variation in the struc- 
ture of the anterior legs, those of the males being the least de- 
veloped, those of the femsdes the most developed, of any butterflies 
with suspended pupae. 

The state of atrophy of the anterior feet of the males is not, he 
states, the consequence of excessive development of the other pairs 
of feet, or of any other organs, nor does it appear to depend on any 
peculiar habits of the insect ; neither can the greater development 
of these feet in the females be accounted for by any difference of 
habits. For the more developed anterior feet of some male Coleo- 
ptera, for the powerful jaws of the leaf-cutting or timber-boring bees, 
there are obvious uses ; but a greater development in the one sex of 
organs almost atrophied in the other, which still leaves them unfitted 
for the functions they perform in a normal state, and apparently does 
not render them useful for any other function, can only be explained 
by conceiving it in some way to depend on the position of the ani- 
mal in the system of Nature. 

The system of neuration of the posterior wings in the Diurnal 
Lepidoptera, which may be considered normal as regards this group, 
is abnormal as it respects the whole order ; and it would seem 
as though Nature, by a partial return to a normal structure in a 
few genera, wished to indicate to us the real homologies of these 

In general the posterior wings of the Diurnal Lepidoptera have the 
discoidal nervure, which in these wings never branches, so placed as 
to seem to be a third subcostal nervule ; but in some genera, although 
its basal is always wanting, its real character is very evident, and it 
is united to the subcostal nervure or one of its nervules, and also to 
the median nervure or one of its nervxiles, by distinct upper and 
lower disco-cellular nervules. In the Heliconidte we find this struc- 
ture, almost normal as it respects the order, in the genus Ituna, and 
also in Ithomia. It is found in some female Ithomics, of which the 
males have a different structure, giving indications of that change of 
position which in the next genus might lead us to mistake the discoi- 
dal nervure for a fourth median nervule, the disco-cellular nervules 
being placed more obliquely, the cell becoming thereby more elon- 
gated, and the lower disco- cellular nervule appearing almost to form 
a continuation of the median nervure. In Mechanitis both sexes have 

350 Linnean Society. [Nov. 16, 

this character further carried out, and the wing appears to have a 
subcostal nervure di\'iding into two nervules, and a median dividing 
into four, so completely has the discoidal nervnire assumed the po- 
sition of a branch of the latter nervure. The females of the genus 
Sais have also this character, but in the males we find a still further 
change of structure. In these the second subcostal ner\Tile assumes 
the position of a fifth median nervule, and the subcostal nervure con- 
sequently appears simple. 

Thus, leaving the genera Heliconia, Lycorea and their immediate 
allies, which have the structure which is normal as regards the Di- 
urnal Lepidoptera, though abnormal as regards the order, we find in 
Ihina and some female Ithomi(S a structure nearly normal as regards 
the whole order, but the males of the latter become abnormal in an 
opposite manner to the prevalent character of the group ; next in 
Mechanitis we find this structure common to both sexes ; and then 
in Sais, the females retaining the same structure as in Mechanitis, 
but the males varying still further from the type. 

This gradual change in the position of the discoidal nervure 
actually occurring first in the two sexes of the same species, and 
then becoming common to both sexes, is, in the opinion of the 
writer, confirmatory in the highest degree of the theory laid down 
by him in a former paper, as to the structure of the anterior wings 
of the Diurnal Lepidoptera, and leaves, he thinks, no room to doubt 
the correctness of the explanation there given of the apparent ano- 
maly of those wings in the Papilionidee. 

In the sexual variations detailed above, it is the male insect which 
varies most from the t^'pe, but the females of some species of Me- 
chanitis present a remarkable structure in the anterior portion of the 
wing, the costal nervure being united to the subcostal for the greater 
part of its course. 

An additional interest attaches to these peculiarities of the wings, 
from their being combined with the great peculiarities above referred 
to in the structure of the anterior feet. 

The writer then proceeded to point out some analogies in the struc- 
ture of the wings of the Ithomia and some Hymenoptera, especially 
as regards the inner margin of the anterior wings and the anterior 
margin of the posterior wings, and also with reference to a fringe of 
hairs on the latter, analogous to the hooks occupying the same po- 
sition in the Bees and other Hymenoptera. 

1847.] Linnean Society. 351 

December 7. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Lieut. -Colonel John Bennett Hearsey was elected a Fellow. 

Read a " Description of a new genus oiLentibulariee, with remarks 
on some Indian species of Utrictdaria." By M. Pakenham Edge- 
worth, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 


Calyx bilabiatus, labio superiore 2- (rarius 3-) dentato. Corolla bilabi- 
ata, tubo brevi, labio superiore brevissimo truncato, inferiore 3-dentato. 
Stamina inclusa. Stylus brevis, stigmate dilatato. Capsula ovata, 
oligosperma; placenta centrali libera conica in apicem producta. Se- 
mina pauca (prope 6), ovata, test^ laxa striato-vugosa, iitrinque pilis 
paucis longis caudata. Nucula compressa, submarginata. Embryo ? 
— Yiexha. pusilla, acaulis, foliis radicalibus, radicibus utricuUferis. 


Hab. super rupes madidos, in Vishnugangetis valle, Himala; alt. 8000 

This little plant, the author thinks, forms a link connecting Len- 
tibularice with Cyrtandracece, to which order its tailed seeds show an 
approximation. Unfortunately he has not been able to separate the 
embryo so as to be satisfied with its nature and direction. In habit 
it resembles slightly some of the section Oligocista of Utricularia. 

Utricllaria (subgenus Oligocista) foveolata, radicibus fibrosis brevi- 
bus, scapo simplici aphyllo 2 — G floro racemoso sinistrorsum volubili, 
bracteis solitariis ovatis acutis basi-fixis pedicello vel longioribus vel 
multo brevioribus, lobis calycinis pedicello longioribus ovatis acutis 
coroUam subsequantibvis in fructu cum pedicello defracto valde auctis, 
corollse labio inferiore vix concavo margine 3-lobo superiore bifido : cal- 
care conico labii inferioris longitudine, capsula cernua calyce aucto 
obtecta, seminibus majusculis compresso-trapezoideis rugoso-foveolatis 
foveolis nitidis punctatis. 

Hab. in Bengalia, uliginosis, Januario. 

An U. uliginosa, DC, no. QG. vol. viii. p. 15? Flos purpureus, scapus ru- 

Utricularia polygaloides, radicibus fibrosis, scapo aphyllo erecto plus 
minus ramoso 2- v. multi-floro, squaniis adpressis ovatis acutis, bracteis 
ternis exterioribus ovatis acutis interioribus subulatis pedicello com- 

S52 Linnean Society. [Dec. 7> 

presso Eequalibus vel longioribus, lobis calycinis ovatis acuminatis sub- 
sequalibus, corolla azuvefB calycem sequantis labio inferiore majore 
margine externe revoluto : palato convexo intus barbato : calcare conico 
albido labium sequante in lobo calycis inferiore nidulante ; labio supe- 
riors rotundato 4-crenato, capsula cordata compressa lobis calycinis 
valde acutis arete obtecta, seminibus rugoso-striatis. 
Hub. in Bengalia, prope Bardwan, uliginosis, Januario. 
An U. reticulata, DC, no. 90. p. 19 ? diiFert tantum (secus descriptio- 
nem) pedicellis bracteis brevioribus, labii superioris margine non revoluta. 
Planta 2 — 10 poUicaris, stricta. Semina oblonga, testS, laxiuscula rugoso- 
striata, inter nervulos prominulos minutius striata. Labium inferius 2 lin. 
long. Calycis lobi per anthesin 2, in fructu 4 lin. longi. Staminum fila- 
menta arcuata; antheris approximatis medio constrictis. Stigma sessile 
infundibuliforme. Folia nulla? 

Utiiicularia rosea, radicibus fibrosis, scapo filiformi subesquamato de- 
miim subvolubili apice racemosim 3 — 10 floro, bracteis ternis exteriore 
medio fixa utrinque acut& lateralibus ovatis acutis pedicello nitido sub- 
sequalibus, lobis calycinis rotundatis suborbiculatis corolla brevioribus, 
coroUffi roseae labio inferiore 3-lobo (lobo medio breviore) crenulato 
intus fornicato palato luteo intus papilloso : calcare obtuso labium 
aequante ; labio superiore rotundato, filamentis arcuatis apice valde 
dilatatis ; antheris ovatis medio paulo constrictis, capsula subglobosa 
calycem vix auctum subsequante uno latere valvula sursum basi recur- 
vata dehiscente, placenta centrali globosa foveolata, seminibus (pluri- 
mis abortivis) ovatis punctis prominulis subechinatis rugoso-striatis. 
Hub. in Bengalia, prope Bardwan, uliginosis. 

An U. nivea, DC, no. 98, at floribus roseo-purpurascentibus, capsula ca- 
lycem asquante nee minore, nee longiore ut in U. racemosd, squamis quo- 
que minimis, an potius omnes in unam speciem reducendse ? Scapi calyces- 
que rubescentes. 

Utricularia pterosperma, radicibus fibrosis parce utriculiferis, utriculis 
1-setosis, scapo aphyllo purpurascente 2- (an pluri- ?) floro ad axillam 
squama ovata obtusa basifixa bracteato, pedicellis teretibus superiore 
bracteolato, lobis calycinis obovatis cucuUatis obtusis corolla dimidio 
brevioribus nee in fructu auctis, corollse lutese labio superiore suberecto 
concavo integro; inferiore integro marginibus revolutis : palato magno 
aurantio-striato utrinque glabro faucem obtegente : calcare sursiim cur- 
vato conico acutiusculo labio sublongiore, staminum filamentis eras- 
sis arcuatis supra antheram 1-locularem nee constrictam productis, 
polline orbiculari rugosulo, stigmate bilamellato, capsula latere com- 
pressiuscula subglobosa stylo apiculata, placenta globosa alveolata, se- 
minibus paucis late alatis ala irregulariter dentata reticulatim venosa ; 
testa irregulariter rugosa; nucula globosa; radicula et pluraula distinct^ 
ceterum pingui. 

Hab. in Bengalia, Bardwan, uliginosis, Januario. 

1847.] Linnean Society. 353 

Ab U. diantka quacum maxime affinis difFert pedicellis teretibus nee mar- 
ginatis, calcare ascendente labio longiore nee descendente, lobis calycinis 
in fructu noti auctis antherisque non eonstrictis. An seniina U. dianthce 
alata ? 

Utricularia fasciculata, vide DC, no, 8, p. 18. no. 18, adde : — Plaeenta 
globosa spongiosa, seminibus compressis raarginatis rugosulis uno la- 
tere foveolato altero prominulo. 

A further communication, from a letter written by Mr. Edge- 
worth, dated Banda, 30th August, 1847, was made to the meeting, 
respecting a remarkable effect produced by the leaves of Gymnema 
sylvestris, R. Br., upon the sense of taste, in reference to diminish- 
ing the perception of saccharine flavours. 

Read also a paper " On the Formation and Use of the Air- Sacs 
and Dilated Tracheae in Insects." By G. Newport, Esq., F.R.S,, 
F.L.S. &c. &c. 

The paper was commenced with the remark, that the presence of 
air-sacs in insects is known to every comparative anatomist. These 
sacs are largest and most numerous in the Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera 
and Diptera. They are numerous and capacious in the Dragon-flies 
among the Neuroptera, but are smaller and fewer in the Ephemera, 
the Sialidce and the Scorpion-flies. In the Coleoptera they exist only 
in the volant species ; and even in the same tribe, as in the Cara- 
bidcB, they are found in the winged, but not in the apterous species. 
In all insects in which they occur they are largest and most nume- 
rous in the swiftest and most powerful individuals. They are found 
in the Orthoptera only in the migratory families ; while in those 
which are truly saltatorial insects the tracheae are enlarged in some 
parts of their course, but are not to be regarded as properly saccu- 
lated, and sacs are never found in the larva state of any species of 
insect. The sacs are formed by the dilatation of tracheae during the 
metamorphoses of the insects, which commences at the close of the 
larva state, when the insect has ceased to feed. This dilatation goes 
on for the first few days only in those species which hybernate, and 
is resumed again in the spring, but it continues uninterruptedly to 
the development of the perfect insect in those which change to that 
state in the summer. 

The author showed that the longitudinal trachere of the third and 
fourth segments of the larva of winged insects give off a small branch 
at the sides of each segment, which, divided into two portions, passes 
outwards and " is involved in a fold of the new tegument that is 

354 Lmnean Society. [Dec. 7? 1847. 

formed beneath the old skin of the larva some days before its change. 
These folds of tegument supplied each with their tracheae closely re- 
semble in appearance the external abdominal branchiae of the aqua- 
tic larvse oi Neuroptera," and afterwards become the most important 
organs of the insect in its perfect state — the wings. The expansion 
of these organs at the change is mainly effected by their tracheae, 
which instead of becoming dilated, like those within the body, are 
elongated, and thus induce a rush of blood into these portions of the 
tegument which promotes their expansion into wings. This elon- 
gation, as well as the dilatation of the tracheae within the body, is 
the result of powerful respiratory efforts of the insect. The author 
remarked, that although able to show the mode in which these 
changes are effected, it is less easy to give a satisfactory explanation of 
the real use of the vesicles. He adopts, however, a view entertained 
by John Hunter, that the vesicles are mainly to enable the insect to 
alter the specific gravity of its body at pleasure during flight, and 
thus diminish the muscular exertion required during these move- 
ments. To support this opinion, the author reviewed the different 
classes of Vertebrata, and showed that although a vesicular form of 
the respiratory organs exists in the whole, yet that Birds approach 
much more closely to Insects in this respect, as well as in the more 
extensive distribution of the organs themselves, than any other of 
the Vertebrata ; and he referred to the fact that in apterous insects, 
as in birds that are unaccustomed to flight, the respiratory organs 
are less capacious or less extensively distributed. This fact, he 
stated, is not confined to insects of which both sexes are apterous, 
but that when one sex is winged and active in flight, and the other 
apterous, he has always found the body of the former with vesicular 
tracheae, while in the other, the apterous sex, the tracheae are sim- 
ply arborescent, as he has found in the sexes of the glow-worm, and 
in the common winter-moth, Geometra trumaria. These facts, in- 
ferential with regard to the use of the vesicles, the author supported 
with an account of an experimental observation on the mode in which 
the common dung-beetle prepares itself for flight, by rapidly in- 
creasing its respiration and distending its body the instant before 
it unfolds its wings and attempts to raise itself upon them. 

Jan. 18, 1848.] Linnean Society. 355 

December 21. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Joseph Rix, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a further portion of Dr. Buchanan Hamilton's Commentary 
on the 8th part of Van Rheede's Hortus Malabariciis . 

January 18, 1848. 

N. Wallich, Esq., M.D., in the Chair. 

Arthur Adams, Esq., J. V. G. Gutch, Esq., Robert Hudson, Esq., 
George Ransome, Esq., and John Ellerton Stocks, Esq., M.D., were 
elected Fellows. 

Read a paper " On the genus Atamisquea." By John Miers, Esq., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

Of this Capparideous genus, named by Mr. Miers in his ' Travels 
in Chile,' vol. ii. p. 529, and subsequently characterized by Sir W. 
J. Hooker in his ' Botanical Miscellany,' Mr. Miers gives the follow- 
ing more complete character, derived from the living plant. 

Atamisquea, Miers. 

Char. Gen. Sepala 2, ovoidea, concava, aestivatione marginibus subim- 
bricatis, in torum cavnosum, cyathiformem persistentem demuni indu- 
ratum dentibus erectis notatum coalita, decidua. Petala 6, e margine 
tori orta, inasqualia, lineari-spathulata, reflexa; 2 superiora erectiora, 
sestivatione subimbricata ; 2 lateralia breviora, exteriova. Stamina 9, 
quorum 6 fertilia longiora ; filamenta ffistivatione replicata, demum 
recta, reclinata, glabra, basi glandulosa, lepidota ; antherce oblongae, 
2-loculares, basifixse, erectae, demum curvatee. Tliecaphorum decli- 
natura ; basi glabrum, disco staminifero cinctum, hinc geniculatum ; 
ind^ gracile, elongatum, et cum ovario lepidotum. Ovarium ovatum ; 
stylus brevissimus ; stigma obtuse 2-lobum. Bacca ovoidea, subcar- 
nosa, dense lepidota. Seinina 2 (vel abortu 1), exalbumijiosa, cochleato- 
reniformia, funiculo libero erecto bifurcato ex imo loculo orto latevali- 
ter appensa ; testa coriacea, loculo altero incompleto hilo opposito. 

356 Linnean SocieUj. [Jan. 18, 

Embryo campylotropus ; cotyledones magnse, foliaceae, incumbentes, 
invicem plicato-convolutse ; radicula teres, infera, loculo incompleto 
velata, et ob enibryonis curvatnvaiTi hilum superne spectans. — Frutex 
durus, ramosus, Ameiicffi nieridionalis extratropicse ; ramis abbrevia- 
tis, junioribus lepidotis, nonnunquam spinescentibus ; foliis e ramulis 
juniorlbus orta, pnrva, alterna, brevissime petiolata, canaliculata, cesfi- 
vatione conduplicata, sublus lepidota, costd car'matd. Pedunculus axil- 
laris, solitarius, l-fiorus. 

Atamisquea emarginata, foliis lineari-oblongis basi apiceque einarginatis 
supra viridi-nitentibus subtus hirsutis incanis squamisque lepidotis 

Hab. in campis patentibus^ aridis, salinis, Travesia dictis, Provincise Men- 
dozae Chilensis. 

Mr. Miers states that he offers the above view of the floral enve- 
lopes (which he regards as consisting of 2 sepals and 6 petals) with 
much deference, especially as that which Sir W. J. Hooker has taken 
of them is in conformity with the usual arrangement of the family. 
It appears to him, however, to be warranted by the fact that the 
two broad external leaflets (which he considers as the calyx) form 
one entire whorl, being continuous at their origin with the margin 
of the cup of the torus, while the insertion of the six narrower seg- 
ments (petals) is also upon one line, within the margin of the same 
cup ; the cicatrix of the calyx being marked by a clean line on the 
margin of the cup, while the remains of the claws of the petals are 
distinctly seen within the same margin forming so many projecting 
indurated teeth. This (as regards the calyx) is analogous with what 
occurs in Busbeckia, Endl., Steriphoma, Spr., and Morisonia, Plum., 
in all of which only 2 sepals exist, or an entire envelope bursting 
into two valves. To reconcile the apparent anomaly, the author 
would consider the floral envelope oi Atamisquea either as formed of 
three series, each consisting of two normal parts, the innermost series 
appearing double in consequence of the division of its lobes to their 
point of insertion ; (and this view is supported by the cohesion of 
the upper and lower pairs of petals at their base when pulled away 
from the torus, while a distinct interval is manifest between each of 
these pairs and the shorter lateral petals ;) or he would (still taking 
the same view with regard to the composition of the upper and lower 
pairs of petals) regard them as forming with the two lateral petals a 
whorl of four parts, and suppose the outer series also (the sepals) to 
be normally four in number, united by adhesion into two. This 
last view he considers to be rendered somewhat the more probable 
by its approximating more nearly to the usual structure, and by the 

1848.] Linnean Society. 357 

fact that each of the sepals when dried readily splits down the middle 
by a clean line into two distinct segments. 

The paper was illustrated by detailed illustrations of the structure 
of the plant. 

February 1 . 

Robert Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Rev. James Hamilton and Henry George Harrington, Esq , 
were elected Fellows. 

J. O.Westwood.Esq., F.L.S. &c., exhibited specimens of the silk 
spun by the caterpillars of the new Indian silk moth, Bomhyx Hut- 
toni, Westw. (figured in the 'Cabinet of Oriental Entomology,' pi. 12. 
fig. 4), communicated to him by Capt. T. Hutton. After stating the 
importance of the discovery of a new and valuable product of this 
nature in our foreign territories, and that the ' Transactions of the 
Linnean Society ' contained a valuable paper on East Indian silk 
insects by Gen. Hardwicke, Mr. Westwood observed that the insect 
discovered by Capt. Hutton was congeneric with the real silk insect, 
Bombyx Mori, a native of China, whereas those described in the 
Transactions of the Society belonged to another genus, Saturnia, 
and that consequently the silk spun by the new species was likely 
to approximate nearer to that of B. Mori in its qualities than that 
of the large Indian Saturnice. The new species had been disco- 
vei'ed to be a native of the hills about Mussooree, on the south- 
ern side of the Himalaya, 6500 feet above the level of the sea, 
and its caterpillar (like that of B. Mori) feeds on the leaves of the 
wild mulberry, which is another reason why the qualities of the 
silk should resemble that spun by the true silkworm. The perfect 
moth is about the size of B. Mori, but has darker- coloured wings, 
with a large, blackish lunate spot near the tips of the hooked fora- 

Specimens of the natural fibre of the silk, and some with the 
threads severally composed of three, six, nine and twelve fibres were 
exhibited, those with nine and twelve fibres having been pronounced 
by the Delhi silk-workers to be worth 25 rupees per seer, that is, 
about 25 shillings per pound, at 2 shillings per rupee. 

358 Linnean Society. [Feb. 1, 

Read a paper entitled " Descriptions of some new species oiAthy- 
reus, MacL., a genus of Lamellicorn Beetles." By J. O. Westwood, 
Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

After tracing the history of the genus and its affinities, and no- 
ticing in detail its most remarkable peculiarities, dwelling par- 
ticularly on those characters Avhich are externally indicative of di- 
stinction of sex, Mr. Westwood proceeds to describe the following 
species : 

1. Athyreus gigas, Hope; castaneus, elytris magis rufis, capite glabro 
antice 3-cornuto, mandibulis magnis externe acute dentatis, pronoto 
utrinque excavatione profunda discoque cornubus duobus crassis acutis 
divergentibus, elytris lenuissime striato-punctatis. — Long. corp. unc. 1 
(mandibulis inclusis). 

Hab. in Brasilia. In Mus. D. Hope. 

2. Athyreus armatus, Hope ; piceo-niger, lateribus protlioracis mandi- 
bulis pedibusque rufescentibus, mandibulis magnis singula extiis 2- 
dentata dente antico magno, pronoto utrinque carina deflexa medio- 
que cornu suberecto, elj'tris elevato-striatis. — Long. corp. lin. 9. 

Hab. in America meridionali. In Mus. D. Hope. 

3. Athyreus subarmatus, $ ; supra obscums nigricans, labro mandi- 
bulis prothoracis lateribus pedibusque piceo-rufis, tenuissime granu- 
losus, clypeo margine antico parum reflexo postice carina elevata in 
medio tuberculo instructo, antennis luteis, pronoto carinis duabus bre- 
vibus mediis in spatio medio ovali linea elevata circumcincto instructo. 
— Long. corp. lin. Si. 

Hab. in America meridionali. In Mus. D. Hope, sub nomine A. arma- 
tus, ?. 

4. Athyreus tuberculatus, Hope; obscure piceus, sub lente tenuis- 
sime granulosus et setosus, antennis luteis, clypeo conico antice cornu 
pariim elevato terminato, pronoto tuberculis duobus contiguis ante 
medium disci positis, elytris sublineatis, tibiis anticis 5-6-dentatis. — 
Long. corp. lin. 8i. 

Hab. in Brasilia. In Mus. D. Hope. 

5. Athyreus rotundus, Hope ; supra obscurus piceo-rufus, sub lente 
undique tubei'culis minimis obsitus, clypeo margine antico truncato 
et parum elevato margine postico carina tuberculis tribus acutis in- 
structo, pi'onoto tuberculis duobus contiguis ante medium elytrisque 
Iseviter striatis. — Long. corp. lin. 10. 

Hab. in Brasilia. In Mus. D. Hope. 

This insect Mr. Westwood thanks to be probably the female of 
A. tuberculatus. 

6. Athyreus bellator ; piceo-niger, capite et pronoto (marginibus ex- 

1848.] Linnemi Society. 359 

ceptis) subleevibus hujus marginibus lateralibus pedibusque rufis vel 

fulvis, clypeo in dentem acutum elongate, pronoto dente elevate bifido 

pone medium armato. — Long. corp. lin. lOi. 
Athyreus bifurcatus, Laporte, An. Art. iii. p. 102. pi. 7. f. 3. {nee A. bi- 

furcatus, King, nee A. bifurcatus, MacL.) 
Athyreus furcifer, Dej. Cat. et Laporte, An. Art. 1. c. (teste Miis. Gory.) 
Hah. in Brasilia et Cayenna. In Mus. D. Hope. 

The present species stands in Mr. Hope's collection as the male 
of A. Bilbergii. 

7. Athyreus Bilbergii, Gray in Griffith An. Kingd. ; piceo-niger, tu- 
berculis minutis scaber, clypei margine antico recto postico carinato 
et 3-tuberculato tubei-culo intermedio magis elevate, angulis laterali- 
bus capitis ante oculos acutis, pronoto margine antico pariim elevate ; 
disco tuberculis duobus laevibus lineisque duabus curvatis elevatis. — 
Long. Corp. lin. 10. 

Athyreus furcicollis, Dej. {teste Mus. Gory, nunc Hope.) 
Hob. in Demerar^ et Cayenna. In Mus. D. Hope. 

8. Athyreus Pholas, Buquet MS.; piceo-castaneus, lateribus protho- 
racis et elytrorum pedibusque rufescentibus, scabriusculus, clypeo an- 
tice angustato margine antico bituberculato, vertice concavo, protho- 
racis lateribus dilatatis disco excavatione subquadrata spina erecta 
antica lateribusque acute tuberculatis. — Long. corp. lin. 6. 

Athyreus trituberculatus. Gory in Mus. 
Hab. in Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogota. In Mus. Hope. 
Obs. Athyreus recticornis, Guerin, Iconogr. du Regne An. Ins. p. 83, 
from Swan River (Mus. Goxy)-=Bolboceras hastifer, Bainbridge. 

The insect placed in M. Gory's collection, with the label of 
Athyreus porcatus, De Laporte, Anim. Artie, t. ii. p. 103. no. 6, 
Athyreus Senegalensis, Dejean, is a new species of Bolboceras, from 

9. Athyreus purpureipennis ; cyaneo-niger subtiis fulvo-testaceus, ely- 
tris Isete purpureis, pronoto linea longitudinali impressa utrinque spa- 
tio conve.\o laevissimo nigro versus angulos anticos furcato.. — Long, 
corp. lin. 6. 

Hab. in America meridionali. In Musseo Britannico. 

10. Athyrevs centralis; testaceo-fulvus, capitis vertice antice 3- 
dentato, pronoto carina abbreviata centrali lineis duabus parum ele- 
vatis obliquis alteraque utrinque prope angulos posticos, elytris iin- 
presso-striatis striis longe ante apicem evanescentibus. — Long. corp. 
lin. 61.. 

Hab. in Nova Grenada, Rio Magdalena, Ibaque. In Musaso Britannico. 

11. Athyreus Tweedyanus; testaceus, pronoto maximo lateribus obtuse 
angulatis et sinuatis medio disci depresso Isevi et line^ obliqu& parum 

360 Linnean Society. [Feb. 15, 

curvata e latevibus separate lineaqne altera abbreviata utrinque ver- 
sus angulos posticos. — Long. corp. lin. 5|. 
Hah. in Insula Hayti, Indise occidentalis. DD. Tweedy et Hearne. In 
Muss. Soc. Ent. Londin. et Hope. 

February 15. 

The Lord Bishop of Noi-wich, President, in the Chair. 

Charles Cogswill, Esq., M.D., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a memoir " On the early stages of the Development of Le- 
manea Jiuviatilis , Agardh." By G. H. K. Thwaites, Esq. Commu- 
nicated by the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

Mr. Thwaites attributes the neglect of the early condition of this 
conferva to its having been confounded in this stage with Trente- 
pohlia pulchella ^. chalybea, Harv., with which it is frequently found 
growing intermingled. He states that it may be observed in great 
abundance towards the end of November, covering the surface of 
stones witli a uniform, dark olive, somewhat villous coating, and 
adhering with great pertinacity by means of its minute roots. The 
structure of the plant at this early stage is found to consist of nu- 
merous conferva-like filaments, of about a line in length and spa- 
ringly branched. Each filament is about yyL_th of an inch in dia- 
meter, and consists of a single row of cells, which are from 4 to 6 
times longer than wide, and have a blue-green endochrome arranged 
in a spiral manner, except in the terminal cells, where it is more 
abundant and gives them a darker colour. This stage Mr. Thwaites 
regards as analogous to the confervoid filaments which form the pri- 
mordia of a moss, or to the mycelium of a fungus ; and he adds that 
Kiitzing has described and figured the early condition of Lemanea 
torulosa, Agardh, as very similar. 

From a cell near the base of this conferva-like structure a branch is 
given off, which at first differs apparently from the ordinary branches 
only in its cells being much shorter. This little branch increases 
rapidly in length and thickness from the multiplication of its cells 
by fissiparous division ; and to enable it to acquire a firmer support, 
a number of roots are given off from its base (in the same manner 
as in the phyton of a moss), and it is thus enabled to attach itself 
aud maintain an independent existence. From this period it gra- 

1848.] Linnean Society. 361 

dually puts on the well-known characters of the full-grown Le- 

Mr. Thwaites believes that the study of the early development of 
the AlgcE would well repay the careful observer. He thinks it highly 
probable that very many of the structures now classed with the Pal- 
mellce are merely immature states of more complicated species ; but 
he recommends great caution in such investigations, as without a 
good microscope and a practised eye, very essential characters readily 
escape detection. 

Read also a portion of Dr. Buchanan Hamilton's Commentary on 
the 9th Part of Van Rheede's Horfus Malabaricus. 

March 7. 
The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 
Joseph Dorrington, Esq., M.A., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a memoir " On Melianthea:, a new natural order of plants, 
proposed and defined by J. E. Planchon, docteur-^s-sciences." Com- 
municated by the Secretary. 

After an introductory critical sketch, the author proceeds to com- 
pare together Melianthus, Diplerisma (a new genus founded upon 
Melianthus minor, L., and Mel. comosus, Vahl), Natalia and Ber- 
sama ; that is to say, the four genera which he proposes to unite 
under the common name of MelianthecE. This comparison includes 
chiefly descriptive details, of the results of which the following 
synoptical table will afford a summary view : — (See the Table on 
pp. 362-3.) 

A glance at the characters suffices to show that those among 
them which are common to all the genera are also of undoubted 
primary importance in most natural tribes. So, for instance, the 
structure of the seeds, the relative position and numerical propor- 
tion of the floral parts, the position and even the shape Of the disc, 
the pinnate leaves and the constant presence of stipules, are so many 
points by which the connection of these plants is established. Ad- 
mitting then the homogeneity of the order, the author proceeds to 
point out its more general affinities. 


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364 Limiean Society. [March 7? 

Melianthus being usually considered as an anomalous form of Zy- 
gophyllece, the question presents itself, to what natural class this last 
order is to be referred ? Is it also to be admitted simply as a tribe 
of Rutaceas (as defined by the Jussieus), or shall we follow Mr. Ro- 
bert Brown in considering it as an independent order ? The author 
not only declares in favour of the latter opinion, but expresses his 
belief that while, on the one hand, Diosmece (including Rutece, Dios- 
mea proper, Zanthoxylece and Aurantiacece), together -with. Simarubece 
and MeliacecE, constitute a natural class, so, on the other hand, Zygo- 
phyllecE, Oxalidece, Connaracea, Legiiminosa and Moringea are closely 
connected into one group, not only by their general structure and 
fades, but by the common tendency of their compound leaves to 
periodical sleep, or occasionally to movement under an irritating in- 
fluence, a physiological phsenomenon connected with the structural 
fact of the articulation of the foliole with the petiole on which it 

Neither of the two natural classes just mentioned admits, in the 
opinion of the author, the new order of Melianthece. 

The pinnate leaves, irregular flowers, excentric and incomplete 
disc placed outside of the stamens, the quaternary proportion * of 
these organs in contrast with the quinary division of the calyx, the 
occasional cohesion of two of the sepals, the close analogy of the 
follicular capsule of Diplerisma with that of Cardiospennuin, and of 
the coriaceous fruit and arillate seeds of Bersamece with the corre- 
sponding parts mPaullinia, and the fact of a species o{ Natalia being 
justly named PaMZ/i/zzo/c^e^, are the points by which the close affinity 
of Melianthece with Sapindacece are traced out. Thus by the know- 
ledge of very recent materials (^Bersama and Natalia being both but 
lately discovered) are confirmed the views which Adanson expressed 
upon the affinities of Melianthus, when, in his otherwise rather hete- 
rogeneous family of Gerania, he placed that singular genus between 
Cardiospermum and Geranium. 

After some other general considerations, the author concludes with 
a review of the geographical distribution of Melianthece, the most 
striking fact mentioned being the occurrence of Melianthus Hima- 
layanus, Wall., in the mountains of northern India, while its only 
congener, the well-kno-wn Melia?ithus major, L., does not exceed the 
limits of the flora of the Cape of Good Hope. 

* Bersama must here be excepted, because of its five stamens. 

1848.] Linnean Society. 3(Jii 

March 21. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read a Memoir " On the Australian species of the Coleopterous 
genus Bolboceras, Kirby," By J. O. Westwood, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

In this paper, which contains the characters and descriptions of 
five new species of Bolboceras from Australia, Mr. Westwood passes 
in review the various writers on the subject, and enters into some 
critical detail on the characters which they have assigned to the 
genus. The following are the characters of the new species pro- 
posed: — 

1. B. (Elephastomus) KiRBii ; castaneo-ftilvus, capitis cornu antico por- 
recto brevi truncato piano subtus in spiiiam bifidam Jiaud pvoducto, 
vertice carina brevi transversa, protlioracis lateribus valde punctatis 
utriiique fossulatis ; disco postice canali abbreviate loiigitudinali in- 
structo. — Long. corp. lin. 9. 

B. (Elephastomus) Kirbii, Hope MSS. 

Hob. in Terra Van Diemen. In Mus. Hope. 

This appears to be the insect given by Mr. MacLeay as the female 
of Elephastomus proboscideus. It is however a male, and is given by 
Dr. Klug as a variety of the male of that species. The insect above 
described appears sufficiently distinct as a species from the former. 

2. B. Reichii ; castaneus nitidus, capite coruu valde elongate erecto, 
prothorace antice valde deflexo et subconcavo cornubus duebus crassis 
longitudiue capitis porrectis lateralibus armato : singulo versus basin 
dente obtuse erecto instructo ; prothoracis lateribus rude punctatis 
spatioque triangulari impresso et punctato ante scutellum ; margine 
postico pariim elevate, elytris striis gracillimis punctatis, tibiis anticis 
extus 5-dentatis. $ . — Long. cerp. lin. 11 ; lat. prothoracis lin. 7. 

Hub. Port Essington. In Muss. Hope et Reich. 

S Bolboceras Reichii, Guerin, Voyage de la Favorite, et Iconogr. da 
Regue An. Ins. p. 84. 

Bolboceras Kirbii 3 , Hope in Proc. of Ent. Soc, Nov. 1841, p. 43. 

5 Bolboceras Kirbii, Bainbridge in Trans. Ent. Sec- 

DifFert capite mineri, veitice in tuberculum conicum apice bifidum elevate, 
clypeo et vertice carina tenui angulaia separatis, pronoto antice spatio 
subhexagone piano polite, in puncta duo profunda antice lateraliter 
desinente ; disco pone medium valde punctato, versus marginera posti- 
cum elevate laevi, spatio ovali mediano punctato et impresso relicto, — 
Long. corp. lin. 11. 

Hob. ad Melville Island, Mus. Hope (etiam in Mus. Gory, nunc Hope 
cum nomine B. Reichii inscripto). 

No. XXXV. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

366 Linnean Society. [Mar. 21, 

Obs. The name given to the male 6f this species is here retained 
in preference to that of the female, in accordance with the usual 
custom in such cases. 

3. B. Taurus ; castaneus uitidus, capitis vertice utiinquelaminis duabus 
auriculatis erectis instructo corniibusque duobus elongatis curvatis iiigris 
ante oculos armato, pronoto in medio versus marginem anticmn parum 
reflexo sen tiiberculis duobus ti'ansversis subelevatis instructo ; lateri- 
bus punctatis. — Long. corp. hn. 8. 

Hah, ad Swan River. In Mus. Hope (olim Gory, sub nomine manu- 
scripto supra indicato ; etiam in Mus. Saunders). 

4. B. Capueolus; castaneus uitidus, capite postice nigricante; vertice 
cornu lato furcato 6-dentato erccto armato, pronoto antice vetuso glabro, 
dorso caring transversa pone medium instructo, mandibulis magnis 
extus denticulatis. S . — Long. corp. hn. 9. 

Hah. in No\a Hollandia, Swan River. In Mus. Hope (ohm Mus. Gory, 
cum nomine supra inscripto designatum). 

5. B. Bainbridgii ; piceus, capitis clypeo antice tridentato, dente inter- 
niedio minori; vertice inermi, pronoto antice valde declivi dente erecto 
versus marginem anticum; parte dechvi supra carina ciuvata mar- 
ginata. — Long. corp. lin. 7. 

Hah, in Nova Hollandia, Swan River. In Mus. D. Hope. 

Of these species, as well as of B. (^Elephastomus) Australasiee, Kirby, 
B. serricoUis, Bainbridge, B. hastifer, Bainb., B. Z-tuherculatus, 
Bainb., B. 7-tubercuIatus, Bainb., B. coronatus, Klug, B. quadricornis , 
Klug, B. neglectus, Hope, B. rotundatus, Hope, and B. rubescens, 
Hope, Mr. Westwood adds figures, either of the whole insect or of 
the more distinctive parts. He also figures and describes a new sub- 
genus with the following characters : — 

Subgenus Stenaspidius. 
Corpus magis elongatum quarn in BoJhocerath veris ; sculello elongato 
(nee triangulari) ; elytris striis 5 tantiim inter humeros et suturam ; 
mesosterno porrecto. DifFert etiam colore antennaiaim. 

Bolboceras (Stenaspidius) NiGRicoRNis; ovalis niger nitidus sparsim 

punctatus, capite tuberculo conico inter oculos, pronoto canali punctate 

medio aliisque duobus abbreviatis pone oculos, elytris striato-punctatis. 

— Long. corp. Hn. S^. 

Hah. in Nova Hollandia. In Mus. D. Hope (olim Gory, cum nomine 

supra indicato inscripto). 

1848.] Linnean Sociefy. 3G7 

April 4. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
Thomas Worthington Barlow, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Read some " Notes on the Vegetation of Scinde," extracted from 
a Letter addressed by John Ellerton Stocks, Esq., M.D., to J. F. 
Royle, Esq., M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c., dated Bombay, November 
25, 1847. 

The extracts consisted, first, of a sketch of the physical geogra- 
phy, soil and climate of the neighbourhood of Kurrachee, of the road 
from Kurrachee to Hydrabad, and of that between Hydrabad and 
Roree ; secondly, of lists of the more remarkable plants aiTanged 
according to the stations in which they Avere found ; thirdly, of com- 
parative estimates of the prevalent proportions of the principal Na- 
tural Orders as compared with the Flora of India generally ; fourthly, 
of lists of the characteristic plants of Scinde, and of those which 
predominate in the number of individuals to such an extent as to 
give a peculiar character to the face of the country ; and lastly, of 
an indication of those species by which the Flora of Scinde is con- 
nected severally with those of Cabool, of Arabia, of Egypt, and of 
the Punjaub and Delhi. 

In a postscript to his letter, which was accompanied by a packet 
of specimens. Dr. Stocks refers to Captain Vicary's paper on the 
Plants of Scinde, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta 
for November 1847, which he had received subsequently to writing 
the letter, and to his own remarks printed by Sir William J. Hooker, 
from a letter addressed to him in the Supplement to the Botanical 
Magazine for September. He desires that Captain Vicai-y's pub- 
lished names of various species may be substituted for his own 
MS. names ; and remarks that Captain Vicaiy's jEgialitis is a true 
Statice ; his Breweria evolvuloides is Seddera latifolia, Hochst. and 
Steud. ; his CalUgonum polygo7ioides is certainly a new genus, for 
which Dr. Stocks had in his MSS. proposed the name of Gibsonia-^ 
his Morisonia Asiatica is M. Lawiana, Stocks, in Calcutta Journal, 
1846 ; his Zygophyllum obtusum is Z. simplex, L. ; his Corchorus de- 
pressus is C. kumilis, Munro ; his frutescent Crambe is a species of 
Didesmus, D. panduriformis, Stocks ; and his Cadaba Indica is a fine 
Capparis, probably new, and found also in Arabia. Dr. Stocks pro- 
poses the name of Vicarya for a new genus of Malvacea M'hich he 

368 Linnean Society. [April 18, 

purposes describing, along witli Gibsonia and Sericostoma, a new 

genus of BoraginecE, in the next number of the Bombay Asiatic 

April 18. 
T. Horsfield, M.D., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read a continuation of Mr. Newport's Third Memoir " On the 
Anatomy and Development of Meloe." 

The author remarked that every normal change in structure de- 
pends on definite laws, and that when the proper operation of these 
is impeded, or when change is effected by violence, the function of 
structure is impaired. 

After mentioning that Malpighi, in his anatomy of the Silk- worm, 
glanced at, and Dr. Willis, in this country, at the end of the seven- 
teenth century, more particularly announced, the view that changes 
in structure in all animals are regulated by those general principles 
which have since been so admirably worked out by Geoffroy Saint- 
Hilaire, Mr. Newport stated that his object in the present memoir 
is to further exemplify these principles in the Anatomy oi Meloe, and 
to endeavour to apply them to the explanation of function as de- 
pendent on structure. 

Although the object of variations in structure cannot always be 
at once traced in the details, it is invariably evident in the general 
design of parts, and it is found to be so likewise in their peculiarities 
in proportion as we become more fully acquainted with the habits of 
animals, as is shown in the details of structure in the young Meloe 
and Stylops at particular periods of their growth. Changes in the 
structure of parts during growth in the young animal were shown to 
commence in the cells of the tegument, and that it is by means of 
these that the form of the body is gradually altered. These changes 
are not to be confounded with other secondary ones which give form 
to the adult animal, and which we are familiar with as the meta- 

The dermal appendages, spines, hairs and scales, were shown to 
be similar in their mode of origin in the tegument to the appendages 
of segments, and their growth and removal to be regulated by the 
same principles. Mr. Newport showed that the appendages originate 
by an extension outwards of the whole of the layers of a portion of 
tegument, whilst spines, hairs and scales originate in the nuclei of 


1848.] Linnean Society. 369 

cells of separate layers. He stated also that he had detected these 
modes of origin in the embryo before it leaves the ovum, and com- 
bated the vievi^ of M. Lavalle that spines are originally an extension 
outwards of the whole of the dermal tissue, as they are often found 
to be in Crustacea at advanced periods of growth, showing that they 
only become so in them, and in the larvae of other Artimlata, during 
their growth and enlargement, by involving contiguous portions of 
the tissue. These views were illustrated by examination of the te- 
gument of Melbe, and by reference to the changes in the tegument of 
Lepidoptera at the period of transformation. 

The author then passed to a consideration of the secondary causes 
of development — the metamorphoses — and pointed out, from an ex- 
amination of the cast skin of the larva of Meloe, which always 
remains attached to the body of the inactive full-grown larva in its 
cell, what are its previous habits and form, drawing attention to 
the fact, that the cast skin of an insect, when relaxed and unfolded, 
enables the anatomist of the Invertebrata to indicate the form and 
general habits of a species as precisely as the fossil bone enables the 
comparative anatomist of the Vertebrata to indicate those of the in- 
habitant of a former world. 

The changes which Meloe undergoes were then described ; and 
the mode of formation of the head in the Articulata explained as 
composed of a definite number of originally distinct segments. 
Mr. Newport referred to his former discovery of these segments in 
the embryo of Geophilus, and stated, in answer to the recent denial 
of some parts of his views by Professor Erichson, regarding the 
organs of manducation in Myriapoda, that he has satisfied himself of 
their correctness, having not only confirmed them in that class, but 
also in the embryos of other Articulata. These views he then ap- 
plied to illustrate the anatomy of the head and organs of manducation 
in Meloe, showing the mode in which the changes in the structure 
of the mandibles are effected, and pointing out corresponding changes 
in the function of the parts ; noticing also that change in structure 
during the growth of an animal usually precedes change in the 
function of an organ, — a circumstance which leads to the inference 
that function is closely dependent on special structure. 

The secondary changes during the development of Articulata, the 
metamorphoses, are effected, not by the tegument itself, but by the 
agency of structures connected with the tegument — the muscles. The 
author stated that we are entirely ignorant of the secret cause which 
first excites the muscles, at a definite period of growth, into action 
in effecting these changes ; but suggested that it is in the expansive 

370 Liunean Society. [M^y ~, 

and contractile forms of growth in the tissues themselves. All that 
is known with certainty is, that it is through the direct agency of 
the muscles that the form of body of the insect is rapidly altered at 
the period of the metamorphoses, and that the operation of these is 
accelerated or retarded by physical influences. The mode in which 
the muscles operate in effecting the changes was then pointed out, 
and the altered proportions of diiferent parts of the body after the 
change was shown to depend on the greater or less extent to which 
the contra,ction of the muscles of different segments is carried. 

The result of these altered proportions in the tegument of an in- 
sect that is changing to the form of jDupa or nymph, as in Meloe, is 
a rapid re-induction of the forces of growth in the appendages, the 
future wings and legs, which become greatly elongated, at and im- 
mediately after the change. These alterations of form are accom- 
panied as a last result by changes in the intimate structure of the 
tegument, a consolidation of a large portion of it, and the formation 
of the dermo-skeleton of the imago. 

May 2. 
The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

M. J. Decaisne was elected a Foreign Member, and John Fraser, 
Esq., an Associate. 

The Society passed a Resolution expressive of its deep regret at 
receiving, at the moment when about to ballot on the Certificate of 
Prof. J. G. Zuccarini as a Foreign Member, the intelligence of his 
lamented death. 

Read a memoir " On the Anatomy and affinities of Pteronarcys 
regalis, Newm." By George Newport, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. &c. 

Mr. Newport commenced by stating that the existence of a 
winged insect with branchial organs for resjjiration is so anomalous 
a condition of life, that himself as well as others at first regarded 
the specimen he had obtained rather as an accidental instance of 
incomplete development than a normal condition. He found how- 
ever, one omparing his specimen, preserved in spirit, with other dried 
specimens in the cabinets of the British Musuem, that this was not 
the case, as evidences of branchiae are to be found in the whole of 
the dried specimens of the genus in that collection. 

Having waited some years since obtaining this specimen, in hopes 

1848.] Linnean Society. 371 

of receiving others for the purpose of dissection, the author has now 
made a careful examination of the insect. He described the forms 
of branchiae in different genera of Neuroptera, and pointed out that 
the peculiarity of Pteronarcys consists in its possessing in its winged 
state, both branchiae for aquatic respiration and spiracles for the 
direct respiration of air. 

He then described the branchiae, their connexion with the respi- 
ratory organs, and the mode in which the blood circulates through 
them, as he has seen in a neighbouring family, Sicdis, and reviewed 
what is yet known of the habits of the insect in connexion with 
these remarkable structures. 

The author regards Pteronarcijs, from the circumstance of its pos- 
sessing in its winged state the means of both aquatic and aerial 
respiration, as an Insect Pi'oteus, the representative of the Proteus of 
Vertebrata, both in structure and habits. 

The anatomy of some parts of the dermo-skeleton, of the spiracles, 
and of the distribution of its internal respiratory organs, as compared 
with that of neighbouring genera, is then described, as well as of the 
digestive organs, and nervous and reproductive system. These are 
minutely examined and the structures delineated on an accompanying 

Anniversary Meeting. 
May 24. 

The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

'I'his day, the Anniversary of the birth of Linnaeus, and that ap- 
pointed by the Charter for the election of Council and Officers, the 
President opened the business of the Meeting, and stated the num- 
ber of Members whom the Society had lost during the past year ; 
and the Secretary read the following notices of those Fellows with 
whose decease the Society had become acquainted since the last 

Mr. Arthur Biggs was for sCrae time gardener to Isaac^wainson, 
Esq., and afterwards Curator of the Cambridge Botanic Garden. He 
was elected an Associate of the Linnean Society in 1815, soon after 
his appointment to the latter office ; and in December of the same 
year he became a Fellow of the Society. While in the service of 

373 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

Mr. Swainson he contributed to the first volume of the ' Transactions 
of the Horticultural Society,' a paper entitled " An Account of some 
new Apples which, with many others that have been cultivated, were 
exhibited before the Horticultural Society on the 2nd of December 
last [1806]." He died in the early part of the present year. 

John Dunston, Esq., of Castle House, Sidbury, near Honiton, 
Devon, became a Fellow of the Society in 1818, and died on the 
11th of August 1847, at the age of 68. 

John Ellis, Esq., became a Fellow of the Society in 1797, and of 
the Royal So ciety inj.801. 

William Finch, Esq., M.D., of Bellevue, near Salisbury, became a 
Fellow of the Society in 1837, and died on the 7th of January 1848. 

Geo7-ge Townshend Fox, Esq., was a gentleman of property in the 
county of Durham, and warmly attached to the study of natural 
history, and especially of British ornithology. He published in 
1827 a " Synopsis of the Newcastle Museum, late the Allan, formerly 
the Tunstall, or Wycliffe Museum : to which are prefixed Memoirs 
of Mr. Tunstall, the Founder, and of Mr. Allan, the late Proprietor, 
of the Collection, with occasional Remarks on the Species, by those 
Gentlemen and the Editor," Newcastle, 8vo. This volume is chiefl.y 
remarkable, in a natural-history point of view, for the notes on the 
capture of the rarer species of British birds, and on the distinctions 
of the more doubtful, which evince considerable research and know- 
ledge of the subject. Mr. Fox was himself a large contributor to 
the museum he described, and in which he continued to take great 
interest up to the time of his death, in April of the present year. 
He became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1825. 

The Rev. John Hailstone, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 8(C., was born in 
the neighbourhood of London, in the year 1759, and at a very early 
age was placed under the care of a maternal uncle at York, and after- 
wards sent to Beverley School in the East Riding of that county. 
At the usual period he was entered at Catherine Hall, in the 
University of Cambridge ; his talents, however, attracted the notice 
of his friends, and he removed by their advice to a larger place of 
competition and honour. Trinity College, where he took his degree 
of B.A. in 1782, and was the second Wrangler of his year, in 
company with Dr. Wood the late Master of St. John (who was 
Senior Wrangler), Dr. Raine (late Master of the Charter House), 
Professor Person and many other distinguished men. He was soon 
afterwards elected Fellow of his College, and in 1788 became Wood- 
wardian Professor of Geology in the University, which office he 
held until 1818, when he relinquished it and his Fellowship, upon 

1848.] Li/mean Society. 373 

his marriage, and took the living of Trumpington, in the gift of the 
College, where he resided until his death. 

His course during nearly forty years' residence within the walls 
of Trinity College was marked as well by eminence in the scien- 
tific world, as by unwearied exertions to raise the College to high 
repute and usefulness as a place of sound learning and religious 
education. The science of geology was at that time in its infanc)'', 
and Professor Hailstone was among the foremost in placing its grand 
deductions upon that satisfactory basis which is received and re- 
cognized by geologists at the present day. His labours in collecting 
facts and specimens during the various journeys which he took for 
the purpose through the British Isles, as well as on the continent 
of Europe, are abundantly testified by the important and extensive 
additions which he made to the WoodM^ardian Museum. His zeal 
also, exercised among many influential friends of the University, 
contributed to excite an interest in the improvement of the collec- 
tion, which has since made such rapid progress under the very able 
auspices of his successor Professor Sedgwick. 

He became a Fellow of this Society in ISOOj^f theRoyal_Society 
in 18 01, a nd a Member of the Geological Society on its first forma- 
tion. Although geology was his favourite pursuit, he was not un- 
acquainted with other branches of science, such as the kindred ones 
of chemistry and mineralogy, and other departments of natural 
history, and has left behind him a daily register of Meterological 
Phsenomena which he kept for a great number of years. He was 
the intimate friend of Drs. Wollaston, Clarke, and many other sci- 
entific men, in communication with them, and enjoyed their corre- 

His modest and unobtrusive character found a genial sphere in 
the quiet duties of a parish priest : the last twenty-five years of his 
long and useful life were spent in doing good among those who resided 
around him at Trumpington ; the rich valued his calm and sound 
judgement, and the poor looked up to him with reverence and affection 
for the continual interest he took in their welfare, and for his liberality 
and benevolence towards them. The parochial schools and residence 
for a master, mainly erected at his own expense, and most liberally 
endowed by his will, stand in his village a substantial and fitting me- 
morial of his high and amiable character. He died at Trumpington, 
June 9, 1847, after a short illness, in the 88th year of his age, 

Edward Holme, Esq., M.D., was one of those " who are men- 
tioned with reverence rather for the possession than the exertion of 
uncommon abilities." Whether from a severely fastidious taste. 

374 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

.which he was unable to satisfy, from painfully laborious habits of 
composition, or from his mental tendencies impelling him rather 
to accumulate knowledge than to extend its boundaries, he has left 
to the world no measure of his intellectual stature. His only 
printed essay, besides his Inaugural Thesis, is a brief note on the 
correct reading of a partly effaced Roman inscription. It was in 
social intercourse, and in animated discussions, that his extensive 
knowledge and remarkable mental powers were exclusively mani- 
fested ; and, as far as it may be safe to judge from such unwritten 
demonstrations of great talents, he would appear to have been one, 
who in the impressive words of Playfair " might have enjoyed more 
of the fame, had he been less satisfied with the possession, of 

Dr. Holme was born February 17, 1770, at Kendal in Lancashire. 
No notices have been preserved of his early studies ; but in January 
1787 he was admitted a student in the Academy that had been 
recently established in Manchester. From thence he was removed 
in the summer of 1790 to the University of Gdttingen, where he 
laid the foundations of his vast and accurate scholarship, and where 
he enjoyed the inestimable privilege of sitting at the feet of Heyne. 
He passed the winters of 1791-2 and 1792-3 in attending the 
Medical Classes and the Chemical Lectures of Dr. Blake in Edin- 
burgh. In December 1793 he received the degree of M.D. fi'om the 
University of Leyden. His Thesis ' De Structura et Usu Vasorum 
Absorbentium ' is a faithful and masterly exposition of what was then 
known of the anatomical structure and functions of that system of 
vessels. In April 1794 he was elected one of the Physicians to the 
Manchester Infirmarj^ an appointment which he held till the year 
1828. He also became in 1794 a member of the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society of Manchester, and filled in succession all its offices 
of honour, having been raised to the Presidency in 1844 on the 
death of Dal ton. During this long period he communicated nume- 
rous papers, all of which he withheld from publication. One of them, 
" On the History of Sculpture from the earliest period to the time of 
Phidias," was found among his MSS., and is now about to be pub- 
lished in the forthcoming volume of the Manchester Memoirs. 

Beyond the pale of his profession his pursuits were chiefly lite- 
rary. His exact and critical knowledge of the ancient languages, 
and his familiarity with the writings of the leading scholars and 
philologists from the revival of letters to the time of Bentley, had 
secured for him the warm friendship and respect of Parr. He was 
profoundly read in history, and especially conversant with local 

1843.] Linnean Society. 375 

antiquities, genealogy and heraldry, particularly those of the counties 
of Lancaster and Chester. 

In science his tastes had earlj' directed him to the sciences of 
classification, and with marked predilection to botany, entomology, 
and ornithology. He became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 
1799; and was one of the founders and the first President of the 
Natural History Society of Manchester. He was zealously active 
in enriching the museum of the latter Society with rare specimens, 
and in promoting the erection of suitable apartments for their pre- 
servation and display. His library was adorned with the most costly 
illustrated w^orks in natural history. Indeed his dominant passion, 
the love of books, might be traced in his infinitely greater familiarity 
with the literature of the natural sciences than with actual objects 
and specimens. Among the essays which he read before the Philo- 
sophical Society of Manchester were some on questions of natural 
history, as 

1797. On the Colour of Negroes, with illustrations of the Law of 


1798. On the Distribution and Physiology of the Nerves of the 


1801. An Entomological Fragment. 

1803. On the Existence of the Unicorn. 

None of these have been discovered in his repositories. He de- 
clined permitting any of them to appear in the Manchester Memoirs, 
i-ather destining them to furnish the subject of an evening's discussion, 
than regarding them as valuable additions to the then state of know- 
ledge. His attainments in zoology are pronounced by good judges to 
have been accurate and comprehensive ; but it does not appear that 
there was any special province which he had cultivated with strong 
preference and prominent success. Nature had endowed him with a 
memory no less "remarkable for the tenaciousness of its grasp than 
for the readiness of its responses, when invoked. What he had once 
read or heard remained with him through life, as if engraven on 
tablets of brass or marble. This faculty rendered him distinguished 
service in the studies of natural history ; but there is nothing to 
show that his power of observation was at all of commensurate 
vigour or activity. It is impossible to claim for him rank as an 
original cultivator of any branch of natural history. Perhaps the 
full occupation of his time in the engrossing exercise of his profession 
might be pleaded as a valid apology. But from tracing the same 
indisposition to original mental efforts, at least in the form of per- 
manent written fruits, throughout his entire intellectual career, pro- 

376 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

fessional, literary and scientific, his able biographer Dr. William 
Charles Henry is inclined to refer it to inherent mental qualities. He 
died in November 1847, and bequeathed the residue of his property, 
amounting to £25,000, to the Medical Department of University 
College, London. 

James Kendrick, Esq., M.D., of Warrington, for many years 
Senior Physician to the Dispensary and Infirmary of that town, 
where he had established an extensive practice, became a Fellow of 
the Linnean Society in 1802, and died in the spring of the present 

He published in 1832 a little pamphlet entitled "Cursory Re- 
marks on the present Epidemic [Cholera]." 

William Oliver Locke, Esq., M.D., of Norwich, was elected F.L.S. 
in 1824, and died in the month of February 1846. 

John Morgan, Esq., was born at Stamford Hill, on the 20th of 
January 1797. His father, William Morgan, was the late well- 
known and distinguished Actuary of the Equitable Assurance Office, 
an institution which owed its unprecedented success in great measure 
to his talents and firmness. Having received his general education 
at home, Mr. Morgan commenced his professional studies as an 
articled pupil of the late Sir Astley Cooper. He became a Member 
of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1819, and in 1824, at the early 
age of 27, he was elected Surgeon to Guy's Hospital, at the school 
of which institution he filled the Chair of Surgery for many years ; 
and to his influence is mainly due the establishment of the Eye 
Infirmary in connexion witii the Hospital. He was also a Member 
of the Council of the Royal College of Surgeons, which appointment 
he received in 1843. 

Of his reputation as a Hospital Surgeon, as an Operator, and as 
a Surgical Physician, if the term may be allowed, it is not necessary 
on this occasion to speak at large. The voice of the profession has 
however established his character as among the highest in all these 
departments of professional practice. It is more to our present pur- 
pose to refer to his scientific attainments and tastes, and particu- 
larly to his pursuit of zoology and comparative anatomy. His 
knowledge of British ornithology was accurate and extensive ; and 
he formed one of the most complete and beautiful collections of 
British birds in existence, which is now in the museum of the Cam- 
bridge Philosophical Society. He devoted at one period much of 
his attention to the subject of comparative anatomy, and the volumes 
of the ' Linnean Transactions ' contain some papers on this depart- 
ment of science, which show the acumen with which he always seized 

1848.] Linnean Society . 377 

on important facts, and the clearness with which he elucidated their 
bearing upon the functions to which they appertained. His descrip- 
tion of the mammary organs of the Kangaroo, and that of the struc- 
ture of the pharynx in the Capybara, both contained in the 16th vol. 
of our ' Transactions,' may be regarded as models of monographs 
of single organs. 

The most striking characteristic of Mr. Morgan's mind was simple 
truthfulness. There scarcely lived a man more utterly free from all 
guile, or of more childlike simplicity. His whole heart was open as 
the day to those whom he loved, and as close and dark as midnight 
to those whom he held at a distance. This arose not from any 
misanthropic feeling on his part, but rather was the natural result 
of the intensity and concentration of his aifections. Of his bene- 
volence the world knew but little in comparison with its actual ex- 
tent. The same character distinguished his scientific pursuits. As he 
would have scorned to assume to himself the credit due to another, 
so he insisted on retaining the credit which belonged to himself, and 
this too from the same truthfulness which marked all his conduct. 
His conversation was delightful when alone with those " few familiar 
friends " with whom he had no reserve, but an habitual reserve ari- 
sing from natural and educational timidity prevented him from open,' 
ing to the multitude, and hence he was not generally appreciated. 

To use the words of one who knew him well, " In public life ad- 
mired and respected, in private beloved, Mr. Morgan sank beneath a 
gradual and almost painless malady, the surely fatal termination of 
which it was his melancholy advantage from the first to foresee." 
He died on the 4th of October last, in the 51st year of his age. His 
election as a Fellow of the Linnean Society dates from 1826. 

William Peete, Esq., one of our oldest Fellows, having been 
elected into the Society in 1794, was born on the 27th of June 
1771, obtained his diploma in surgery in 1799, and became resident 
in or about the year 1795 at Dartford in Kent, where he entered 
into partnership with Mr., afterwards Dr. John Latham, the distin- 
guished ornithologist. When Dr. Latham quitted Dartford in 1796 
Mr. Peete succeeded to his practice, and in the year 1833, after 
having lived at Dartford for about eight-and-thirty years, he retired 
to Keston and subsequently to Bromley, in the same county, wiiere 
he died on the 4th of February in the present year, in the 77th year 
of his age. Mr. Peete was well acquainted with British plants, to 
the study of which he particularly attached himself, especially of the 
rarer species of the neighbourhood in which he lived, and his opinion 
on all questions regarding them was deservedly treated with great 

378 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

Edwin John Quekett, Esq., was born at Langport in the county of 
Somerset in September ISOS. He received his elementary educa- 
tion as a Surgeon in that town, and in 1828 commenced his attend- 
ance on the Medical Classes at University College, London, where he 
gained several honorary distinctions. He subsequently entered into 
practice in Wellclose Square, and became Surgeon to the Tower 
Hamlets Dispensary. In 1 835 he became Lecturer on Botany in the 
Medical School of the London Hospital, and in the following year 
was elected into the Linnean Society. He took an active part in 
the formation of the Microscopical Society, which was founded in 
1840, and contributed the first paper to its ' Transactions.' In 1843 
he became joint- editor with Dr. Goodfellow of the ' London Physio- 
logical Journal,' a monthly periodical devoted especially to micro- 
scopical investigations, but of which five numbers only were pub- 
lished. Mr. Quekett had the reputation of a well-informed and 
sound practitioner, and was greatly esteemed for his kindness of 
disposition and indefatigable attention to his patients. He died on 
the 28th of last June, of a singularly anomalous and distressing 
complaint, first affecting the pharynx and subsequently the lungs, 
and for a long time rendering deglutition impossible. 

As a microscopical observer Mr. Quekett is deserving of great 
credit. A skilful manipulator and possessed of considerable tact in 
the preparation of his subjects, he combined much mechanical inge- 
nuity with an accurate theoretical as well as practical knowledge of 
the capabilities of his instrument ; and his observations were conse- 
quently entitled to a high degree of confidence. The more import- 
ant of his contributions to science are contained in our ' Transac- 
tions,' in those of the Microscopical Society and in the ' Physiolo- 
gical Journal.' A few also appeared in the ' London Medical Gazette,' 
and in the ' Pharmaceutical Journal.' 

The following are the titles of Mr. Quekett's papers in the ' Trans- 
actions ' of the Linnean and Microscopical Societies : — 

" Observations on the Ergot of Rye, and some other Grasses," 
Linn. Trans, xviii. p. 453. 

" Some further Observations on the Nature of the Ergot of 
Grasses," ibid. xix. p. 137. 

" On the Development of the Vascular Tissue of Plants," Trans. 
Micr. Soc. i. p. 1. 

*' On the Structure of some Tissues possessing hygrometric pro- 
peties," ibid. p. 23. 

" On the Nature of Vessels possessing longitudinal as well as spi- 
ral fibres, found in certain Plants," ibid. p. 157. 

" On an instance, of Monstrosity in a Moss," ibid. p. 160. 

1848.] Linnean Society. 379 

" On the Structure of the Ligament connecting the Valves of 
Conchiferous Mollusks." Linn. Trans, ii. p. 1. 

" Remarks relating to the examination of Guano by the Micro- 
scope," ibid. p. 29. 

George Roddam, Esq., M.D., a naval physician of much skill 
and eminence, was attached to natural history, and made collec- 
tions in several of its departments, especially entomology. He 
entered the Navy in 1797 as Surgeon of H.M.S. Thorn, on the 
Leeward Island Station, and continued to serve in various ships of 
war until 1812, when he was appointed Surgeon of the Royal 
Charlotte yacht. From this time his services were confined to the 
Royal yachts, and he finally retired from active service in 1831. He 
was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1813, and died on 
the 11th of October 1838. 

Thomas Taylor, Esq., M.D., the. coadjutor of Sir W. J. Hooker in 
the 1st and 2nd editions of ' Muscologia Britannica,' was possessed 
of a moderate independent income, which obviated the necessity of 
his devoting himself to the practice of his profession, and was thus 
enabled to follow the bent of his inclination, and to make botany, 
and especially cryptogamic botany, the business of his life. He re- 
sided chiefly in the South of Ireland, and during the existence of 
the Royal Cork Scientific Institution, occupied the chair of Botany 
and Natural History in that establishment ; but afterwards retired to 
Dunkerron, Kenmare, in the immediate neighbourhood of the lakes 
of Killarney, where the latter years of his life were passed in studious 
retirement. T\\&Musci, Hepatica and Licheties formed the principal 
subjects of his study. His intimate knowledge of the first was tes- 
tified by his contributions to the ' Muscologia Britannica ;' an im- 
portant memoir on the Marchantiece, published in the 17th volume 
of our 'Transactions,' evidences his profound acquaintance with the 
Hepaticae; and several contributions to SirW. J. Hooker's various 
periodical publications, show that he had paid great attention to the 
very difficult family of Lichens. He also contributed largely to the 
Cryptogamic portion of Dr. J. D. Hooker's ' Flora Antarctica ;' of the 
Hepaticee and Lichenes of which work a Synopsis was given in the 
3rd volume of Hooker's ' London Journal of Botany,' together with 
a Supplement to the Hepaticce in vol. iv. 

Dr. Taylor is described by those who were most familiarly ac- 
quainted with him, as possessing a mind well-stored in various 
branches of science and literature, while his gentle and amiable 
manner rendered him a great favourite with all who had the happi- 
ness of his acquaintance. He became a Fellow of the Linnean So- 

380 Linnean Society. [May 24, 

ciety in 1814, and died at Dunkerron in the month of February of 
the present year. 

The following are the titles of some of his papers which are not 
more particularly mentioned in the preceding sketch : — 

" On a new British Jungermannia {J. microscopica) ," Hooker's 
Journ. of Bot. iv. p. 97. 

" On six species of Jungermannice new to Britain," Hooker's 
Lend. Journ. of Bot. iv. p. 276. 

"The distinctive characters of some new species of Musci, col- 
lected by Professor William Jameson in the vicinity of Quito, and by 
Mr. James Drummond at Swan River," ibid. v. p. 41. 

" New Hepaticce (chiefly from Sir W. J. Hooker's Herbarium)," 
ibid. V. pp. 258 and 365. 

" New Lichens, principally from the Herbarium of Sir W. J. 
Hooker," ibid. vi. p. 148. 

" Descriptions of new Musci and Hepaticce, collected by Professor 
William Jameson on Pichincha, near Quito," ibid. vi. p. 328. 

And Sir W. J. Hooker announces the publication of several others 
which will appear in the ' London Journal of Botany ' as posthumous 

Richard Weekes, Esq., was educated to the medical profession, 
and was associated for some years with his father in an extensive 
and successful country practice at his native place. Hurst Pierpoint, 
in the county of Sussex, where he continued to reside till the time 
of his death. Soon after his father's death he retired from practice. 
He inherited from his father a taste for natural history, as well as 
for antiquarian pursuits ; and became a Fellow of the Linnean 
Society in 1806. He died on the 24th of December last, in the 
64th year of his age. 

Thomas Wheeler, Esq., was born in the city of London in the year 
1754. He received his elementary education under Mr, Garrow, the 
father of the late Sir William Garrow, and was subsequently a scholar 
at St. Paul's School. In the course of his medical studies, he at- 
tended the Anatomical Lectures of Mr. Hewson, and the Chemical 
and Medical Lectures of Dr. George Fordyce. From this distin- 
guished man he received many marks of kindness during his attend- 
ance on the clinical practice of St. Thomas's Hospital : nor did these 
cease except with the life of the teacher. 

At an early period Mr. Wheeler exhibited a great fondness for 
the study of botany : this w^as much encouraged by his teacher 
William Hudson, author of the ' Flora Anglica,' at that time the Pro- 
fessor of Botany to the Society of Apothecaries in London. When 

1848.] Linnean Society. 381 

this office became vacant by the resignation of William Curtis, author 
of the ' Flora Londinensis,' Mr. Wheeler became his successor, and 
continued to discharge its duties with great pleasure to himself and 
advantage to his pupils for the long period of forty years. 

In the year 1800 he was elected to be the Apothecary of Christ's 
Hospital, and six years afterwards he received the same appoint- 
ment at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, in which office he continued 
fourteen years. In manners and habits Mr. Wheeler was distin- 
guished by childlike simplicity, and he was remarkable for not having 
partaken of fermented liquors for nearly eighty years. He died in 
August 1847, having entered upon his 94th year. His Fellowship of 
the Linnean Society dates from 1799. 

Sir John Eardley Wihnot, Bart., was the grandson of Sir Eardley 
Wilmot, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in the early part of the 
reign of George the Third. He was educated at Harrow, and was 
called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1801. He went the Midland 
Circuit for several years, but soon ceased to practise as a Barrister, 
and took up his residence at his seat in Warwickshire, in which 
county he became Chainnan of the Quarter Sessions, and afterwards 
one of the Members for its Northern Division. In 1821 he was 
created a Baronet, and in 1 843 he was appointed Lieutenant-governor 
of Van Diemen's Land, where he died on the 3rd of February 1847, 
in the 64th year of his age. 

He was D.C.L., F.R.S., and F.S.A., and was twice married, first 
to the sister of Capt. Sir Edward Pairy, R.N., and secondly to a 
daughter of Sir Robert Chester, Knt., Master of the Ceremonies, by 
both of whom he has left a numerous family. 

The Secretary also announced that seventeen Fellows, one Asso- 
ciate and one Foreign Member had been elected since the last An- 

At the election which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop of 
Norwich was re-elected President ; Edward Foi'ster, Esq., Treasurer ; 
John Joseph Bennett, Esq., Secretary; and Richard Taylor, Esq., 
Under-Secretary. The following five Fellows were elected into the 
Council in the room of others going out : viz. Beriah Botfield, Esq., 
F.R.S. ; William John Broderip, Esq., F.R.S. ; the Very Rev. Wil- 
liam Buckland, D.D., Dean of Westminster; Arthur Henfrey, Esq. ; 
and George Newport, Esq., F.R.S. 

No. XXXVI. — Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

382 Linnean Society. . [June 6, 

June 6. 

E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Arthur Edward Knox, Esq., M.A,, was elected a Fellow. 

Read a " Notice of some Peloria varieties of Viola canina, L." By 
Edward Forbes, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., Professor of Botany in King's 
College, London. 

These monstrosities were collected by Prof. Forbes in the Isle of 
Portland in the month of April. The plants in which they occurred 
were infested by the parasitic fungus figured in Sowerby's ' English 
Fungi ' under the name of Granularia Violce, and afforded not only 
many distortions of the foliaceous organs evidently due to the pre- 
sence of the fungus, but also various monstrosities of the flower, 
of which the author gives a particular description illustrated by 

These were found chiefly in the small variety of Viola canina, 
figured in the ' Supplement to English Botany ' as Viola flavicornis . 
One of these plants had two two- spurred flowers exactly similar and 
deviating from the ordinary structure in the following particulars : — 
There were four sepals, all enlarged and diseased, the superior being 
smaller than the others, the two lateral equal but abnormally large, 
and the anterior largest and not quite regular. The petals were 
also four in number, the two uppermost being regular and the two 
lowermost spurred. Each of the former had the little tufts of hairs 
seen on the lateral petals in the normal flower, and were similarly 
pale at the base and lineated with purple, while the two spurred 
petals Avere smooth and lineated. Of the four stamens the three 
uppermost were normal, the fourth much enlarged ; there were no 
antherine appendages, but at the bottom of each petal-spur there was 
a strong ridge not usually present and as if representing these ap- 
pendages. From these appearances the author infers that in these 
instances the two superior petals were abortive, the tufts of hairs on 
the two remaining superior petals showing that they correspond 
with the two lateral petals of the ordinary flower ; and that the two 
spurred petals were developed in the place of the ordinary single an- 
terior petal. He regards the enlarged anterior stamen as consisting 
of two, each making an unsuccessful eflFort to develope an appen- 

1848.] Linnean Society. 383 

dage ; and the enlarged anterior sepal also as made up of the union 
of the two ordinary lower sepals. 

In the former case the floral envelopes were regulated by the num- 
ber 4 : Prof. Forbes proceeds to describe a still more remarkable 
case of Peloria, in which they were regulated by the number 3. 
The three sepals are of normal and equal dimensions and the three 
petals all spurred, and nearly but not quite equal, the odd one, which 
is inferior, having a larger spur than either of the other two. There 
is no tuft of hairs on any of the petals, but they are all lineated. The 
stamina are five, all furnished with appendages, the two lowermost 
of which, fully developed, penetrate the spur of the anterior petal, 
while the spur of the left upper petal receives the fully-developed 
appendage of one of the stamina, and that of the right also one fully- 
developed appendage, the appendage of the fifth stamen (small and 
only partially developed) bending back after proceeding only a little 
way. A little below the flower, between it and the true bracteze, 
which present their usual appearance, there is a whorl of five bract- 
like sepals, between two of which, and directly beneath the largest- 
spurred petal of the monstrous flower, is a single petal partially de- 
veloped and exhibiting an abortive spur. " In this case," the author 
proceeds, " we have the outer whorl of floral envelopes developed, 
and an effort made towards the development of the second in the 
aborted basal petal ; then the axis elongating and terminating in a 
flower in which two of the sepals are aborted and four of the petals, 
viz. the two laterals and two superior ones, for the absence of tufts 
of hairs prevents our regarding two of the tlu'ee as the former, and 
the presence of lineated bases shows that thej' are not the latter. 
They are repetitions of the basal petal, which in this instance is 
multiplied by three, as in the cases before described it was multi- 
plied by two." In this plant no traces of the fungus were observed. 

Prof, Forbes cites the instances of Peloria among Violets recorded 
by Leers and DeCandolle, and refers to the view adopted by the 
latter and by M. Moquin-Tandon, viz. that the Peloria is caused by 
the tendency of all the petals to assume a spurred condition in con- 
sequence of a general effort as it were on the part of an irregular 
flower to become regular. He states that DeCandolle's figures are 
not sufficient to enable him to judge if such was the case in tlie in- 
stances depicted by him, but maintains that the Peloria Violets which 
form the subject of the present communication " owe their monstrous 
regularity to a very different phsenomenon, viz. the effort of an irre- 
gular fiower to become regular hy the multiplication and symmetri- 
calization of its irregular parts." 

384 Linnean Society. [June 6, 

Read also " Descriptions of some new or imperfectly known spe- 
cies oi Bolboceras." By J. O. Westwood, Esq:, F.L.S. &c. 

In this paper Mr. Westwood proceeds, in continuation of his 
former communication (see p. 365), containing a Synopsis of the 
Australian species of Bolboceras, to give descriptions of others of the 
genus from various parts of the world, and especially from the East 
Indies. Tlae descriptions were accompanied as before with illustra- 
tive drawings. 

1. Bolboceras Cyclops, Fabr. (Ent. Syst. i. p. 15 ; Oliv. Ent. i. 3. t. 15. 
f. 140) ; ferrugineus ; clypeo antice carina transversa tuberculisque 
duobus acutis instructo, vevtice linea tenui pariim elevata inter oculos, 
pronoto utrinque excavatione profunda subrotunda antice covnu acuto 
alteroque minovi versus medium armato : spatio inter cornua inter- 
media piano punctato antice linea semicirculari pariim elevata cincto 
canali vix distincto longitudinali ante scutellum terminato, elytris punc- 
tato-striatis striis tenuibus, tibiis anticis 8-dentatis. <? — Long. corp. 
lin. 9. 

Variat mas magnitudine dentium capitis et pronoti necnon profunditate 

excavationum hujus lateralium. 
Hab. in Java, Assam, et India centrali. Mus. Hope (olim Lee) et nostr. 

2. Bolboceras grandis, Hope MSS, ; rufo-castaneus, capita dentibusque 
tibiarum anticarum nigricantibus, clypeo carina tenui semicirculari, 
vertice carina transversa inter oculorum partem anticam, pronoto con- 
vexo carina semicirculari tuberculisque duobus versus marginem an- 
ticam lineaque tenui longitudinali impress^ medi& in parte postica. — 
Long. corp. lin. 9. 

Hab. in India orientali? In Mus. D. Hope. 

3. Bolboceras fuucicollis, De Laporte (An. Art. Coleopt. vol. ii. p. 104. 
no. 3) ; castaneo-rufus, sub lente granulosus, clypeo maris quadrato 
piano antice bisinuato angulis lateralibus anticis in cornua duo por- 
rectis, pronoto postice elevato disco in medio cornubus duobus erectis 
distantibus recurvis alterisque duobus intias concavis versus angulos 
posticos canali Isevi mediano versus marginem posticam, elytris punc- 
tato- striatis, tibiis anticis extus 6-dentatis. — Long. corp. lin. 10. 

B. Lecontei, Dej. Catal. Coleopt. 

Hab. in America boreali (teste De Laporte et Mus. Hope et Gory), an 
recte ? 

4. Bolboceras ferrugineus, De Laporte (Hist. Nat. An. Art. Col. 
vol. ii. p. 104. no. 4); castaneo-fulvus sub lente granulosus, capita an- 
tice carina sinuata antica tuberculoque subbifido tertio inter oculos, 
pronoto ante medium spatiis duobus parum elevatis Isevibus linea tenui 
impressa punctata (fere ad marginem posticum extensa) divisis utrinque 

1848.] Linnean Society. 585 

etiam versus angulos posticos iinpi-essione obliqua supra carina Isevi 
marginata, elytris punctato-striatis, tibiis anticis 6-dentatis. — Long. 
Corp. lin. 9^. 
i/a6. in India orientali ? In Mus, Gory, nunc Hope. 

5. BoLBOCERAs c ARENicoLLis, De Lupovte (Hist. Nat. An. Art. Coleopt. 
vol. ii. p. 104. no. 2) ; B.ferrugineo affinis sed magis castaneus, sub lente 
granulosus, capite carina tenui marginali curvata verticeque tuberculis 
duobus parvis conicis inter oculos carina connexis, pronoto obscuro in 
medio carina transversa abbreviata instructo maculaque nigra utrinque 
versus angulos posticos, elytris striatis striis punctis niinutis, tibiis an- 
ticis 5-dentati3. — Long. corp. lin. 10. 

Hub. in India orientali. In Mus. Gory (nunc Hope). 

6. BoLBocERAs Calanus, HopB MSS. ; fulvus vel rufo-castaneus, clypeo 
postice bicornuto, prothorace cornubus 4 versus marginem anticam 
duobus intermediis contiguis et a reliquis cavitate rotundata utrinque 
separatis. — Long. corp. lin. 7-8§. 

Hah. in India orientali, Bombay. In Mus. Melly et Hope. 

7. BoLBocERAS L^vicoLLis, Westw. ] fulvo-castaueus, vertice ante me- 
dium bidentato, prothorace glabro tuberculis 4 versus marginem anti- 
cam asquidistantibus duobus intermediis carina tenui curva conjunctis. 
— Long. corp. lin. 9^. 

Hab. in India orientali. In Mus. Hope. 

8. BoLBocERAS LATERALIS, Wcstw. ; castancus, capite pedibusque nigri- 
cantibus, capite inermi, prothorace fere laevi, excavationibus duabus 
lateralibus rotundatis singula supra tuberculo acuto armata. — Long, 
corp. lin. 6. 

Hah. in India orientali, Gogo. In Mus. Hope. 

9. BoLBOCERAs NIGRICANS, Westw. ; piceo-uiger nitidus, clypeo tuberculo 
conico antice armato, verticis marginibus lateralibus utrinque bituber- 
culatis discoque carina elevata inter oculos instructo, prothorace glabro 
nilido antice retuso 4-dentato dentibus subasquidistantibus. — Long, 
corp. lin. 6. 

10. BoLBOCERAS poLiTUs, Westw.] nitidus fulvus, capite* et pronoto magis 
castaneis, capite antice tricorni cornu antico majori erecto, prothorace 
excavatione maxima dorsali postice trisinuata, elytris punctato-striatis, 
tibiis anticis S-dentatis dentibus anticis magnis acutis. — Long. corp. 
lin. 64. 

Hah. in Senegalia. In Mus. Hope (olim Gory) nomine Athyreus por- 
catus, Lap., Senegalensis, Dej., baud recte inscriptus. 

11. BoLBOcERAS CoRYPH/Eus, Fahv . (Ent. Syst. i. p. 9 ; OHv. Ent. i. 3. 
tab. 16. f. 150) ; rufo-fulvus, capite supra piano, clypeo antice bicorni 
cornubus recurvis apice nigris posticeque mucrone elevato brevissimo 
nigro, pronoto antice retuso cornubus duobus brevibus approximatis 
antice porrectis apice nigris in medio disco positis postice gibbere ob- 

3S6 Linnean Society. [June 6, 

tuso in excavatione pariim profunda instructo, elytris piuictato-striatis, 
tibiis anticis 5-clentatis. — Long. corp. lin. 8. 
ilab. ad Caput Bonse Spei (teste Fabricio). In Mus. Hope (olim Lee). 

12. BoLBOcERAS scABRicoLLis, Cfievrol. MSS. ; ferrugineus, capite etpro- 
noto magis piceis punctis minutis plus minusve confluentibus sca- 
briusculis, capite in medio carina brevi transversa sub 3-lobafa, pronoto 
impressionibus tribus longitudinalibus feve obliteratis. — Long. corp. 
lin. 8. 

Ilab. apud Caput Bonse Spei. In Mus. D. Clievrolait. 

13. BoLBocERAs Capitatus, JVesfw. ] obscure castaneus subnitidus, capite 
et pronoto minutissiin^ punctatis hoc utrinque excavatione maxiniS, 
cornubus duobus compositis magnis separata, tibiis anticis obtuse G- 
dentatis. — Long. corp. lin. 10 J. 

Hab. in Assam, Indiee orientalis. Mus. Melly et Saunders. 

14. BoLBOcERAS iNjEQUALis, Wesfw. ; rufo-castancus, antennarum clava 
fulva, capite supra concave carina transversa in parte postica, pronoto 
antice Valde retuso supra quadridentato fossulaque media profunda, ely- 
tris striato-punctatis, tibiis anticis G-dentatis. — Long. corp. lin. 6\. 

Hab. in India orientaii. Col. J. B. Hearsey; in Mus. nostr. 

15. BoLBOcERAs BicARiNATus, Westw. J castaueo-ful vus, capite inter oculos 
et ad basin clypei carinis duabus transversis nigvis, pronoto tuberculis 
duobus parvis parum elevatis ante medium, tibiis anticis 7-dentatis. — 
Long. corp. lin. 8 J. 

Hab. in India orientaii. Mus. Melly. 

16. BoLBoccRAS DORSALis, Westw.] rufo-castaneus, capitis vertlce et 
pronoto medio nigris punctatis, capite in medio verticis tuberculis 
tribus conjunctis instructo, pronoto punctatissimo fere regulari, tibiis 
anticis 8-dentatis. — Long. corp. lin. 7^. 

Hab. in India orientaii. Mus. W. W. Saunders. 

17. BoLBocERAs NiGRicEPs, JVestw. ; obscure castaueus, puHctatus, capite 
nigricanti carina arcuaa tad basin clypei tuberculisque tribus vertica- 
libus, pronoto linea longitudinali impressa utrinque cum tuberculo 
pariim elevato, tibiis anticis 7-dentati3. — Long. corp. lin. 7^. 

Affinis praecedenti et forsitan fcemina speciei diversa?. 

18. BoLBOCERAs TKANsvERSALis, IVcstw. ; fulvo-castaneus, capite lato 
carina recta transversa elevata inter oculos, pronoto linea longitudinali 
antice dilatala impresso. — Long. corp. lin. 4§. 

Hab, in India orientaii. Mus. Melly. 

19. BoLBocERAs Inuicus, Hope MSS. ; fulvo-rufus, capite antice tuberculis 
duobus conicis erectis armato, pronoto Isevissimo antice excavatione 
semicirculari pariim profunda notato, calcari pedum anticorum elon- 
gato obtuso, tibiis anticis 9-dentatis. — Long. corp. lin. 4. 

Hah. in India orientaii centrali. In Mus. Saunders et Hope. 

1848.] Linnean Society. 387 

20. BoLBocERAS LiNEATus, Melhj MSS. ; fiilvus nitidus, capite nigro 
punctato inter oculos tuberculo apice subbifido armato, pionoto sim- 
plici macula discoidali nigra, elytris convexis sutura striisque longitu- 
dinalibus elevatis nigvis, tibiis anticis 8-dentatis. — Long. corp. liu. 3f . 

Hub. in insula Ceylon. In Mus. Melly. 

Subgenus Eucanthus, Westw. 
Corpus minus depressum quam in reliquis ; pronoto antice baud retuso- 
Tibia anticDB dentibus duobus apicalibus magnis aliisque niinutis ex- 
ternis versus basin armato. Elytra punctato-striata ; singulo striis 
5 tantiim inter humeros et suturam, punctis profundis. 

21. BoLBocERAS (EucANTHUs) Melibceus, Fabncius (Ent. Syst. i. p. 20) ; 
rufo- vel piceo-niger, clypeo caring transversa pliis minusve elevata 
(quasi e tuberculis duobus conjunctis formata) verticeque cornu bre- 
vissimo truncato (parum emarginato) instructis, pronoto subdepresso 
insequali, canali punctata longitudinali in medio (marginem anticam 
baud attingente) impressionibusque lateralibus curvatis punctatis tuber- 
culoque utrinque instructis, elytris glaberrimis punctato-striatis. — Long. 
Corp. lin. 4-5^. 

Bolboceras concinnus, Dejean, Cat. Coleopt. 
Hab. in America boreali. In Mus. D. Hope. 

Mr. Westwood concludes with some observations on Bolb. Lazarus, 
Fabr., which he regards as closely allied to, if not identical with, 
Bolb. Melibceus of the same author. 

June 20. 
E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
John Shaw, Esq., M.D., was elected a Fellow. 

Read a Postscript to Mr. Newport's paper on Pteronarcys regalis. 

The author referred to the paper already read to show that the 
genus Pteronarcys ought to be arranged after Perla, and before 
Capnia and Nemoura, which it most nearly approaches in the struc- 
ture of its alimentary canal ; while Perla has affinities with the 
Orthoptera through the Blattida. The Perla arenosa of Pictet was 
regarded as making the nearest approach to the latter family, and 
this species was shown to be the Perla abnormis of Newman. The 
larva and pupa of this gpecies were described from specimens taken 

388 Linnean Society. [June 20, 

by Mr. Barnston in Canada, and now in the British Museum, and the 
habits of the species were detailed as observed by that gentleman. 

The generic characters of Pteronarcys were proposed to be revised • 
as follows : — 

Pteronarcys, Newm. 

Char. Gen. Segmenta thoracica etiam in Imagine branchiis externis 
piasdita. ^Ice magnae, i-eticulatae. Palpi maxillares labialibus multo 
longioves, 5-ai"ticulati ; articulis 2 basalibus brevibus, reliquis elongatis, 
extei-ne dilatatis. Mandibules parva?, obtusze. Segmentum abdominale 
octavum in mari processu longo ventiali muni turn, in foemina paul6 
evolutum vel bifidum. 

Mr. Newport added the following new species : — 

Pteronarcys Californicus $ ; capite thoraceque saturate bninneis, 
fronte clypeo labroque rufis, oculis ocellisque nigris, segmentis thora- 
cicls linea longitudinali interrupta flava, abdomine aui-antiaco lateribus 
brunneis, stylis caudalibus basi flavis, antennis pedibusque totis atris, 
alis obscuris nigro-nervosis sed absque macula stigmali. 

Hab. in California (Z). Hartweg). 

The following apparently new species of Canadian Perlidce were 
described, with remarks on the habits of each as observed by Mr. 

1. Perla ciTRONELLA (BamstoH MSS.) ; saturate flava, antennarum 
articulis 33-35, oculis ocellisque brunneis, alis hyalinis pallide luteis 
margine costab flavis, abdominis dorso brunneo. — Long. lin. 3-3^. 

Jlab. in Canada, ad Albany River, latit. 54°. 

2. Perla minima (Barnston MSS.) ; nigra nitida, antennarum articulis 
circa 26 submoniliformibus pilosis, fronte 'paululum excavato, palpis 
subclavatis, tborace angusto subquadrato, stylis caudalibus 13-articu- 
latis, alis obscuris nigro-nervosis in mari brevibus obtusis abdomen 
semicooperientibus in foemina amplis corpore longioribus. — Long, 
lin. lf-2. 

Hab. in Canada, ad Albany River. 

3. Capnia vernalis, Newp. ; nigra nitida pilosa, tborace postice rotun- 
dato, antennarum articulis 30-33 pubescentibus, alis obscuris pilosius- 
culis nervis magnis nigris, stylis caudalibus subulatis 21-23-articulatis. 
— Long. lin. 2^. 

Perla vernalis, Barnston MSS. 
Hab. in Canada, ad Albany River. 

The fourth species, distinguished from most other Nemource by the 
short anterior wings of the male, the author proposed to join with 
Nemoura trifasciata, Pictet, which is similarly formed, in a subgenus 
for which he proposed the name Brachyptera,^ 

1848.] Linnean Society. 389 

4. Nemoura {Brachi/ptera) glacialis {Barnstun MS'S.). Mas satui'ate 
brunneus fere niger, thoracis margine anteriore recto, alis ante- 
rioribus triangularibus rudimentalibus segmentum abdominale pri- 
mum tantum attingentibus ; posterioribus albidis longissiniis acutis 
emarcidis decussatis, antennis elongatis pubescentibus o3-56-articu- 
latis, pedibus longis compressis cursoriis; paris postremi longissimiy, 
abdominis segmento terminali lato piano pubescente. 

Fcemina multo major, in veliquis tamen similis, capita paulnlum excavato, 
alis amplis obscure brunneis nigro-nervosis. — Long. unc. ^. 

Hob. in Canada, ad Albany River. 

No. XXXVII. — Proceedings of the Linxean Society. 

1 N 1) K X. 


Abutiloii Ijciiedictum lO'J 

Acacia Catechu IG 

niO(l(!sta 15 

Acatitliocercus iriiiricatus 197 

Acaritliodium spicalum 03, C-l 

Acanthus ilicifolius ft4 

mollis 04 

Accia lucida 200 

Achyranthcs paludosa 109 

AcroiifMiia tencniia 2r)2 

Adianturn CapiliuH Veneris 317 

Adoxa i iiodora 17 

Moschatcilina 17 

jlishna liassina 307 

Agarna cornuta 57 

Agaricus atramcritarius 20 

coinatus 20 

criiiitus 230 

cylindricus 20 

fiinctarius 20 

Maria: 32 

ovatus 20 

porcellaneus 20 

serrulaluH 32 

Ageleiia 41 

Agraulis 234 

Alhagi Maurorum 15,91 

Alphitobius ■' punctatus 201 

Ambrosinia ciliata 263 

retrospiralis 204 

spiralis 264 

unilocularis 264 

Amrriodytes 152 

Amphidetus Mediterraneus 185 

Airiphiura Cliiajii 176 

. florifera 175 

ncglec-ta 176 

Anagaliih arvensis 119 

Anas acuta 46 

Boschas 46 

Andrena Trirnmerana 319 

Anemone pratensis 101 

Anoplopbora Stanleyana 43 

Anotia coccinea 84 

Anthophora retu»a 270, 327, 328 

Aphis 292 

Apocopis RoyleanuB 94 

Apodytes 87 

Aptcria sctacea 60 


Araucaria excclsa 322 

Ardea Nycticorax 116 

Argonauta Argo 236 

Argynnis 229 

Argynnis Acchte 234 

Alcandra 234 

Egesta 235 

lole 234 

Lucida 234 

Metea 234 

Thais 234 

Argyroneta aqiiatica 132 

Arundinaria Schomburgkii 51 

vcrticillata 51 

Asafd.tida Disguncnbis 309 

Asiphoriia 189 

Ahiplionia pipcriformis 218 

Ahpidiuin Ijarome/, 58 

Ahplenium Filix I'tjcmina 326 

liarovii 159 

Pctrarchas 159, 160 

Trichomanes 159,317 

viride 159 

Atamisquea emarginata 356 

Athalamia pinguis 343 

Athlia rustica 199 

Athyreus armatuK 358 

bcllator 358 

bifurcatuB 359 

Bilbergii 359 

centralis 359 

furcicoUis 359 

furcifer 359 

gigag 358 

Fholai 359 

porcatus 359, 385 

purpureipennis 359 

rccticornis 359 

rotundu/t 358 

Senegalensis 359, 385 

subannatuK 358 

tuberculatuH 358 

Tweedyanus 359 

Attus coronatus 132 

Aucklandia Costus 81 

Avicennia 171, 223, 224, 225 

Azalea 118 

Bacillaria paradoxa 310, 312 

Balanophora affinis 220 



Balanophora alveolata 220 

Burmannica 219 

picta 220 

(Polypletia) polyandra 220 

Balsamodendron Mynha 182 

Opobalsamuai 182 

Bambusa latifolia 50 

Barkhausia setosa 179 

taraxacifolia 98,99 

Barleria noctiflora 64 

Bassia butyracea 215 

latifolia 215 

longifolia 215 

? Parkii 215 

Batrachospermum plumosum 165 

Batratherum micans 93 

Belone vulgaris 28 

Bersama 361,362 

Biatora anomala 32 

Krockiana 32 

Bignonia venusta 110 

Bixa Orellana 13 

Blechum Brownii 64 

Boa Constrictor 52 

Bolboceras (Elephastomus) Austra- 

lasise 366 

Bainbridgii 366 

bicarinatiis 386 

Calanus 385 

capitatus 386 

Capreolus 366 

carenicoUis 385 

concinnus ., 387 

coronatus 366 

Coryphaeus 385 

Cyclops 384 

dorsalis 386 

ferrugineus 384 

fui-cicollis 384 

grandis 384 

hastifer 359, 366 

insequalis 386 

Indicus 386 

Kirbii 365 

Irevicollis 385 

lateralis 385 

Lazarus 387 

Lecontei 384 

lineatus 387 

Melibceus 387 

neglectus 366 

nigricans 385 

nigriceps 386 

nigricornis 366 

politus 385 

quadricornis 366 

Reichii 365 

rotundatus 366 

rubescens 366 

scabricollis 386 

7-tuberculatus 366 


Bolboceras serricollis 366 

Taurus 366 

transversalis 386 

3-tuberculatus 366 

Bombyx Huttoni 357 

■ Mori 357 

Brachygaster castaneus 198 

Brachyptera 38S 

Bragautia 218 

Breweria evolvuloides 36 7 

Briza maxima 81 

Butea frondosa 15 

Butomus umbellatus 15 

Cadaba Indica 367 

Cselebogyne 41 

Caladium ovatum 264 

Calamintha 179 

Calathea zebrina 68 

Callichloris perelegans 1 98 

Callichroma Cantori 43 

Griffithii 43 

Calligonum polygonoides 367 

Callipeltis 90 

Calotropis Hamiltonii 15 

Caraelina sativa 162 

Campelepis viminea 130 

Caniptorhina atricapilla 199 

Capnia vernalis 388 

Capparis aphylla 16 

Carapa Guianensis 214 

Touloucouna 214 

Carex abbreviata 260 

acuminata 211 

acuta 210 

■ acutata 287 

J<:thiopica 260 

alba 211 

alopecurus 212 

alpestris 259 

alta 254 

alveata 287 

ampullacea ■... 212 

aquatilis 210 

arctata 287 

arenaria 210 

Arnottiana 260 

aterrima 210 

atrata 210, 256, 257- 

axillaris 210 

badia 212 

Baenninghausiana 210 

Baldensis 210 

Banksii 257 

Bastardiana 212 

bicolor 210 

binervis 211 

bispicata 259 

Bongardi 260 

Boi7ana 258 

brachystachys 286 

brevicoUis 211 




Carex brevifolia 211 

brizoides 210 

bullata 287, 288 

Bti>:baumii 210 

ca3si)itosa 210 

Cainschatceuse 25'J 

cai)illaris 211 

capitata ■. 209 

■ cbordorliiza 210 

cinnamonea 25/ 

claudestina 211 

claviforinis 211 

coacta 285 

Columbiana 256 

comosa 258 

conglobata 288 

■ coriophora 256, 257 

costata 212 

crinalis 256 

crinita 286 

curta 210 

curvula 210 

■ cyperoides 210 

Darwinii 261 

- — - Davalliana 209 

decidua 255 

decipieus 209 

depauperata 211 

digitata 211 

diluta 260 

dioica 209 

■ distans 211, 260 

divisa 210 

divulsa 210 

dura 255 

elongata 210 

■ ericetorum 211 

■ Esenbeckii 285 

evoluta 212 

exteusa 211 

ferruginea 211 

filicina 286 

filiformis 212 

finibriata 211 

' firma 211 

flava 211 

fcetida 210 

frigida 211 

fuliginosa 211 

fulva 211 

furcata 212, 258 

fusca 212 

Gebleri 261 

geminata 254 

geniculata 211 

Geiiuensis 211 

Geyeri 285 

glauca 211 

glancesccns 255 

globosa 259 

glonievata 285 


Carex Goodeuovii 210,255 

Grahami 180 

Griffithii 286 

■ Grioletti 211 

grypos 210 

Gunniana 258 

gynobasis 210, 259 

heleoiiastes 210 

birsuta 256 

hirta 212, 259 

hispida 211 

bordeiformis 212 

Hornsclmcbiana 211 

Hoisfieldii 257 

Hostiana 211 

Hougbtonii 259 

bymenolepis 288 

inciina 210 

intermedia 210 

irrigua 211 

Jackiaua 260 

Jamesoni 258 

Japonica 259 

juiicea 286 

juncoides 212 

laevigata 211, 258 

lagopina 210 

lanceolata 211 

LangsdorfRi 259 

lasiochlcena 211 

laxifiora 258 

Lemanniana 256 

■ leucantha 257 

Ligeiica 210 

limosa 211 

Linkii 210 

lobata 210 

loliacea 210 

loiigiaristata 211 

longirostrata 259 

lucida 287 

ludibunda 210 

• macrolepis 210 

Magellanica 257 

Mairii 211 

mauostacbys 212 

meiogyna 286 

Meitensii 256 

Micbelii 211 

microcarpa 211 

microglocbin 210 

microstacbya 210 

microstyla 210 

miser 286 

modesta 210 

Moenchiana 210 

mollis 211 

raoatana 211 

Moorcroftii 288 

• raucronata 210 

muricata 210 




Carex Neesiana 260 

• nesliaca 212 

nigra 210 

. nitida 211 

nivalis 256 

nutans 212 

CEderi 211 

■ olivacea 286 

orbicularis 254 

■ ornitbopoda 211 

■ ovalis 210 

■ paleata 259 

pallescens 211 

paludosa 212, 260, 287 

panicea 211, 288 

pauiculata 210 

paradoxa 210 

pauciflora 210 

peudula 211, 286 

phyllostacbj's 285 

physocarpa 181, 287 

Pichincheusis 255, 256 

pilosa 211 

pilulifera 21 1 

platystachya 210, 257, 285 

polytriclioides 284 

praecox 211 

• ■ Prescottiana 286 

pruiuosa 255 

pseudo-cyperus 211, 258 

puljcscens 260 

pulicaris 209 

pulla 181, 254 

pulla /3. fusca 181 

punctata 211 

Pvrenaica 210 

Rafflesiana 285 

raniosa 286 

rapbidocarpa 286 

— — rara 284 

rariflora 211 

reflexa 211 

refracta 211 

remota 210, 254 

repens 210 

rigida ISl, 210 

' riparia 212 

rotundata 261 

Rugeliana 286 

rupestris 210 

sanguinea 285 

Sarda 210 

saxatilis 180, 181, 210, 254 

schoeuoides 210 

Schreberi 210 

secalina 212 

senipervirens 211 

setigera 288 

• Sinai 260 

socia 254 

Soleirolii 212 


Carex spadicea 211 

spicata 210 

spiculata 288 

stellulata 210 

stenophylla 210 

striata , 261 

strigosa 211 

subdola 255 

Sullivantii 287 

supina 210 

Suteri 209 

— — sylvatica 211 

tenuis 211 

tenuissima 288 

teretiuscula , 210 

thecata 287 

toinentosa 211 

trichocarpa 260 

trinervis 210, 285 

triquetra 259 

Tuckermaui 287 

Tvveediaiia 259 

umbrosa 211 

ustulata 211 

vaginata 211 

Vahlii 210 

valida 257 

verna 288 

vesicaria 212, 261 

vulpina 210, 285 

Walkeri 257 

Careya arborea 280 

herbacea 280 

Carum Bulbocastaiium 51 

Cassia obovata 16 

obtusa 16 

Catophractes Alexandii 4 

Caulerpa prolifera 294 

Cedrela Toona 178 

Cenchrea dorsalis 85 

Centaurea luoscliata 118 

Cerapterus Brasiliensis 75, 113 

Ilorsfieldii 75,113 

latipes 113 

MacLeaii 113 

piceus 75, 113 

4-niaculatus 113 

quadriuotatus 75 

Smitbii 113 

Westermanni 75,113 

Ceratoderus bifasciatus 113 

Cereus graudiflorus 8 

speciosissimus 68 

tetragonus 7 

Cethosia 234 

Chsetophora 165 

Chara crinita 294 

Chartergus Morio 189 

Cbeirotonus MacLeayii 78 

Chiasognathus Grantii 346 

Chiton 322, 323 




Chitonellus 322, 323 

Chitonellus fasciatus 323 

Chondrus crispus 268,283 

Choripetaluni aurantiacum 327 

■ undulatum 327 

viridiflomm 327 

Chrysffius Javanicus 236 

■ soccatus 236 

Sumatrensis 236 

ChiTSochroa Ed-svardsii 128 

Chrysocyathus 17 

Chrysophyllum monopyreuum 99 

Cibotium Baromez 57 

Cidaris Hystrix 186 

papillaris 186 

Ciniflo ferox 132 

Cianamomum Zeylanicum 215 

Circsea Lutetiana 294 

Cistuda Carolina 116 

Clagia 234 

Clangula Barrovii 21 

Clidemia biserrata 110 

-- — deflexa 108 

glabrata 108 

longibarbis 110 

urceolata 110 

Cliococca 90 

Clothilda 235 

Clubiona 41 

acceutuata 132 

atrox 66 

epimelas 132 

erratica 132 

saxatilis 66 

Cocos nucifera '. 215 

Collops 4-maculatus 112 

Colobothea rubricollis 1 28 

Colporhina bifoveolata 200 

Conferva fluviatilis 65 

Coufenae 163 

Coniferse 53,54 

Coniothecium amentaceum 32 

Coujugata 164 

Convallaria multiflora 119 

Copris lunaris 346 

punctatissima 197 

semisquamosa 197 

Corchorus depressus ,... 367 

humilis 367 

Corylus Avellana 18,89 

Corysadeuia 281 

Cremauium cordifolium 109 

Crepis biennis 98, 99 

Crotalaria Busbia 15 

Cruckshanksia graminea 122 

Cn,'ptocoryne ciliata 264 

Cryptolepis 114, 115 

Cryptolepis Buchanani 114 

reticulata 114 

Cryptophagus cellaris 327,328 

Ciipressus torulosa - 18 


Cuscuta epilinum 44 

halophyta 44 

Cuterebra fontanella 100 

Cycadeae. 53, 54 

Cycas circiualis 54,56 

glauca 54,56 

revoluta 54,55,56 

speciosa 54, 56 

Cy mbocarpa refracta 62 

Cynomorium 219 

Cypraja Tigris 308 

venusta 314 

Cytinus 190 

Cytinus dioicus 217 

Cyttaria Berteroi 97 

Dar«inii 97 

Dammara australis 321 

Deeatoma 233 

Deudrobium normale 14 

Depazea pyricola 32 

Derbe costalis 83 

elongata 84 

fasciolata 84 

fritillaris 84 

haemorrhoidalis 82 

nervosa 82,84 

nivea 83 

pallida 83 

punctum 83 

semistriata 83 

sinuosa 84 

squamigera 83 

stellulata 84 

strigipennis , 83 

testacea 83 

Desmocepbalum 277 

Desmochaeta sordida 109 

Dianthus Caryophyllus imbricatus ... 119 

Diaperus Boleti ..' 328 

Diatoma fasciculatum 82 

truncatum 82 

Dictyocalyx 277 

Dictyostega costata 61 

orobanchoides 61,63 

Schomburgkii 61 

umbellata 61 

Didesmus panduriformis 367 

Dielocerus 186 

Dielocerus Ellisii 187 

Diospyros edulis 134 

Diplerisma 361, 362 

Dipteracanthus erectus 64 

Dischidia Beugalensis 324 

Kafflesiana 279, 324, 325 

Disporum calcaratum 45 

fulvum 45 

Ilamiltonianum 45 

Horsfieldii 45 

Leschenaultianum 45 

parvitlorum 45 

Pitsutum 45 




Disporum Wallichii 45 

Diurospermum album 351 

Dodonsea Burmanniaua 16 

Dolomedes fimbriatus 132 

Dorcas deHaani 127 

rufiferaoralis 200 

Westermaniii 127 

Dothidea chsetomium 32 

Draparnaldia tenuis 165 

Drassus 41 

Drassus ater 131 

exiguus 66 

sericeus 131 

viridissimus 66 

Dysdeva erythi-ina 133 

Hombergii 133 

rubicunda 133 

Ecliinocyaraus pusillus 185 

Echinus decoratus 186 

esculentus 185 

lividus 185 

miliaris 186 

■ monilis 185' 

pulchellus 186 

Ectosperma clavata 226 

Ectospora clavata 8 

Edgvvorthia buxifolia 129 

Elseis Guineensis 215 

Elephastomus proboscideus 365 

Elymus sabulosiis 4, 161 

Eraalodera multipunctata 200 

Encephalartos horridus 9,54 

pungens 52 

spirajis 54 

Enhalus 219 

Enteromorpha intestinalis ... 152, 153 

Epe'ira agelena 133 

antriada 133 

bicornis 133 

fusca 133 

scalaris 133 

umbratica 133 

Ephedra 90 

Epicauta conspersa 202 

Epilasium rotundatum 201 

Epimediura bydaspidis 18 

Epipedonota marginiplicata 201 

Epiphanes Javanica 321 

Epipone Lecheguana 188 

nidulans 188 

Epitragus Beneo-britnnens 201 

semicastaneus 201 

Equisetum Drummondii 222 

hyemale 74,290 

Ergalis latens 132 

Ergot?stia abortans 7 

abortifaciens 52 

Eriocaulon setaceum 271-273 

WaUichianum 272 

Eriocauloness 271 

Ervthrochiton WaUichianum 282 


Eucalyptus globulus 177 

mannifera 178 

robusta 178 

Eucanthus 387 

Euoplia polyspila 42 

Euryale ferox 17 

Eurytoma 233 

Euterpe oleracea 215 

Eutropis 15 

Exilariafasciculata 82 

Ferula Asafoetida 309 

Fibularia angulosa 185 

Ovulurn ....; 185 

Tarentina 185 

Fothergilla involucrata 18 

Fraxinus floribunda 15 

Fritillaria imperialis 18 

Meleagris 134 

Fuchsia fulgens 118 

Fucus spinosus 268 

stiriatus 267 

Galapagoa 277 

Galium Vaillantii 222 

Gamoplexis 14 

Gamoplexis orobanchoides 320 

Gentiana campestris 119 

Geometra trumaria 354 

Geotrupidae 197 

Geryonia proboscidalis 223 

Gibsonia 367,368 

Gloxinia speciosa 68 

Gonyanthes Candida 60 

Granularia Violas 382 

Grislea tomentosa 16 

Gymnema sylvestris 353 

Gymnosiphon aphylhmi 60 

Hastiiigsia coccinea 16 

Hectocotyle Argonautse 237, 238 

Octopodis 237 

■ Tremoctopodis 237 

Heliamphora nutans 53 

Heliconia 350 

HeliconidEE 348, 349 

Helosciadium ? tenerum 252 

Hemiramphus 151 

Henslowia 281 

Heracleum giganteum 284 

Hexarthrius Parryi 127 

Hiraja cinerea 109 

Hirundo Apus 296 

esculenta 268 

riparia 296 

rustica 297 

urbica 296 

Hister castaneus 196 

furcatus 196 

Mathewsii 196 

Holostemma 16 

Ilopea glandulosa 282 

Hovenia dulcis 16 

Hvdnora 189 




Hyclnora Africana 217 

Hydrodictyon 165 

Hydrophilidae 197 

Hydrophilus chalybeatus 197 

ochripes 197 

Hylotoma formosa 187 

Hylotorus bucephalus 112 

H vmenopbvUum Tunbridgense 326 

Uligeia ". 281 

Iris geniianica 295 

kamaonensis 8 

longifolia .. 8 

Moorcroftiana 8 

sambucina 46 

versicolor 46 

Isoetes capsularis 121,122 

lacustris 24 

Isosoma 233 

Ithomia 349,350 

Ituiia 349,350 

Jacaranda mimosifolia 68 

Jansonia formosa 330 

Juncus bufonius 9 

concinnus 10 

ditfusus 313 

glaucus 9 

indicus 10 

leucanthus 10 

leucomelas 10 

membranaceus 10 

Juiiiperus virgiuiana 58 

Kleinia articulata 274 

Lagurus ovatus 49,81 

Lamia Horsfieldii 42 

nigricoriiis 79 

Swainsoui 79 

Lasiandra calyptrata 108 

fissinervia 110 

Fontanesiana 110 

protesefonnis 110 

Lastrea rigida 52 

Lathonia 235 

Laurus nobilis 215 

Lebioderus Goryi 112 

Lecanora elatiiia 32 

Lecidea niiscella 32 

nitidula 32 

Leersia oryzoides 222 

Lemaaia 165 

Lemania fluviatilis 360 

torulosa 360 

Lentinus crinitus 230 

Leveillei 231 

■ uigripes 231 

Schomburgkii 230 

Svvartzii 230 

tener 230 

Lepidagatbis 64 

Lepidodendrou Ilarcourtii 345 

Lepidosireii annecteus 32 

■ paradoxa 27,28 

Lepidosperuia elatior 4 

Leptatberium Royleanum 93 

Leptynoderus tuberculatus 200 

Lepuraudra saccidora 73 

Leretia 87 

Leucothyreus .' antennatus 198 

spurius 198 

Lilium bulbiferum 295 

Linnaea bcrealis 315 

Linyphia 41 

Linyphia pallida 133 

Litliobiidce 231 

Lodoicea Seychellarum 153 

Loranthus bicolor 169, 170 

globosus 169,170 

Liicanidse 200 

Lucauus astacoides 78 

Brahraiuus 127 

Buddba 127 

bidbosus 78 

curvidens 78 

Forsteri 77 

foveatus 78 

Nepalensis 78 

omissus 78 

punctiger 78 

Rafflesii 77 

serricollis 78 

Speucei 78 

Lupinus nitidissimus 109 

Luzula spicata 9 

Lycorea 350 

Lycosa 41 

Lycosa agretyea 132 

allodroma 132 

andrenivora 132 

leucopb?ea 132 

lugubris 132 

pallida 132 

picta 132 

piratica 132 

Lydda elongata 84 

Macra^a 278 

Macrodactylus marmoratus 200 

Madia sativa 77 

^lahonia Nepalensis 18 

Malacbius 112 

Manduculus vernalis 133 

Marchantia polymorpha 240 

Matricaria 119 

Mechanitis 349, 350 

Medusa proboscidalis 222 

Melanoceucliris Rothiana 95 

Rovleana 95 

Meliantlieae 361, 362 

Melianthus comosus 361 

Himalayanus 364 

major 364 

minor 361 

Melilotus arborea 77 

Icucantha 77 



Melitsa 235 

Meloe ... 317, 318, 319, 346, 347, 348, 
368, 369, 370 

Meloe cicatricosus 268-270 

proscarabaeus 268-270 

violaceus 268-270 

Meloseira 165 

Meloseira varians 166 

Mentha crispa 81 

M en3'anthes trifoliata 17 

Microcsecia 278 

Microgastei" alvearia 228 

Mimela Passeriiiii 128 

Mitragenius araneiformis 201 

IModeccopsis 171 

Mouocliam us beryllinus 79 

• ruber 43 

sulphurifer 128 

Mordella argentipunctata 202 

Tachyporiformis 202 

Morisonia Asiatica 367 

Lawiana 367 

Motella glauca 151 

Mougeotia 164 

Musa Cavendishii 157 

Musca canicularis 52 

Myraptera brumiea 188, 189 

elegans 188,189 

scutellaris 189 

Myrioblastus 264 

Myristica moschata 215 

Myrsine ? auraiitiaca 327 

undulata 327 

Mj'sidia 84 

Mysidia albipennis 83 

lactiflora 83 

subfasciata 83 

Mystropetalon 190 

Mystropetalon Thomii 219 

Nacerdes ? alternans 202 

Narthex Asafoetida 309 

Natalia 361, 362 

Nemoura trifasciata 388 

Neottia aestivalis 80 

gemmipara 162, 189 

Nepenthes distillatoria 91, 92, 217 

Neriene 41 

Neriene graminicolens 133 

trilineata 132, 133 

Nerium reticulatum 114 

Neurocarpum angustifolium 110 

resupinatum 110 

Nuytsia floribunda 123 

Nyctelia Bremii 201 

caudata 200 

? corrugata 201 

Fitzroyi 201 

granulata 201 

undatipeunis 201 

Nycterinus rugiceps 201 

Odontolabis Baladena 127 


Odontolabis Cuvera 127 

CEdipodium GrifRthianum 33 

ffinocarpus distichus 215 

CEstrus Bovis 100 

Clarkii 100 

Equi 100 

ericetorum 100 

hemorrhoidalis 100 

Libycus 100 

lineatus 100 

nasalis 100 

Pecorum 100 

pictus 100 

Tarandi 100,179 

Trompe 100, 179 

veterinus 100 

Olax acuminata 89 

macrophylla 89 

nana 88 

pauciflora 89 

Olea Laitoona 130 

Oliva Brasiliensis 308 

Utriculus 308 

Oonops pulcher 133 

Opegrapha signata 32 

Ophioderma lacertosa 175 

Ophiomeris Iguassuensis 329 

Macahensis 329 

Ophiomyxa lubrica 175 

Ophiopsila Aranea 175 

Ophiotlirix Kosula 176 

Ophiura abyssicola 168 

albida 168 

filiforrais 176 

lacertosa 175 

neglecta 176 

texturata 168 

Ophrydeae 10 

Oplocephala quadrituberculata 201 

Oplophora SoUyi 43 

Oreocorae elata 253 

filicifolia 253 

Orobanche 219 

Orthoraphium Roylei 94 

Oryctomorphus pictus 197 

Osyris Nepalensis 169, 223 

Pacuvia castanea 199 

Panopaea Aldrovandi 160 

Papaver bracteatum 158,159 

orientate 158, 159 

orientale bracteatum 158, 159 

praecox 158 

serotinum 158 

somniferum 159 

Papaveraceae 219 

Papilio Hector 131 

Papilionidae 350 

Paris polyphylla 15 

Paspalura exile 157, 167 

Patara albida 85 

guttata 85 




Paussus aftiiiis ; 112 

armatus 112 

bifasciatus 113 

Burmeisteri Ill 

cochlearius Ill 

cognatus 112, 133 

cornutus 112 

curvicornis 112 

excavatus Ill 

Fichtelii Ill 

fulvus Ill 

Hardwickii 112 

Hearseyanus 133 

Jousselinii Ill 

Klu^iTii Ill 

liueatus 112 

Linnaji Ill 

microcephalus Ill 

pilicornis Ill 

ruber Ill, 115 

ruficoUis 112 

rufitarsis Ill 

Saundersii 112 

Shuckardi 112 

spbffirocercus Ill 

Stevensianus 116 

thoracicus Ill 

tibialis Ill 

Turcicus Ill 

Pectiaura vestita 167 

Pediculus Apis 269 

Melittse 270 

Peganum Harrnala 15